‘o Christian temples, iii. 35; Fra
Paolo's remarks on the abuse of,
ib. note.
8AND, a substitute for water in Ma-
hometan ablutions, vi. 232, 303, note.
SANGIAR, Seljukian sultan of Persia,
his character, vii. 249 and note.
SANGIBAN, king of the Alani, invites
the arms of Attila, iv. 232.
SAPAUDIA, or Savoy, when first men-
tioned in history, iv. 224.
SAPHADIN or Ardel, brother of Saladin,
refuses the hand of the sister of
Richard I., vii. 266.
SAPOR, son of Artaxerxes, king of Persia,
i. 346; his victories, 403; causes
Chosroes king of Armenia to be
assassinated, ib. ; takes Valerian
prisoner, 404; overruns Syria, Cili-
cia, and Cappadocia, ib.; cruelties,
405; his army harassed by Ode-
nathes, 406; treatment of Valerian,
SAPOR, son of Hormouz, king of Persia,
crowned before his birth, ii. 366 and
367, note M.; subdues the Arabs,
367; besieges Nisibis, 368, 372;
occupies several fortresses in Meso-
potamia, ib.; persecutes the Chris-
tians, ib. note M.; imposes hard con-
ditions of peace on Chosroes, king of
Armenia, 369; defeats Constantius
at Singara, 371; Sapor's son exe-
cuted by the Romans, ib.; abandons
the siege of Nisibis, 373; truce with
the Romans, ib.; haughty epistle to
Constantius, 404; invades Mesopo-
tamia, 406; besieges Amida, 407;
great losses before,409; reduces Sin-
gara and Bezabde, 410; his distress
at the rapid progress of Julian, iii.
206; anxiety to conclude a peace, ib.;
joy on the death of Julian, 217;
treaty with Jovian, 219; artful de-
lay, ib.; terms imposed by him, ib.;
enters Armenia, 277; imprisons Ar-
saces Tiranus and reduces the king-
dom, 278; subdues Sauromaces, king
of the Iberians, ib.; besieges Arto
gerassa, İb.; death, 280.
SARACENs, Greek and Latin name for
the Arabians, vi. 204; its etymology,
ib. note, and note M.; assist the
Greeks in Italy, vii. 99; discomfited
in Sicily, 105 (v. Arabs).
SARAGossa, emir of restored by Charle-
'uagne, vi. 174.


SARBAR, the Persian general, besieges
Constantinople, v. 405; 1evolts to
Heraclius, 408.
SARBARAZA, Persian general, vanquished
by Heraclius, v. 404.
SARDICA, interview of Constantius II.
and Wetranio at, ii. 378; Council of,
iii. 75; its dissensions, ib.; reveals
the first symptoms of schism between
the Greek and Latin churches, ib.;
allowed appeals to the Roman pon-
tiffs, ib. note.
SARDINIA, Wandals expelled from by
Marcellinus, iv. 284; conquered by
Zano, brother of Gelimer, v. 111;
recovered by the Romans, 114.
SARMATIAN games, ii. 144, note.
SARMATIANs how distinguished from
Germans, i. 381; races of, ib.; sig-
nally defeated by the emperor Carus,
ii. 53; allied with the Goths, 144;
account of, 357, sqq.; were Slavo-
nians, 359, note S.; war with the
Goths, 360; implore the aid of Con-
stantine the Great, ib.; their ingrati-
tude induces Constantine to abandon
them, 361; defeated with great loss
by the Goths, 362; expelled by the
slaves whom they had armed, ib. ;
some retire among the Quadi, ib.; the
greater part received into the Roman
provinces, ib.; allied with the Quadi,
401; formed into a kingdom by Con-
stantius II., 402.
SARUs, a Gothic warrior, attempts the
life of Stilicho, iv. 61; received in
Ravenna by Honorius, 101; success-
ful sally against the Goths, ib.; enters
the service of Jovinus, 122; sur-
prised and killed by Adolphus, ib.
SARUs, river, battle at the, between
the Romans under Heraclius and
the Persians, v. 404.
SASIMA, wretchedness of that bishop-
rick, iii. 366.
SASSANIDEs, Persian dynasty of the,
founded, i. 331; origin of that name,
ib. note ; genealogical table of the,
348, note S.; fall of the, vi. 292.
SATALIA, the ancient Attalia, vii. 245
and note S.
SATRAPIES, Persian, i. 343 and note.
SATURNINUs, competitor of Gallienus,
his observation on being Dade em-
peror, i. 411.
SATURNINUs, general of Probis, revolt
of, ii. 49.

