with the Carlovingian family, 156;
donations of Pepin and Charlemagne
to, 159; forgery of the donation of
Constantine, 161; transfer the em-
pire to Charlemagne, 166; admoni-
tion to on their accession, 168, note;
average length of reign, ib.; their
dexterous use of the quarrels of the
Carlovingians, 178; method of their
election and authority of the em-
perors, 181; their abasement and
indigence in the ninth and tenth
centuries, 182; acquiesced at first in
the Greek doctrine of the procession
of the Holy Ghost, vii. 279; their
authority in Rome, viii. 188; dona-
tion of Constantine, ib.; appeals to,
189; election of, 211; absence of
from Rome, 213; origin of the papal
schism, 214; temporary return of
Urban W. to Rome, 249; final return
of popeGregory XI.,250; greatschism
of the West, 253; negociations for a
union, 254; of Rome and Avignon,
deposed by the council of Pisa, 255;
three popes, ib.; election of Martin W.
by the council of Constance, and
restoration of the popes to the Vati-
can, 256; acquire the absolute do-
minion of Rome, 262; merits and
defects of their government, 264;
power over the public buildings, 274
and note M.
Poppaea, Nero's mistress, ii. 236.
PoPULATION of Rome, iv. 87, 89; va-
rious modern computations of, ib.
note S.; writers on, ib. 90.
Pokoabo, Stephen, his conspiracy at
Rome, viii. 260; execution, 261.
PoECELAIN, Chinese, whether known
to the Romans, iv. 79, notes.
rooms, the Arians so called, iii.

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PortoRLA, or customs, i. 295, note S.;
re-established by Augustus, 298 and
note S.; rate, ib.
Portuguese persecute the Nestorian
Christians of Malabar, vi. 52; their
expedition to Abyssinia, 64.
PosLDEs, eunuch of Claudius, ii. 386,
Posthumus, general of Gallienus, his
victories over the Franks, i. 391;
murdered by his troops at Mentz, ii.
Posts and post-houses under the em-
pire, i. 188.
PRAEFECTs of Rome and Constantinople,
ii. 312; equal in dignity to the
Praetorian praefects, 313; Augustal
of Egypt, 314. -
PRAEFECTUs MoRUM, what, i. 204, note
PRAEJECTA, niece of Justinian, her
marriage with Artaban prevented
by Theodora, v. 226.
PRAEPoSITUs, or chamberlain, under
Constantine, functions of, ii. 326.
PRETEXTATUS, proconsul of Achaia,
obtains from W.A. toleration
for the Eleusinian mysteries, iii. 249;
tranquillises the disturbances occa-
sioned at Rome by the schism of
Donatus and Ursinus, 256; jest of
to Damasus, ib.; his honours and
titles, ib. note.
PRAEToRs, Roman, reduction of thei:
number and power, ii. 312; legisla
tive power of the, v. 265 and note
W.; often abused, 267.
PRETORIAN hands, or city cohorts, i.
154; their origin, 241; numbers, ib.
and note; camp, 242; site of, ib.
note S.; their power, 242; dona-
tives to, ib.; claim to be the Roman
people, 243; sell the empire, ib.;
dread the Pannonian legion, 250;
dis by Severus, 252; remo-
delled and increased by him, 260;
pay, 273; Gibbon corrected, ib. note
G.; murder Ulpian, 290; Gibbon
corrected, ib. note W.; besieged by
the people, 322; weakened and re-
duced by Diocletian, ii. 92; their
desperate resistance against Con-
stantine, 132; suppressed by him,
PRAEToRIAN prefects, office of, i. 260;
ess of, ib. note S.; civil func-
tions, ib.261; their civil and military


