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tioned in the Offices of Cicero, and To some other positions of this the Ethics of Aristotle. Such being author, to which he adheres with the state of the fact, and, as far as much pertinacity, we shall just allude, the pulpit is concerned, there being as curious historical facts. Such are no probability of any change, it is of his dogmas, “that it is a vulgar error no importance to dwell upon the im to oppose the organum of Bacon to propriety of perverting the short that of Aristotle;" " that the curspace of time which sermons occupy rent notion is false, that Bacon invent. to any 'subject not immediately cone ed the method of induction for arri. nected with the practice of life, or ving at those truths which Aristotle the great articles of our faith. The sought by means of syllogism ;'more attentively it is considered, the “ that in the first book of the Novum more impracticable and dangerous Organum, the syllogistic method of will the proposal appear, to confound reasoning is not once mentioned among the doubtful speculations of the me- the causes that seem to have obstruct. taphysician, and the abstract discus- ed the advancement of natural scisions of the moral philosopher, with ence ;” and “ that to propose this those great truths which are convey. work as a guide for philosophical ined in the same plain and simple lan- quiries in the present age, is to misguage to the learned and to the igno- take its nature and design.” Such rant. On the whole, it would be af. in the nineteenth century are the opifectation to conceal our conviction, nions of an author of very respectathat such an idea could only have ori. ble talents and attainments, and who ginated in the most erroneous and speaks the language of a person of mistaken views of the nature of this some note in this famous university. branch of education. With respect And here let us lament with Aristo the argument quoted above, its totle that melancholy species of igsingularity will be at once explained norance, which proceeds not from the upon this last principle, when our difficulty attending the objects of our readers are informed that the same knowledge, but from the stubbornauthor broadly and repeatedly states ness of our own hearts, and which his belief in the most dogmatical and renders the eyes of the human soul as unqualified terms, that the whole blind to the clearest truths, as the eyes organum of Bacon is exclusively con. of bats to the light of day.t fined to the department of physical To expose the contradictions of science !"*_a position which, from this author with respect to Bacon's such a quarter, strongly marks the philosophy, or indeed to entertain slow progress
of knowledge, and am- controversies of any sort, is not very ply justifies the retort, that “ there consistent with the nature of this are some modern works for the study work; but the reflection, that his erof which a foreign stimulus is occa. rors cannot be peculiar to himself, sionally wanted."
and the magnitude of their practical
* See a Second Reply to the Edinburgh Review.
ή Ισως δε και της χαλεποτητος εσης κατα δυο τροπους, εκ εν τοις πραγμασιν, αλλ' εν ημιν το αιτιον αυτης. ώσπερ γαρ και τα των νυκτεριδων ομματα προς το φεγγος εχει το μεθ' ημέραν, ουτω και της ημετερα; ψυχης ο νες προς τα τη φυσει φανερωτατα πανταν. Metaphys. II. 1.
consequences in the system of educa. man's stock of knowledge by the lotion, which it is our object to describe, gic of the schools ; and it is a mani. may apologize for a very few curso. fest absurdity to argue that a young ry observations. The author having man's mind should be directed to the been fairly driven from his position, syllogistic form of reasoning to the that the Novum Organum is confined exclusion of the method of induction, to natural philosophy,* still makes a until “ he learns the arts in their preshew of defending the other point, sent form and condition." Induc. that it has an object totally different tion is nothing else than the natural from the Organum of Aristotle, and operation of the mind when all ob. that they are in no respect in oppo- structions are removed ; and if it were sition to each other. His error, as possible to exclude it altogether, far as it is intelligible, seems to consist the first principles of all knowledge in conceiving the object of induction would be wanting, and the very mato be limited to making discoveries in terials with which syllogisms are con. the proper sense of the word, and in structed. But it can never be denied, not understanding it to be equally ne. that the great object of all philosocessary in the acquisition of know. phical instruction is nothing else than ledge previously discovered. But the to open the way for the natural de. process of acquiring knowledge must velopement of our faculties. Upon be admitted to be precisely the same, this ground, while the statements of whether it has been previously disco- Locke and Bacon remain unanswervered or not, unless it be contended ed, it may be maintained, without the that the nature of the knowledge it- fear of contradiction, that the logic self is altered by the discovery. The of the schools cannot be applied with truths in Locke's Essay are acquired safety to any branch of philosophy, by the reader by the same inductive physical or intellectual, but is the mode of reasoning by which they mere science of words, and relates were at first presented to the mind of only to the application and arrangethat great philosopher. Nor did Ba- ment of knowledge previously acqui. con, when he recommended induc- red i quæ disputationes alat, sertion as the only mode of discovering mones ornet, ad professoria munera truth, or Locke, when he afforded so et vitae civilis compendia adhibeatur splendid an exemplification of his et valeat ;” and which consequently, doctrine, lay claim to any other praise, instead of the first and leading object, than that of steadily and systemati- ought to form one of the last and cally directing the attention of learn. least important parts of a system of ed men to the same logic, by which liberal education. alone the common sense of mankind The position already mentioned, in preceding ages had unconsciously that the novum organum, or new ma. provided for the wants and desires of chine, as it has been called, for workindividuals, or in any way extended ing with the understanding on all subthe empire of human reason. Now jects, is not intended as a substitute it is perfectly obvious, that no fact, for the old logic of Aristotle, is reold or new, was ever added to any futed by the very title and by every