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Sauce, Elagabalus' punishment for a
bad one, i. 282, note.
SAUL, general of Stilicho, iv. 36.
SAUROMACEs, king of the Iberians, de-
posed by Sapor, iii. 278; supported
by Valens, 279.
SAUsAGEs, Bologna, how made, v. 143,
SAUzes, son of Amurath I., forms a
conspiracy with Andronicus, son of
John Palaeologus, to murder their
fathers, viii. 35 discovered and
blinded, ib.
SAvelli, Italian family of, viii. 220.
SAvigny, his account of taxation under
Constantine, ii. 337, 341, notes S.
SAxA RUBRA, battle of between Con-
stantine and Maxentius, ii. 132; site
of, ib. note.
Saxons, when first mentioned, ii. 70,
note; situation and manners of the,
iii. 262; according to Dr. Latham, a
generic appellation, including Ger-
mans, &c., 263, note S.; their ships,
264; harass the coast of Gaul, ib.;
settlements in Gaul at this time, ib.
note S.; and iv. 234 and note; their
defeat, iii. 265; come to the defence
of Britain, iv. 387; massacre 300
British chiefs, ib. and note; were in
England before the date assigned to
Hengist's invasion, 388, note S.; pro-
bable date of their earliest settle-
ments, ib.; havoc committed by, 394;
influence on the British language,
395 and note S.; vanquished, how
treated by Charlemagne, vi. 170 and
note, 174; character of the, by Liut-
prand, vii. 36.
SAxoNY, ancient, boundaries of, vi.175.
SCABINI, or assessors, origin and elec-
tion of, iv. 368 and note M.
ScANDERBEG, prince of Albania, history
of, viii. 135; revolt from and exploits
against the Turks, 137; death, 138.
SCANDINAVIA, ancient, i. 350, note;
subdued by Attila, iv. 196.
ScARPosNA, battle of between Jovinus
and the Alemanni, iii. 258.
ScATINIAN Law, account of, v. 322.
ScAURUs, degradation of the family of,
ii. 309, note.
SCEPTICISM, prevalence of among the
pagans, ii. 205; assisted the growth
of Christianity, ib.
ScEPTar Greek, described, vii. 367,


Schafarrk, character of his “Schla-
wische Alterthümer,’ vii. 66, note M.

Schism, religious, origin of, ii. 163 and
note G.

ScIENCE reducible to four classes, vi.

SciRI, or SCIRRI, their situation, iv. 295.
ScLAvoNLANs, v. Slavonians.
SCLERENA, concubine of Constantine
X., vi. 110.
ScLERUs, his rebellion suppressed by
Basil II., vi. 107.
Scooba, or Scutari, vii. 203 and note.
Scots and PICTs, how distinguished,
iii. 266; controversies concerning
their descent, 268, note and note S.;
invade Britain, 268.
‘Scourge of God,” epithet of Attila,
iv. 202 and note.
SchIBONIANUs, revolt of, i. 211, note.
ScriNIA, four ministerial offices so
called, ii. 326.
Scriptures, Christians compelled to
deliver up the, ii. 273; Eastern ver-
sions of, vi. 45 and note.
Scy RRI, tribe of the Huns, defeated, iv.
Scythia, v. Tartary.
ScythiaNs confounded with the Goths,
i. 401 (v. Tatars).
SEBASTIAN, count of Egypt, places
George of Cappadocia on the epis-
copal throne of Alexandria, iii. 83;
despatched towards Nisibis by Julian,
189; fails in joining that emperor,
SEBASTIAN, general of Valens, his ex-
o: against the Goths, iii. 324;
illed at the battle of Hadrianople,
SEBASTIAN created emperor by his
brother Jovinus, iv. 122; put te
death by Adolphus, king of the
Goths, 123.
SEBAstocrator, title of invented by
Alexius Comnenus, vii. 18.
SECULAR GAMEs, account of, i. 327.
SEEz, the bishop and canons of cas-
trated, viii. 191, note.
SEDJAH, Arabian prophetess, her in-
terview with Moseilama, vi. 286 and
note S.
SEGESTAN, independence of, i. 340,
note; Rustan, prince of, ib.; alliance
with Sapor, ii. 408 and note.
SEGUED, emperor of Abyssinia, con-
verted to Roman Catholicism, vi. 66,


