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159.

PAULICIANS.
tress of the city of Nicopolis, 75;
account of her monastic life, 311,

316.
PAULICIANS, Christian sect, origin of,

vii. 47; name whence derived, 48;
their Bible to what restricted, ib.
and note ; simplicity of their creed
and worship, 49; rejected the Old
Testament, ib.; establishment of
their sect in Armenia, Pontus, &c.,
50; persecuted by the Greek em-
perors, 51; revolt, 52; defeat the
emperor Michael, 53; pillage Asia
Minor, ib. ; their decline, 54 ; trans-
planted from Armenia to Thrace,
55; their pope or primate, 56 ; their
introduction into Italy and France,
ib.; settlements in the country of
the Albigeois, 58 ; persecutions, ib.;
not exempt from the errors of Gdys-

ticism, ib. note M.
PAULINUS, Suetonius, i. 139, note.
PAULINUB, bishop of Nola, account of,

iv, 110.
PAULINUS, master of the offices, exe-

cuted, iv. 165; supposed intrigue

with the empress Eudocia, ib.
PAULINUS, patriarch of Aquileia, flies

to the isle of Grado, v. 337.
PAULLINA, wife of Maximin, softens

his ferocity, i. 309, notes.
Pavia, battle of between Aurelian and

the Alemanni, ii. 15; obstinate
siege of by Alboin, king of the Lom-
bards, v. 338; he makes that city
his capital, ib.; taken by Charle-
magne, vi. 155 ; burnt by the Hun-

garians, vii. 76.
PEACE, temple of at Rome, i. 184, and

note W.
PEARL fishery in Britain, i. 139 and

140, note; in the East, 192 and

note.
Peers, members of the British House

of doubled since the time of Gibbon,
v.289, note M.; court of at Jerusalem,

vii, 233.
PEGASIANS, legal sect of the, v. 279.
PEALVI language, i. 332, note; 333,

note S.
PEKIN besieged by Zingis Khan, viji.

7; foundation of the modern, ib.

note.
PELAGIANISM, its progress and extinc-

tion, iv. 342.
L'ELAGIUS, archdeacon,

supplicates
Totila, v.

222.

PERSECUTION.
PELAMIDES, or thunnies, ii. 293, note.
PELLA, Nazarene church at, ii, 159.
PELOPONNESUS overrun by Slavonian,

vii. 8, 9, note S.; cities and revenue

of, 10; manufactures, 11.
Pelso, lake, drained by Galerius, ii.

122 ; situation, ib. note.
PENANCE, public, origin and nature of,

ii. 202 ; jurisprudence of, iii. 36.
PENDRAGON, or British Dictator, ir.

134.
PENITENTIALS, Greek, vii. 186 and

note.
PENTAPOLIS, the, a dependency of the

exarchate of Ravenna, its limits, vi.
PEPIN, son of Charles Martel, assists

the Romans against the Lombards,
vi. 154 ; second expeditior, 155;
receives the regal title by the sanc-
tion of pope Gregory, 157; presents
the exarchate of Ravenna to the

Popes, 159.
PEPIN, John, count of Minorbino, de-

poses the tribune Rienzi, viii. 244.
PEPPER, use and price of at Rome, iv.

93, note.
PEREDEUS, seduced by Rosamond,

queen of Alboin, to assist in the
murder of her husband, v. 339; his

feats of strength 340 and note M.
PEREGRINUS the philosopher, ii. 184,

note.
PERENNIS, minister of Commodus, i.

225; deputation of the legions of Bri-
tain against, and execution, 226;
Gibbon's account examined. ib.

notes W. and M.
PERFECTISSIMUS, title of, ü. 305, note.
PERGAMUS, library of transferred to

Alexandria, iii. 417, note,
PERINTHUS, Byzantium subjected to, i.

257 and note W.
PERISABOR, or Anbar, on the Euphrates,

besieged by Julian, iii. 196 and note
PEROZES, king of Persia, expedition

against the Nepthalites or White

lluns, v. 85; death, ib.
PERSARMENIA, name of Armenia when

reduced to'a Persian province, iv.
170; persecutions of the Magi ilin

v. 364 and note M.; revolt of, 365.
PERSECUTION of the early Christians,

delayed by their being confounded
with the Jews, ii. 231 ; first instanca
of occasioned' by the fire of Romo

M.

