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SINGERIC, brother of Sarus, sucoeeds
Adolphus as king of the Goths, iv.
126 ; murders the children of Adol.
phus, ib.; assassinated, ib.
SINGIDUNUM razed by the Avars, v.
SINGING, tramontane, contempt of the
Italians for, v. 360 and notes.
SINISTUS, high priest of the Bur-
gundians so called, üi. 261,
SINOPE, surrendered to Mahomet II.,
Sira, or SCHIRIN, wife of Chosroes, v.
376; poetical celebrity of their love,
410, note M.
SIRMIUM declares for Julian, iii. 116;
attacked by the Quadi and Sarma-
tians, 288; defended by Probus, ib.;
captured by Baian, chagan of the
Avars, v. 378.
SIROES, or KABAD, conspires against his
father, Chosroes II., v. 411 and note
M.; deposes and murders him, 412;
makes peace with Heraclius, 413.
SISEBUT, Gothic king of Spain, perse-
cutes the Jews, iv. 341.
Sixtus IV., pope, tumults in Rome
under, viii. 261 and note.
SIXTUS V., pope, his vigorous reign,
SLAVES, condition among the Romans,
i. 176; price, ib. note M.; manu-
mission, 177; numbers, 178; ad-
mitted into the army, ii. 323, 324,
note S.; Roman, join the army of
Alaric, iv. 93; condition of under the
barbarian conquerors of Rome, 374.
SLAVES (Slavonians), etymology and
perversion of the word, vii. 66 and
SLAVONLANS between the Elbe and
Vistula, i. 350, note S.; their origin
and various tribes, v. 167, note S.;
manners, 169; number of their vil
lages, ib, and note S.; ravage Illy-
ricum and Thrace, 171; cruelty, ib.;
boundaries of in the reign of Charle-
magne, vi. 175; their settlements in
Greece examined, vii. 9, note S.
SLEEPERS, Seven, legend of, iv. 188 ;
introduced into the Koran, 190.
SMALLPOX, its first appearance in
Arabia, vi. 217.
SMYRNA, cause of its populousness, viii.
24; its defence assigned to the
knights of Rhodes, 26, note ; taken
by Timour, 56
SMYTH, Capt., catalogue of medals, i.
391, 409 and note M.
SOEMIAS, mother of Elagabalus, i.
278; signed the acts of the senate,
SOCRATES, dæmon of, vi. 263 and nole.
SOFFARIDES, Saracen dynasty of the, vi.
SOGDOITES, their silk trade with China,
v. 59; their civilisation, 178.
SOISSONS, vase of, iv. 347; its arsenals
and manufactures, 348, note.
SOLDIERS, Roman, property qualifica-
tion of, 146, note; pay, 147, note.
SOLICINIUM, Mount, Valentinian I. de-
feats the Alemanni at, iii. 260.
SOLIDU8, value of the, iv. 74, note S.
SOLIMAN, brother of the caliph Walid,
besieges Constantinople, vi. 378;
death, 380; his gluttony, ib. notes.
SOLIMAN, son of Cutulmish, and great-
grandson of Seljuk, authorised by
Malek Shah to invade the Roman
dominions, vii. 168 ; declares himself
for Nicephorus Botaniates, 169;
permanently occupies Asia Minor,
ib.; surnamed Gazi, ib.; his cor-
SOLIMAN, son of Orchan, establishes
himself in Thrate, viii. 28; death,
SOLIMAN, son of Bajazet, escapes into
Europe after the battle of Angora,
viii. 56; accepts the investiture of
Romania from Timour, 61; character
and death, 67 and note M.; alliance
with Manuel Palæologus, 70.
SOLIMAN, v. Kilidje Arslan.
SOLOMON, king of the Jews, not the
author of the Book of Wisdom, iii.
47 and note ; sacrifices of emulated
by Julian, 158; equalled by those
of the caliph Mokteder, ib. note M.;
probably not the author of the 'Ec-
clesiastes,' v. 119 and note M.
SOLOMON, the eunuch, entrusted with
the command of Africa by Belisarius,
v. 122; destroys sixty thousand
Moors, ib.; besieges Mount Aurasius,
123; reannexes the province of
Mauritanian Sifiti to the Roman
empire, ib.; conspiracy against at
Carthage, 211; escapes to Sicily,
ib. ; defeated and slain by the Moon
at Tebeste, 214.