BEID BECHAR, descendant of the Pro-
phet, his false prediction of the fall
of Constantinople, viii. 71 and note.
SEJANUs, his rank and privileges, i.
276, note.
SELDEN, his remark on transubstan-
tiation, vi. 134.
SELEUCIA described, i. 341 ; sacked
and ruined, 342; besieged by the
Isaurians, ii. 395 ; council of, iii. 68.
SELEUCUs NICATOR, cities founded by,
i. 339, note ; abra of, ib.
SELEUCUs, mount, site of, 384, notes;
battle of between Constantius and
Magnentius, ii. 385.
SELGAE, defeat of Tribigild the Ostro-
goth at, iv. 144.
SELIM I., sultan, his treaty with the
Mamalukes, vii. 274 and note.
SELJUK, grandfather of Togrul Beg,
founder of the Seljukian dynasty,
his history, vii. 153; family, 154,
note S.; division of their empire, 167
and note M.; extinguished by the
khans of Persia, viii. 13.
SELYMBRIA, besieged by Mahomet II.,
viii. 154.
SEMIRAMIs invented castration, ii. 386,

SEMNo, chief of the Lygii, captured by
Probus, ii. 45.
SENATE, state of under Augustus, i.
197; functions under the empire,
205; attempts to recover its rights
after the murder of Caligula, 210;
its jurisdiction over the emperors,
236; Gibbon corrected, ib. note W.;
its acclamations, ib. note W.; con-
demns Julianus, 251; oppressed by
Severus, 261; indignant at the ele-
vation of Macrinus, 274; women
formally excluded from, 286; its
dignity restored by Al. Severus, 288;
secret form of convocation, 313; as-
sumes the reins of government, 314;
elects Maximus and Balbinus em-
perors, 315; excluded from military
employments, 394; prerogatives re-
gained under Tacitus, ii. 37; re-
fuses to name Florianus, the brother
of Tacitus, consul, 38; persecuted
and debased by Diocletian and Maxi-
mian, 91; Constantinopolitan, 301
and note; Roman, majority of, re-
mained Pagan under the Christian
emperors, iii. 408; were sworn at
the altar 2f Victory, ib.; four depu-


tations for its restoration, 400; peti-
tion of Symmachus to Valentinian
for, ib.; solemn debate respecting
the worship of Jupiter or Christ,
411; truth of this fact examined,
ib. note M.; renounces Paganism,
ib.; consulted by Stilicho on the
demands of Alaric, iv. 58; grants
him 4000 lbs. of gold, 59; decrees
the death of Serena, 90; rejects the
heathen project of Pompeianus
against the arms of Alaric, 92; ne-
gociates with him, ib.; second em-
bassy to, 95; elects Attalus emperor,
99; close of its jurisdiction in Gaul,
288; supports Anthemius against
Olybrius, 293; epistle to the em-
peror Zeno, transferring the seat of
empire to the East, 299; extinction
of in the reign of Justinian, v. 235;
legislative power transferred to by
Tiberius, 265; decrees of had the
force of law previously, ob. note W.;
revival of in the twelfth century,
viii. 199; number and election of,
SENATORs, Roman, qualification, i. 171,
note; and knights perform as gla-
diators, 232, note ; under Honorius,
their genealogical pretensions, iv. 71;
unfounded, 72 and note; immense
wealth, 74; luxury and manners,
76 sqq.; young, permitted to take 6
per cent. interest, ib. note ; literary
studies, 82 and note.
SENATOR, office of, in the modern Ro-
man republic, viii. 202, 258.
SENECA, his 'Aroxoxexorarit, i. 207,
note M.; his theory of comets, v.
250 and note.
SENIORs, or lords, origin of, iv. 373.
SEPTEM, or Ceuta, adorned and forti-
fied by Justinian, v. 114.
SEPTIMANIA, Gothic and Roman, dis-
tinguished, iv. 128, note S.; Gothic
province of in Gaul (Languedoc),
361, 363; conquered by the Saracens,
vi. 386 and note S.
SEPTIzoNIUM of Severus at Rome, viii.
270; materials of, used by Sixtus V.
for St. Peter's, 277.
SERAI, city and palace of built by Batou
the Mongol, viii. 16.
SERAPEUM, or temple of Serapis at
Alexandria, v. Serapis.
SERAPION, relinquishes the doctrine cf
anthropomorphism, vi. 7.