PERSEUS.
under Nero, 233; that persecution
confined to Rome, 237 ; not caused
by the religious tenets oi the Chris-
tians, ib. ; second persecution under
Domitian, 239; methods of escaping
persecution, 253; flight from how
regarded, 254 and note ; avoided by
purchasing false certificates, 254 ;
and by apostasy, ib.; ten persecu-
tions, when first established, 255;
persecution of M. Antoninus, 257;
of Severus, 258; of Maximin, 259
and note G.; of Decius, 260; of Va-
lerian, 261 ; of Aurelian, 261, note
G.; of Maximian and Galerius,
267 ; of Diocletian, 269, 899.; ge-
neral idea of the last, 275; in Italy
and Africa, 276 ; in Illyricum and
the East, 278; suspended by the
edict of Galerius, ib.; renewed by

Maximin, 280; end of, 281.
PERSEUS, treasures of, i. 294.
PERSIA, monarchy of restored, i. 331;

extent and population under Arta-
xerxes, 340; military power of, 346 ;
cavalry excellent, 347 ; youth how
educated, ib.; throne of disputed by
Hormuz and Narses, ii. 81 ; Narses
overthrown by Galerius, 83; war be-
tween Sapor and Constantine, 370;
Christians are protected by Con-
stantine, üi. 25 and note ; invaded
by Julian, 191; he passes the
'Tigris, 204 ; retreat, 208; terms of
the treaty between Sapor and Jo-
vian, 219; peace with Theodosius,
280; state of under Cabades or
Kobad, contemporary of Justinian,
v. 181; accession of Chosroes, or Nu-
shirvan, 182; contest with Rome
reviewed, 363; anarchy of after the
death of Chosroes II., 412; Chris-
tianity in, vi. 46; Fatimite kings of,
281, note; standard of described,
293; conquered by the Saracens,
296; conquered by the Turks, vii.
165; Seljukian dynasty of, 167;

conquered by Timour, viii. 43.
PERSIAN despotism, i. 218; war under

Gordian III., 325.
PERSIANS, modern, ignorant of Sapor's

victories, i. 407, note; account of
their religion, 332, 899.; their per-
secutions in Armenia, ii. 79; why
not easily Christianized, 214 ; dis-
cussed the most important affairs at
table, 405; intemperance of, id.

PETER DE RUPIBUS.
note; Mahometan, their discord
with the Turks, vi. 272; reverence
for Mahomet's cousin Ali, ib. ; called
Shiites, or sectaries, ib.; pilgrimage

of to the tomb of Ali at Cufa, 277.
PERTINAX chosen emperor, i. 234 ; suc-

cessive employments, ib. note; re-
luctant accession, 235; virtues,
236; reforms, 237, sq.; popularity,
238; discontent and conspiracy of the
prætorians, 239; murder of Perti-

nax, ib.; funeral and apotheosis, 252.
PERTINAX, Helvius, bon mot and exe-

cution, i. 270 and note.
PESCENNIUS NIGER, governor of Syria,

assumes the purple, i. 247.
PESTILENCE at Rome, i. 228.
PETAVIUS, object of his work on the

Trinity, iii. 52, note; character of
his ‘Dogmata Theologica,' vi. 2,

note.
PETCHENEGES, Turkish tribe of the,

vii. 79, note S.
PETER, king of Arragon, assists John

of Procida in the revolt of Sicily from
Charles of Anjou, vii. 378; relieves

Messina, 380.
PETER, Bulgarian chief, leads a revolt

from Isaac Angelus, vii. 287.
PETER, Byzantine ambassador, his cha-

racter and negociations with Theo-

datus, king of Italy, v. 120.
PETER of Courtenay, emperor of Con-

stantinople, crowned by pope Hono-
rius III., vii. 335; captivity and

death, 336.
PETER I., czar of Russia, his conduct

to his son contrasted with that of

Constantine, ii. 353.
PETER GNAPHEUS, patriarch of An-

tioch, his addition to the Trisagion,

vi, 33 and note.
PETER THE HERMIT visits Jerusalem

and Constantinople, vii. 178; char-
acter, ib.; encouraged by pope
Urban II. to proclaim a crusade,
179; leads the first, 191; escapes
from the Bulgarians, 193 ; attempts
to fly from Antioch, 219; retirement

and death, 228, note S.
PETER, brother of the emperor Maurice,

violates the privileges of Azimun-

tium, v. 381; is forced to fly, ib.
PETER, the patrician, character of his

work, ii. 84, note.
PETER DE RUPIBUS, bishop of Win-

chester, commands the auxiliaries of

PETER, ST.