Yower, ii. 310; deprived of the latter
y Constantine, ib.; increased to
four, ib.; their civil functions, 311;
salary, ib. and note; no appeal from,
ib.; had no jurisdiction in Rome and
Constantinople, 312; table of their
provinces, 315, note S.; prerogatives
of, 316; gradual degradation of that
office, v. 65, note M.
PRAGMATIC sanction of Justinian for
the settlement of Italy, v. 241, 242,
PRAXAGORAs, Life of Constantine, ii.
126, note.
PRAxEAs, heresy of, iii. 52 and 53,
note; confuted by Tertullian, ib.
PRAXITELEs, sculptures of destroyed
by Belisarius in his defence of Rome,
v. 139; excelled in fauns, ib. note.
1’REACHING, introduction and freedom
of, iii. 37; abuse of, 38.
PRECEDENCY, severe law of Gratian
against the infringement of, ii. 304,
note; rules of, 305, note.
PREDESTINATION, doctrine of, taught in
the Koran, vi. 224-247; its influence
on the courage of the Saracens, ib.
PRERogATIVES, imperial, i. 204; aug-
mented by Severus, 262.
PRESBYTERs, institution of, ii. 191.
PRESENTs, Roman, to foreign kings,
ambassadors, &c., i. 386 and note.
PRESIDIUs despoiled by Constantine,
governor of Spoleto, v. 149.
PRESTER JOHN, story of, vi. 49 and
note; his skull enchased in silver
by Zingis, viii. 3; monarchs of the
Keraites so called ib. note S.
PRIESTHood, pagan, hereditary succes-
sion of in various nations, iii. 30,
note; partly elective among the
1)ruids, ib.
PRIESTLEy, Dr., tendency of his opi-
nions, vi. 62, note and note M.
PRIEETs, pagan, their tricks, iii. 419.
PRIMogeniture, prerogative of, un-
known to the Romans, v. 307.
PRINCE of the Waters, Persian officer,
his functions, v. 184 and note.
PRINCEPs JuvenTUTIs, what, i. 151,
note S.

PRINCEPs SENATUs, nature of that title,

i. 197 and note S.; the emperor
Tacitus so called, ii. 35, note.
PRINCIPLEs, two, doctrine of, i. 334.
PRINTING, ancient use of by the
Chinese, v. 62


PRISCA, wife of Diocletian, put to
death by Licinius, ii. 138; her cou-
version to Christianity, 264.
PRISCILLIAN, bishop of Avila, put to
death with some of his sect by
Maximus, iii. 374; account of his
heresy, 375.
PRISCUs, Thrasea, i. 270.
PRISCUS accepts the purple from the
Goths, i. 383.
PRISCUs, engineer, i. 256 and note.
PRISCUs, the historian, conversation
with a renegade Greek in the camp
of Attila, iv. 204, 209; probably a
pagan, ib. notes.
Priscus, general of the emperor
Maurice, his successes against the
Avars, v. 381.
PRIULF, Gothic leader, his character,
iii. 355; slain by Fravitta, ib.
PROBA, widow of the praefect Petro-
nius, escapes from the sack of Rome
with her daughter Lata and grand-
daughter Demetrias, iv. 107.
PROBole, or Prolatio, Valentinian
doctrine adopted by orthodox Chris-
tians, iii. 51, note.
PROBUS, general of Aurelian, ii. 23,
25; opposes the usurpation of Flo-
rianus, 40; his character and ser-
vices, 41; elected emperor, 42:
respectful letter to the Senate, il.:
victories over the barbarians, 43;
mostly gained. in person, 44; de-
livers Gaul from the Germans, ib.:
invades Germany, 45; dictates, a
treaty, ib.; builds a wall from the
Rhine to the Danube, 46; intro-
duces barbarians into the army, 47;
quells the revolt of Saturninus, 49;
of Bonosus and Proculus, 50:
triumph, ib.; military discipline,
ib.; employed the troops in agricul-
ture, 51; murdered, 52.
ProBus, praetorian praefect, defends
Sirmium against the Quadi, iii. 288.
PROBUs, chief of the Anician family,
honours and fortunes of, iv. 73; two
sons of associated in the consular
dignity, ib.
PRocession of the Holy Ghost from
the Son as well as from the Father
first established in the eighth coun-
cil of Toledo, iv. 340 and note; con-
troversy concerning, vii. 279.
PRocessions of the Greek emperor,
vii. 22.