SERAPIs, account of the worship of in
Egypt, iii. 416 and note S.; temple
of at Alexandria described, 417;
sacrifices tolerated in after their pro-
hibition by Theodosius, 418; tumults
respecting, ib.; temple demolished
by Theophilus, 419 ; Gibbon's ac-
count corrected, ib. note S.; statue
of described, 420; destruction of, ib.
SERENA, niece of Theodosius, married
to Stilicho, iv. 10; strangled by order
of the Roman senate, 90.
SERGEANTs, what, vii. 302, note.
SERGiopolis, v. Rasaphe.
SERGIUs, nephew of Solomon the eu-
nuch, massacres the deputies of the
Moors at Leptis, v. 213 ; conspiracy
of against Justinian detected, 245;
implicates Belisarius, 246.
SERGIUs and Bacchus, saints and mar-
tyrs, their tomb at Rasaphe, v. 375
and note.
SERGIUs, the Paulician, virtues of, vii.

SERIPHUs, isle of described, i. 220 and
SERONATUs, praefect of Gaul, condemned
for corresponding with the Visigoths,
iv. 290.
SERVETUs, his execution by Calvin exa-
mined, vii. 60, note.
SERVIANs, overthrown by Simeon, king
of the Bulgarians, 68.
SERVIUs, walls of, ii. 16 and notes.
SEsostris, long wall of, vi. 206, note.
SESTUs, distance from Abydus, ii. 290.
SEveRA, wife of Valentinian I. and
mother of Gratian, iii. 291, sq.
SEVERIANUs put to death by Licinius,
ii. 136.
SEVERINA, widow of Aurelian, empress
at Alexandria, ii. 34, mote S.
SEVERINUs, St., his prediction to Odo-
acer, iv. 298; relics of, 301, note.
SrvKRUs, Septimius, wall of in Britain,
i. 141, note S.; enlarges the province
of Arabia, 143, note S.; commander
in Pannonia, assumes the purple,
249; donative, ib.; marches towards
Rome, ib.; Hume's mistake respect-
ing, ib. note; success against Niger
and Albinus, 253; artful policy, ib.
sq.; cruelty, 257; wise government,
258; military success, 259; relaxes
discipline, ib.; Gibbon's account
*. 260, note W.; reforms
Praetorians, 260; oppresses the

senate, 261; establishes absolute go-

vernment, 262; principal author of
the decline of the empire, ib. ; satiety,
263; addicted to magic and divina-
tion, ib.; at first protected the Chris-
tians, ii. 257; publishes an edict
against them, 258; repairs to Britai
265; death, 267. pal tain,
Sevel:Us, Alexander, age, i. 278, note;
declared Caesar, 283 ; accession to
the empire, 285 ; education and
way of life, 287; admonition to his
visitors, 288; refuses the name of
Antoninus, ib.; reforms the army,
289; firmness, 291 ; defects, 292;
histories of his life characterized, 293,
note; murdered, 307; pretended vic-
tory over Artaxerxes, 344; more
probable account, 345; associates the
statues of Abraham and Christ with
those of Orpheus and Apollonius, ii.
259; his design of building a Chris-
tian temple examined, ib. note.
SEveRUs, officer of Galerius, declared
Caesar by him, ii. 108; and Augustus
1.12; defeat and death, 115.
SeverUs appointed general of cavalry
under Julian, ii. 415.
SEVERUs, Sulpicius, the first author
of the ten persecutions, ii. 255, note.
SEveRUs, Libius, elected emperor at
the dictation of Ricimer, iv. 274.
SEVERUs, patriarch of Antioch, his
theological tenets and persecutions,
vi. 53.
SEville taken by Musa, vi. 360.
SEVIR, an officer of the Equites, i. 151,
note S.
SHAH MANsour, prince of Fars, valiant
defence against Timour, viii. 44 and
SHAHAN SHAH, origin of that title, i.
331, note M.
SHAwÉR, his faction in Egypt under
the Fatimite caliphs, vii. 251; mur-
dered by Shiracouh, 253.
SHEicks, Arabian, how chosen, vi. 204.
SHEPHERD-KINGs of Persia, dynasty of,
founded, vii. 153.
SHIITEs, Mahometans who reverence
Ali so called, vi. 272.
SHIRAcouh, emir of Noureddin, his
first expedition into Egypt, vii. 251;
second expedition, 252; third expe-
dition and conquest of, 253.
SIBERIA, description of, iii. 306; con-
quered by the Mongols, viii. 16.