PHILOSOPHY.
the pope in the battle of Viterbo, that monarch, 117; three extraor
viii. 210 and note.

dinary gifts to, ib.
PETER, ST., his visit to Rome, ii. 196; PHARISEES, sect of the, ii. 171 ; added

did not found that church, ib. note tradition to Scripture, 172.
M. ; tombs or trophies of St. Peter Phasis, river, described, v. 193.
and St. Paul at Rome, iii. 427; PHEASANT, name of that bird, whence
legend of their apparition to Attila, derived, v. 195.
iv. 246; the two epistles of St. PAILADELPHIA, its valiant defence
Peter rejected by the Paulicians, against the Turks, viii. 24.
vii. 48.

Philagrius, præfect of Egypt, opposes
PETER's, St., church, erected on the Athanasius, iii, 74, note.
garden of Nero, ii. 234.

PAILELPHUS, Francis, his description of
Petra, Arabian town of, i. 143, note the Greek language, viii. 105; Lives

S.; siege of, by Dagisteus, general of of, ib, note ; obtains from Mahomet
Justinian, v. 201; capital of the II. the liberty of his mother and
Nabathæans, vi. 202, note.

sisters by a Latin ode, 144, note, and
PETRARO epistle to the doge and 174, note.

senate of Venice respecting the war Philip, prætorian prefect under Gor-
with the Genoese, vii. 411; one of dian III., i. 326 ; supplants his
the first revivers of learning in Italy, master, ib.; whether he ordered his
viii. 107; intimacy with Barlaam execution ? 327, note; solemnises
and Greek studies, 108; his love and the secular games, ib.; rebellion
esteem for the Colonna family, 222, against, 373; death, 374 ; protected
224; poetical and literary character, the Christians, ii. 260; suspected of
225; coronation at Rome, 227 ; pa being a convert, ib, and note.
triotism, 228; applauds the tribune PHILIP, minister of Constantius II.,
Rienzi, 237 ; invites and upbraids puts Paul, bishop of Constantinople,
the emperor Charles IV., 248 ; so to death, iii. 90; his previous stra-
licits the popes of Avignon to return tagem to banish Paul, 91.
to Rome, 249 ; testifies the destruc PHILIP I., of France, his limited do-
tion of the Roman monuments by minion, vii. 182.
the citizens, 280.

PHILIP AUGUSTUS of France, assists at
PETRONIUS, father-in-law of Valens, the siege of Acre, vii. 262; con-
rapacity and cruelty of, iii. 239.

trasted with Richard I., 263.
PETRONIUS MAXIMUS, his wife ravished PHILIP, duke of Burgundy, his banquet,

by Valentinian III., iv. 250; his pageant, and promised crusade against
family and character, 254 ; saluted the Turks, viii. 183.
emperor, 255; compels Eudoxia, PHILIPPA, daughter of Raymond of
widow of Valentinian, to marry him, Poitou, her intrigue with Andronicus
ib.; cowardice on the approach of Comnenus, vi. 126.

Genseric, 256; massacred, ib. PHILIPPICUS, v. Bardanes.
PFEFFEL, character of his Abrégé Chro PHILIPPOPOLIS taken by the Goths, i.

nologique de l'Histoire d'Allemagne, 383.
vi. 191.

Philo, his works, when published, iji.
PAALANX, Grecian, compared with the 47 and note S.; his Platonism, ib.,
Roman legion, i. 150.

note,
PAANTASMA, the body of Christ held to PHILOPATRIS, dialogue, date of, dis-
be by the Docetes, vi. 5.

cussed, ii. 55, notes; derides the
PHARAMOND a fabulous sovereign, iv. Trinity, 225 and note.
129 and note M.

PHILOSOPHERS, Grecian, religious syg-
PHARANDSEM, wife of Arsaces Tiranus, tems of the, i. 167; pagan, indiffer-

confounded by Gibbon with Olympias, ent to the evidence of prophecy and
ii. 278, note M.; her brave defence miracles, ii. 218; how esteemed
of Artogerassa, ib.

among the Huns, iv. 103.
PHARAS, chief of the Heruli, under Philosophy, divine or monkish, de-

Belisarius, v. 102 ; beleaguers Geli scribed and contrasted with the
mer a: Mount Papua, 116; letter to Grecian, iv. 306,

PHILOSTORGIUS,

PLATO.
PHILOSTORGIUS, value of his authority, ship, f. 233, note; story of his testi.

ii. 365, note G.; character of that his mony in favour of Christ, 256 and
torian, iii. 53, note.