PROCHIRON, or legal manual of Basil I.,
account of, vii. 45, note S.
PROCLUs, the quaestor of Justin, v. 37;
prevents the adoption of Nushirvan,
son of Cabades king of Persia, by
Justin, 182.
PROCLUs, story of his renewing the ex-
pedient of Archimedes to burn the
fleet of Vitalian, v. 71.
Proclus, the Platonist, account of,v.92.
PROCONNESUs, isle, marble of, ii. 296.
PRoconsul, duties of, ii. 316, note.
PRocoPIA, consort of Michael I., her
martial spirit, vi. 88.
PRocoPIUs, kinsman and general of
Julian, iii. 189; fails to join Julian
at Ctesiphon, ib.; appointed by
Jovian to conduct Julian's funeral,
225; regarded as the successor of
Julian, 238; escapes the satellites
of Walentinian and Walens, ib.; his
adventures, ib.; how connected with
Julian, ib. note; a pagan, ib.; seizes
on Constantinople, 239; progress of
his rebellion, 240; betrayed by his
troops, 242; beheaded, ib.
PRocopius, father-in-law of Valens, ap-
pointed to try Timasius, iv. 141.
PRocoPIUS, the historian, account of
the testament of Arcadius, iv. 150;
fabulous account of Britain, 399; his
character and writings, v. 39; occa-
sion of his “Edifices,’ 40, fate of
his works, ib. note; character of his
‘Anecdotes,’ 41 and note M.; enters
the service of Belisarius, 100; his
defence of archery, 102; his confes-
sion of dishonesty, 129, note; his
description of the temple of Janus,
140, note ; mission into Campania,
146; estimate of the numbers de-
stroyed by the inroads of the bar-
barians, 172; escapes with Solomon
from the rebellion at Carthage, 211;
description of the desolation of Africa,
214; his medical skill, 254 and
note; description of the plague under
Justinian, ib. sq.; his sentiments
concerning religion, vi. 35.
PRoculiaNs, legal sect of, v. 278.
PRoculus, revolt and character, ii. 50.
PROFESSORs, salaries of, i. 194, notes
G. and W.
PROMOTUs, master - general cf the
infantry, his quarrel with Rufinus,
banishment and death, iv. 3.
PROPERTY-TAx, establishment of, i.

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294; history of, ib. note S.; Gibbon
corrected, 298, note S.
PROPERTY, right of, on what founded,
v. 302; Roman laws respecting,
304; Gibbon’s view developed and
corrected, ib. note W.
PhoPHETs of the early Christian church,
ii. 191; evil consequences and abo-
lishment of, ib.; female, reproved
by St. Paul, ib. note M.
ProposTIs, or Sea of Marmora, de-
scribed, ii. 290; abounds in exceller.t
fish, 292.
PRosTITUTEs, taxation of, ii. 342; how
and when abolished, ib. note G.
PROTECTORs, Constantine's body-guard
so called, ii. 330.
PROTERIUs, successor of Dioscorus as
patriarch of Alexandria, murdered by
the monk Timothy, the Cat, vi. 30.
PROTESTANTs, their political views dif-
ferent from those of the primitive
Christians, iii. 8.
PROTosebASTos, title invented by
Alexius Comnenus, vii. 18.
PROTospATHAIRE, Byzantine officer,
vii. 20.
ProTosTRATOR, Byzantine officer, vii.