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Sibyli.INE books consulted by Aurelian,
ii. 15; verses, Christianity proved
from the by Constantine, iii. 19 and
note; books, burnt by Stilicho, iv.
SIBYLs, Christian, ii. 218; predicted
the ruin of Rome in 195, ib. note.
SICHEM, or Naplous, city of the Sa-
maritans, site of, vi. 37, note.
SICILIAN Vespers, vii. 379.
SICILY, disorders in, i. 413; reunited
to the Roman empire by Belisarius,
v. 129; ravaged by Totila, 228; con-
quered by the Arabs, vi. 407; con-
quered by Roger the Norman, vii.
117; princes of, perpetual legates of
the Holy See, 118; Roger II. king
of, 132; reign of William the Bad,
141; of William the Good, 142; con-
quered by the emperor Henry VI.
144; subdued by Charles of Anjou,
376; separated from Naples and
transferred to the house of Arragon,
SIcorius PROBUs, his embassy to Nar-
ses, ii. 86.
SICUL1, tribe of Huns, vii. 79 and
note S.
SIDON, manufactures of, v. 56 and note.
respecting the capitation tax, ii. 339;
his account of his father-in-law Avi-
tus, iv. 258 and note ; character of
Theodoric II., 260, sq.; panegyric on
Avitus, 263; joins a faction in Gaul,
265; panegyric on Majorian, 266,
note; panegyric on Anthemius, 281;
made praefect of Rome, ib.; literary
style, 288, note.
SIENPI, tribe of oriental Tatars, iii. 312;
revolutions of that people, iv. 43;
assume the name of Topa, ib.
SIFFIN, plain of, war of Ali and Moawi-
yah on, vi. 275.
SIGANFU, inscription of, its authen-
ticity, vi. 50, and note M.
SIGISMUND, king of the Burgundians,
guilt and subsequent piety, iv. 356;
founds the monastery of Agaunum,
ib.; defeated and buried alive by the
sons of Clovis, ib.
SIGIBMUND, emperor, protects the synod
of Basil, viii. 93; receives the
Turkish ambassadors in their pre-
sence, ib.
SIGISMUND, King of Hungary, defeated
by the sultan Bajazet, viii. 32.


SILENTIARIUs, Paul, his description of
the marbles used in the church of
St. Sophia, v. 75, note.
SILENTIABY, office of at Constantinople,
v. 203, note.
SILINGI occupy Baetica, iv. 125.
SILK, how regarded by the Romans, i.
192 and note; manufacture of in
China and Cos, v. 57; Gibbon's
account corrected, ib. note S.; use of
by the Romans, 58; price of, ib.;
procured from the fish pinna marina,
ib.; silk trade, ib.; worms intro-
duced into Greece, 61; silk manu-
facture in Greece, vii. 12; in Spain
and Sicily, ib.; in Italy, 13; when
established in England, ib. note.
SILUREs, British tribe, i. 157.
SILVER the chief instrument of com-
merce, i. 192 and notes W. and M.;
increase of, 193; relative value to
gold under Constantine the Great, ii.
338, note S.
SILVESTER, St., pope, legend of Con-
stantine's donation to, vi. 161.
SIMEON, king of Bulgaria, history of,
vii. 68 and note S.; treaty with the
emperor Romanus, ib.
SIMEON STYLITEs, the Syrian hermit,
his extraordinary penance, iv. 320;
reverence paid to, 321.
SIMEON METAPHRASTEs, works of, vii.
3 and note.
SIMEON, Greek minister, cruelly exe-
cutes Constantine, the Paulician, vii.
51; converted to that faith, ib.
SIMEONs of Wan or Ormia, Nestorian
sect, vi. 51.
the Emperor Maurice, v. 390.
SIMon THE MAGICIAN, odiousness of his
name, vi. 23 and note.
SIMoS DE MonTFoRT engages in the
fourth crusade, vii. 289; abandons
the enterprise, 296 and note M.
SIMONY, early instance of, ii. 262, note.
SIMPLICIUs, with six other philosophers,
seeks refuge at the court of Persia,
v. 93; character of his works, 94.
SINDBAL, leader of the Heruli under
Narses, his valour at the battle of
Casilinum, v.240; hanged for rebel-
lion by Narses, 241.
SINGARA, site of, ii. 87, note; Gibbon
corrected, ib. note S.; battle of be-
tween Constantius and Sapor, 370;
taken by Sapor, 410.

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