Tiote.
PHILOTHEUS, a Macedonian sectary, in PILGRIMAGE, Christian, to Jerusalem,

culcates religious toleration on An iii. 156; vii. 171 ; Mahorcetan, two
themius, iv. 281.

kinds of, vi, 232, note.
PHINEUs, palace of, ii, 228 and note. Pilpay, fables of, procured by Chosrocs
PHIROUZ, à Syrian renegade, betrays Nushirvan V., 186; how preserved,
Antioch to Bohemond, vii. 217.

187 and note M. ; intrinsic merit,
PHOCÆA, Genoese colony at, viii. 69 ib.
and notes.

Pilum, description of the, i. 149.
Phocas, a centurion, elected emperor Pincian palace at Rome, v. 144 and

by the army of Maurice, v. 383; note,
consecration and public entry into PINNA MARINA, shell fish, silk manu.
Constantinople, 385 ; executes Mau factured from, v. 58 and note.
rice and his five sons, ib.; his Pipa, a German princess, marries Gal-
character, 386 ; tyranny, 387; cap lienus, i. 394.
tured and beheaded by Heraclius, Piræus, Gothic fleet at, i. 400.
389; his rebellion suppressed by Pisa, council of, viii. 92 ; deposes the
Basil II., vi. 107.

popes of Rome and Avignon, 255.
PHENICIA described, i. 160.

PISANI, Venetian admiral, defeated by
PAENICIAN inscriptions, quoted by the Genoese in a sea fight at Con-
Procopius, v. 121 and noté M.

stantinople, vii. 410 and note M.
PHOTIUS, persecuted by his mother Piso, CALPURNIUS, the only noble among

Antonina, wife of Belisarius, v. 159 ; Gallienus' competitors, i. 410; his
persuades Belisarius to punish her virtues, ib.
vices, ib.; further persecutions, 160; Pityus attacked by the Goths, i. 396 ;
becomes a monk, 161.

taken, 397.
PHOTIUS, patriarch of Constantinople, Pius II., pope, v. Æneas Sylvius.

preceptor of Leo the Philosopher, vi. PLACENTIA, battle of between Aurelian
100; account of and of his“ Library," and the Alemanni, ii. 15; council of
vii. 40; attempts the conversion of summoned by pope Urban II., vii.
the Russians, 92 ; his promotion from 180.
a captaincy in the guards to the Placidia, sister of Honorius, her ad-
patriarchate, 280.

ventures, iv. 114; marriage with
PHOTIUS, the patrician, escapes the Adolphus, king of the Goths, ib.;

persecution of Justinian by suicide, where solemnized, ib. note S.; ill-
vi. 37.

treatment of by Singeric, 126; re-
PARANZA, George, Greek historian, stored to Honorius by Wallia, 127;

his testimony to Bajazet’s iron cage, after the death of Adolphus marries
vii. 59; account of, 90, notes ; em Constantius, 171; fondness of Hono-
bassy from Constantine Palæolo rius for changed to hatred, 172 ;
gus into Georgia, 140; to the court flies to Constantinople with her chil-
of Trebizond, 141; fate of himself dren, ib.; restored after the death of
and family at the taking of Constan Honorius, 173; assumes the guar-
tinople by the Turks, 174.

dianship of her son Valentinian III.,
PHYSICIANS, much csteemed among 174; her administration, 175; ba-
the Huns, iv. 204.

nishes her daughter Honoria, 229;
PICARDY, origin of the name of, vii. death, 249, note; sepulchre at Ra-
178, note.

venna, ib.
l'ICTURES, use of in Christian worship | PLAGUE, its origin and nature, v. 253;

censured by the council of Illiberis, account of the destructive one in the
vi. 135; more decent and harmless reign of Justinian, ib.
than sculpture, 136.

PLANE-TREES cultivated by the en-
Pirmies of Africa, fabulous race of, cients, iv. 111.
iii. 276 and note.