PROTovESTIARE, officer of the Byzantine
emperors, his functions, vii. 19.
Provinces, Roman, described, i. 155,
sq.; list of under Hadrian, 162,
note S.; how governed, 172; dif-
ference between the eastern and
western, 174; how divided between
the emperor and senate, 201 and
note S.; division of under Constan-
tine, ii. 314; two singular provisions
for the government of 316; gover-
nors of not to be natives, ib.; Zeno's
law respecting governors of, 317,
note; numerous revolts of governors,
PRUDENTIUs, his testimony as to the
debate in the senate respecting Chris-
tianity or Paganism, iii. 411 and
PRUSA, conquest of, by Orchan, son of
the caliph Othman, viii. 23; the
true aera of the Ottoman empire, ib.
PRUSSIA, conquest and conversion of,
i. 378, note.
PRussiaNs invade Britain, iv. 389.
PRYPEc, river, i. -
PsALMody, when and by whom intro-
duced, iii. 88 and notes.
2 D

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PtoleMAIs, v. Acre.
ProLEMIEs, library of, at Alexandria,
iii. 417, notes.
PToleMY, Roman senator, heads a re-
volt against Otho III., vi. 186.
PUDENTIUs assists the Romans against
Gelimer, Vandal king of Africa, v.
Pugio NE, A, whether Cleander's title 2
i. 229 and note M.
PULCHERIA, sister of Theodosius the
Younger, her character and adminis-
tration, iv. 161; effects the disgrace
of the empress Eudocia, 166; pro-
claimed empress of the East on the
death of her brother, 218 ; executes
the eunuch Chrysophius, 219; mar-
ries the senator Marcian, ib.; death
and canonization, 278 and note; sup-
ports the cause of Cyril against Nes-
torius, vi. 22.
PULE RUDBAR, or Hyrcanian Rock, v.
l’ULLANI, or Poullains, name of the
descendants of the crusaders settled
in Palestine, vii. 231 and note.
PUNISHMENTs, Roman, v. 316; disuse
of penal laws, 318; rigour of the
Christian emperors, 322; capital,
abolished by the emperor Calo-
Johannes, vi. 119.
PURIM, Jewish festival of, ii. 223, note.
PURPLE colour, Phoenician, described,
v. 56 and note; restricted to impe-
rial use, ib.
PURPLE, or porphyry, ancient, nature
of, vi. 101.
PURPLE CHAMBER of the Byzantine pa-
lace, vii. 16.
PURPURIUs, his violence against Caeci-
lian, iii. 43.
PYRRhic dance, i. 148.
PYTHEAs, navigations of, i. 378, mote.

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RAccA, palace of Harun al Rashid, vi.
406 and note.
RADAGAISUs, or Rhodogast, leads the
German emigration in the reign of
Honorius, iv. 44; the god of war
so called by the Slavonians, ib. note
M.; forces how composed, 45; was a
Slavonian, ib. note S.; date of his
invasion of Italy, 46, note S.; be-
sieges Florence, 47; threatens Rome,
ib.; defeated by Stilicho, 48; put to
death, 49; his execution justified, i.
note M.
RADIGER, king of the Varni, conquered
and compelled to fulfil his promise of
marriage by an Anglo-Saxon prin-
cess, iv. 400.
RAHDI, the Abbasside, the last who de-
served the title of caliph, vi. 422.
RAINULF, count, leader of the Normans
in Italy, vii. 104 and note G.
RAMADAN, fast of instituted by Maho-
met, vi. 233.
RAMON DE MonTANER, his History of
• the Catalan freebooters, vii. 384,
notes G. and M.
RAMUsio, his History of the Conquest
of Constantinople, vii. 319, note.
RANDo, a chief of the Alemanni, sur-
prises Moguntiacum, iii. 259.
RAPES, Constantine's severe law
against, ii. 143. .
RASAPHE obtains the name of Sergio-
Rio v. 375, note.
295 and note W.