See Mr Home Drummond's Observations suggested by the Strictures of the Review, and by the Two Replies, and an Answer to Mr Drummond in the Appendix to a Third Reply:
successive page of that work, which tention with the other, while an adcontinually contrasts the new system ditional road to distinction will be and the old, which points out the li- opened to youths of readier talents mited application of the latter, enu. or greater application. But on the merates the evils that have arisen from whole, we should be inclined to be sa. its adoption, and states why it is re. tisfied with the examination-statutes, jected, and induction substituted, as at present constituted, if each of “per omnia, et tam ad minores pro. them were to come into operation a positiones quam ad majores.”*' It year sooner, and if the year imme. is refuted by the inconsistencies of diately preceding the first degree, with the author himself who advances it, such residence as is afterwards requiand who by turns admits that Aris. red, were devoted to attendance on totle sought to discover truth and public lectures. acquire knowledge by syllogism, and It has been usual to charge the yields to Bacon, that syllogism is use- Oxford professors with neglect of less for these ends; who one moment duty ; but though it must be owned confesses its barrenness in facts and that this is a defective part of the principles, and the next recurs to the system, the defect often appears to assertion, that it is the “ necessary have been traced to very inadequate foundation on which every solid in- causes. Public lectures are at pretellectual fabric must be raised.” sent read on various subjects ; but the
Enough, we trust, has been said to college exercises and studies preparaexpose the erroneous views by which tory to the public examinations must it is attempted to justify the study of of necessity form the principal occu. the old logic to the exclusion of the pation of under-graduates. When new system recommended by Lord hearing public lectures forms the sole Bacon, and of all the modern acqui. and exclusive occupation, they must sitions that have been made in moral of necessity be in more repute than philosophy by the method of induc. where they are only a secondary and tion. In opposition to the writer al. inferior object of attention. Were ready quoted, it is argued, that if a the examinations for degrees, and the knowledge of the ancient moralists whole system of college instruction continue to be indispensably requi- abolished, the university lectures red in the examinations, the admis- would soon claim their share of posion of the modern writers also, at the pularity ; but it is absurd to expect option of the candidates, will not by that they should at present receive : comparison diminish, but rather con- the same encouragement as if the time firm their respect for the former when of under-graduates were not devoted it is well founded; and that those to a different course of more laborious who from any cause find a difficulty study. in mastering the one, will not in this In the year 1809, of twenty-three way be allowed to distract their at- professors, fourteen enjoyed sinc
“ Huic nostræ scientiæ finis proponitur; ut inveniantur non argumenta, sed artes, nec principiis consentanea, sed ipsa principia ; nec rationes probabiles, sed de. signationes et indicationes operum. Itaque ex intentione diversa diversus sequitur effectus. Illic enim adversarius disputatione vincitur, hic natura opere.”---Bacon
cures; viz. the professors of Hebrew, 'portant branches of knowledge, Os. Greek, Civil Law, Common Law, ford is two thousand years behind Ancient History, Poetry, Music, the rest of the world, and is very deLaud's Arabic, Lord Almoner's Ara- ficient even in the first. Of moral bic, Medicine, Aldrich's Medicine, philosophy enough has been already Aldrich's Anatomy, and the Clini- said. As to political economy, it cal and Anglo-Saxon professors. has been stated, that the leading docThe following nine professorships trines are taught by the professor of were efficient :-Regius Divinity, modern history; but if our informa
r Lady Margaret's Divinity, Modern tion be correct, though we entertain History, Botany, Natural Philoso- the highest respect for his labours, phy, Astronomy, Geometry, Tom- and should be extremely sorry to see line's Anatomy, and Chemistry ; that them discontinued, we are inclined to is to say, the professors in these doubt whether this statement of their branches were always ready to lec- subject has not originated in similar ture or teach, though in some in- erroneous views of its nature to those stances a term, or even a whole year, which directed us to the pulpit for might elapse without their being able instruction in moral philosophy. We to obtain an audience. The lectures have heard indeed of the curious and most numerously attended were, we interesting discussions, introduced by believe, those in Divinity, Modern that learned person upon the theoreHistory, and Geometry, though on tical history of modern governments, this point we cannot speak with con- but we never heard that he travelled fidence. Oxford can never be a me- so far from his own province, as to dical school ; but in some of the other explain the general principles of nabranches small classes might perhaps tional wealth and prosperity. It has be formed of those who have been been demonstrated, that the recent examined ; although while the exami- improvements have had the effect of nations continue on their present foot. diminishing the numbers that attend ing, there is not sufficient encourage. even the lectures in natural philosoment to induce professors who have phy, for which the mathematical exslept for ages to emerge from their amination is so well calculated to long retirement.