Plato's doctrine of immortality, ii.
PILATE, Pontius, date of his procurator 169; republic, 197 and note; system

PLATONISTS.
of, iii. 45; whether derived from the
Jews, ib. note ; three principles, 46 ;
his system taught at Alexandria, ib.;
respect of the Christians for, 49 and
note; the source of the Guostic er-
rors, ib, note; how distinguished
from the Christian doctrines, 50; his
theological Trinity not understood by
ancient philosophers, ib. note ; study
of revived in Italy, viii. 115; cha-

racter of his philosophy, ib.
Platonists, new, rise of, ii. 104 ; cha-

racterized, 105; oppose Christianity,
266; allegorical mythology of adopted
by Julian, iii. 139; their magic or
theurgy, 142 and note ; seven Pla-
tonists take refuge in Persia on the
suppression of the schools of Athens,
v. 93; their disappointment, ib.;
Chosroes exacts an immunity for

them from Justinian, 94.
PLAUTIANUS, minister of Severus, i.

261 ; rack, 276, note.
PLEBEIANB, Roman, account of, ii. 308.
PLETHO, George Gemistus, revives the

study of Plato in Italy, viii. 115;
account of, ib, note ; a pagan, 119,

note,
PLINY, the younger, legacies to, i. 300;

examines the Christians of Bithynia,
ii. 183; describes the prevalence of
Christianity in Bithynia, 208; date
of his proconsulship, ib. note S. ;
mentions Christians of every order,
216; consults the emperor Trajan
respecting them, 240; which proves
that there were then no general laws
against them, ib. ; tortures two fe-
males, ib, note M.; his test of recan-

tation, 243, note M.
PLOTINA, empress, i. 213.
PLOTINUS, the philosopher, accompanies

the army of Misitheus into Persia, i.
326, note ; his intimacy with Gal-

lienus, 408.
PLUMBATA, weapons so called, ii. 92,

note.
Pocock, character of his · Description

of the East,' vi. 815, note.
POET LAUREATE, invention of that

title, viii. 482; its perpetuation a
ridiculous custom peculiar to the

English court, ib. and note.
POGGIUB, his dialogue De Varietate For-

tunæ, when composed, viii. 58, note ;
testimony as to the iron cage of Baja-
zet, ib. ; his reflections on the fall of

POPES.
Rome, 267; description of its ruing

268.
POITIERS, battle of between Clovis an]

Alaric II., iv. 360.
POLAND ravaged by the Mongols, viii.

14.
POLLENTIA, date of the battle of be.

tween Stilicho and Alaric, iv. 32,

note S.; battle described, 36.
POLL-Tax, provincial, i. 303, note S. ;

sometimes called capitatio, ii. 337

note S.; how levied, ib.
Polybius, his opinion of Byzantium, i.

287.
POLYCARP, martyrdoin of, ii. 243, note.
POLYEUCTES, story of, ii. 252, note.
POLYTHEISM, best described by Hero-

dotus, i. 165 ; M. Constant's view of,
166, note M.; its ministers little
interested in supporting it, ii. 204 ;
its weak hold on the human heart,

205 (v. Paganism).
POMPEIANUS, Claudius, his manly re-

solution, i. 233.
POMPEIANUS, Ruricius, commandant of

Verona, ii. 129; defeated and slain

by Constantine the Great, 130.
POMPEIANUS, præfect of Rome, super-

stitious project for driving away

Alaric, iv. 91.
POMPEY, extraordinary power of, i. 200

and note ; raised the Asiatic tribute,
295 and note S. ; his house at Rome,

311, note.
Pompey, nephew of the emperor Anas-

tasius, suspected of sedition, v. 53;

executed, 55.
POMPTINE marshes drained by Thco-

doric the Ostrogoth, v. 23.
Pontifex Maximus, office of assumal

by the first seven Christian emperors,
iii. 99; first refused by Gratian, ib.
note; but not till the sixteenth year

of his reign, ib. note S.
PONTIFFs, Roman, their jurisdiction, iu

407, 899.

PONTIROLO (pons Aureoli), ii. 2.
Pontius, his Life of Cyprian, ii. 247,

note.
Pontus, kingdom of, i. 160.
POPES of Rome, growt of their power,

v. 361; their policy and ambition,
vi, 145; their dominion founded od
rebellion during the heresy of the
Iconoclasts, ib. ; begin to be con-
sidered by the Romans as their first
magistrates, 152; mutual obligatione

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