RAvenNA, a naval station, i. 154; siege
of by Maximian, ii. 116; account of
its foundation and progress, iv. 41;
becomes the residence of Honorius,
42; and seat of government, 43;
siege of by Theodoric the Ostrogoth,
v. 10; exarchate of, its limits, 348;
conquered by Pepin and presented
to the popes, vi. 159; limits, ib.;
reclaimed by Charlemagne, 161;
archbishops of rival the pope, ib.;
exarch of murdered in a sedition
respecting image- worship, 149;
Greeks repulsed from, 150; exarchs
restored, but with limited power,
ib.; entry and expulsion of Liut-
prand, 153; finally subdued by As-
tolphus, ib.
RAYMOND, count of Toulouse, engages
in the first crusade, vii. 183; charac-
ter, 198; march to Constantinople,
203; keeper of the holy lance, 221;
incursion into Syria, 224 and note;
declines to compete for the crown of
Jerusalem, 228 and note S.
RAYMOND, count of Tripoli, his in-
trigues with the Saracens, vii. 257
and note M.
RAYNAL, Abbé, mistake respecting Con-
stantine's law about Christian slaves,
iii. 23, note; erroneously attributes
the suppression of Paganism to Con-
stantine, 97.
RAzis, Arabian physician, vi. 402.
RECARED, son and successor of Leovi-
gild, first Catholic king of Spain, iv.
339; his two substantial arguments
for orthodoxy, ib.; converts his king-
dom to the Nicene faith; 340; em-
bassy to pope Gregory the Great, ib.
RECHLARIUS, king of the Suevi in Spain,
defeated by Theodoric II., iv. 262;
capture and death, 263.
RED SEA, only a part of the ancient
Mare Rubrum, vi. 196, note; com-
munication with the Nile by a canal,
339 and note S.
REFoRMATION, Protestant, character of,
vii. 59, sq.
REGINALD of Châtillon, his forays
against the Saracens, vii. 257; put
to death by Saladin, 258 and note.
REI or RAGAE, site of, v. 368, note.
REIGNING, art of, Diocletian's remark
on, ii. 100.
REINDEER in Germany, i. 351.
RELics, progress of the worship of, iii.

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428; forgeries of, ib.; lucrative trade
of the Latins in after the pillage of
Constantinople, vii. 319; sale of by
Baldwin II. to St. Louis, 342.
RELIGION of the Roman people, i. 165
difference of a lawful ground of en-
mity with the Arabs, vi. 353 and
REMIGIUs, bishop of Rheims, converts
and baptizes Clovis, iv. 351.
RENNELL, Major, his maps and memoirs
of Asia, v. 60, note.
character of Aëtius, iv. 221.
RENT of houses at Rome, iv. 88 and note.
REPENTANCE, Christian doctrine of,
favoured conversions, ii. 182. -
REPUBLIC, Roman, that name confined
to the Latin provinces after the
division of the empire, iv. 137.
RES MANCIPI explained, v. 304 and note

RESPONSEs and psalmody, introduction
of, iii. 88.
RESTOM or RosTAM, the Persian hero,
romance of, v. 185.
RESURRECTION of the dead, frequent in
second century, ii. 179; this test
declined by Theophilus, ib.; Maho-
metan doctrine of the, vi. 234.
RETz, Cardinal de, description of a con-
clave, viii. 213, note.
REVENUE, total under Augustus, i.
297 and note S.
RHAETIA described, i. 158.
RHAZATEs, general of Chosroes II., de-
feated and slain by the hand of
Heraclius, v. 409.
RHEGINA Columna, v. 348 and note.
RHETORIC, study of congenial to a
popular state, v. 90.
RHETRA, in Mecklenburg, temple of
Radagaisus at, iv. 45, note M.
RHINE, freezing of the, i. 351 and note
M.; seven posts on established by
Julian, ii. 421 and note; and Neckar,
banks of fortified by Walentinian I.,
iii. 260 and notes.
RHODEs, isle of, taken by Chosroes II.,
v. 293; colossus of, its fragments
sold by the Arabians, vi. 328
knights of, their defence against the
Turks, viii. 24; commanded by pope
Gregory XI. to defend Smyrna, 26
RHGTEUM, city of, ii.291.
RHYNDACUs, river, i. 399.

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