prepare. These branches are less The only exercise required after adapted for examinations than for the examination, is the public reading public lectures, and in all probability of two Latin discourses, or, in place will never receive any effectual enof one of them, the recitation of some couragement at Oxford, until an obLatin verses composed by the candi. ligation to attend the latter is impodate ; an exercise altogether ineffi- sed. cient, and which will probably soon Education is certainly one of those dwindle into a form. What we subjects, to which the usual arguwould suggest as the best occupa- ments against restraint and monopoly tion during the fourth year and sub- will not apply, and it is generally adsequent residence, would be to en- mitted to be an instance in which force attendance on public lectures Doctor Adam Smith's opinions are in natural and moral philosophy and somewhat biassed by a love of syspolitical economy.
tem. The supply of useful knowIn the two last of these most im- ledge to all ranks must have some
other stimulus than the demand, as would not generally fall upon the long as what is most agreeable is not easiest and the worst? The members always synonymous with what is most of a university may be left to thembeneficial. In this point of view, it selves without much detriment, where is apparent that the utility of public they are lodged in private houses, lectures may not be proportionable to scattered through the streets of a potheir celebrity; and the necessity is pulous city, many of them under the obvious of bestowing some authority immediate inspection of relations or and peculiar privileges upon certain private tutors, and a large proportion professors of the different arts and in circumstances of life that render sciences, to remove them above the proficiency in their studies a matter rank of itinerant mountebanks. The of absolute necessity. If they do not proportion which the independent attend the public lectures, where this part of their emoluments ought to is the only mode of acquiring knowbear, to what depends upon the num- ledge, they will not have even the apber of their pupils, must vary accord. pearance of doing any thing; and ing to circumstances, and may not in there are few young men professedly any case be easily determined. Nei- students who would not, either of ther is it possible to lay down any very their own accord, or by the authority positive rule with respect to the de. of their friends, wish to preserve at gree of compulsion to be used for in- least this connection with learning. suring attendance on public lectures; The members of a university, under but when this principle is extended so these circumstances, having no more far as to sanction the conclusion, that connection with each other than the a student should be allowed to chuse spectators who meet in the pit and his own college tutor, and change him galleries of a theatre, if they are not at his pleasure, it seems to infer the improved by such a system of educaabolition of all that is useful in this tion, are not at least of necessity coroffice. Were several professors to rupted. Where, on the contrary, read public lectures on the same sub- the very reverse of all this is the case, ject, it might happen that the best and the great body of students conwould be forced on the general no- sists of foundation members, to whom tice of young men and their advisers fellowships and livings deugend in reby public opinion, though it is much gular succession, together with the more likely that the greatest share of sons of a wealthy aristocracy, set popularity might not always be uni- loose from all restraints, but those ted with general utility. The qua- which college discipline affords, all lities upon which the former is found- crowded together within the walls of ed are very different from those their respective colleges, the bare which are most conducive to the lat. statement of the fact appears to deter. Besides, party spirit and many clare with the force of demonstraother principles might interfere, and tion, that maxims by which one systhe public approbation might be so
be totally individed, that none of them would ob- applicable to another. Upon these tain much respectability. But in grounds, whatever success may in the private and unambitious inter- certain instances attend the labours of course of a pupil and his tutor, is it public professors who have no authoto be conceived that such a choicerity over their pupils, and whose pų.