SOLOMON, knights of the templo of,
viii, 231 and note.
Song, Chinese dynasty of, viii. 10.
SonNa, or Mahometan oral law fixed
by Al Bochari, vi. 229 and note S.
SONNENWALD, sacred wood of the Suevi
in Lusatia, i. 392.
SONNITES, or orthodox Mahometans,
tenets of, vi. 272,
SOPATER, the philosopher and friend
of Constantine, executed for magic,
iii. 73 note.
SOPHIA, consort of Justin II., her bene-
volence to indigent citizens, v. 330;
her insulting message to Narses, 336 ;
disappointed of the hand of her pro-
tégé Tiberius II., 343; conspires
against him with Justinian, son of
SOPHIA, St., new cathedral of Constan-
tinople, designed by Anthemius, v.
73; description of, 74; converted
into a mosque, ib.; magnificence
and expense of, 76; repairs of, viii.
122 and note; transformed into a
mosque by Mahomet II., 176.
SOPHIAN, lieutenant of Moawiyah in
the siege of Constantinople, vi. 375
and note S.
SOPHRONIA, Roman matron, death of,
ii. 124, note.
SOPHRONIUS, patriarch of Jerusalem,
proposes to the besieging Saracens to
capitulate in the presence of the
caliph Omar, vi. 320.
SORTES SANCTORUM, a Christian mode
of divination, iv. 358, note.
Soul, immortality of the, ii. 168; not
believed by educated Romans, 169;
its pre-existence held by many of the
Fathers, ib., note; its immortality
not generally believed by the Greek
and Roman pagans, 170; believed
by the barbarians, ib.; not part of
the law of Moses, 171; its belief
began to prevail among the Jews
under the Asmonæan princes, 172;
material, of the universe, iii. 47,
and note; sleep of the, 430 and
note S.; of the prophets and martyrs,
place of the, 431, note; four opinions
concerning the origin of the soul, vi.
Sovou, or So-ou, the Chinese patriot,
iii. 308 and note.
SOZOPETRA, birthplace of the caliph
Motassem, taken and razed by Theo-
philus, vi. 413; site, ib. note 8.
SPADO, force of that term, ii. 386 note,
SPANIARDS, character of, in the 16th
century, iv. 109.
SPAIN, province described, i. 155 ; its
division by Augustus, ib. ; the Peru
and Mexico of the Old World, 296, .
invaded by the Franks, 391 ; its
prosperity during the first four cen-
turies, iv. 123; illustrious cities of,
124; invaded by the barbarians, ib. ;
calamities, ib.; how divided among
the barbarians, 125; Adolphus, king
of the Goths, marches against the
invaders, ib. ; reduced and restored
to Honorius by Wallia, 127 ; state
of, after the retreat of the Goths,
176; conquests of the Visigoths in,
287; legislative assemblies of, 384 ;
civil war in, after the death of
Theudes, v. 124; Justinian seizes
several cities, ib. ; Romans finally
expelled by Suintila, ib. note ; state
of under Charlemagne, vi. 174;
crown of usurped by Roderic, 354 ;
early history of deficient, ib. note ;
invaded by the Arabs, 355; best
works on the Saracen conquest of, ilm
note and note S.; conquered by Musa,
359 ; prosperity under the Arabs,
364 ; revenue, 366 and note; revolts
from the Abbassides, 393.
SPALATRO, ancient Salona, ii. 103.
SPANHEIM, his Orbis Romanus,' i.
170; character of his edition of
Julian's works, iii. 179.
SPARTA, population of, i. 371, note.
SPECTABILES, or Respectable, title of,
ii. 305; class of, defined, 313.
SPECTACLES, Roman, described, ii. 58,
SPELMAN, his version of the Anabasis,
SPICE country, i. 138, note.
SPOLETO, duchy of, inhabitants sur-
render themselves to the pope, vi.
SPORTULÆ, or SPORTELLE, baskets of
presents, described, iv. 80, note.
SPRENGER, Dr., character of his Life of
Mahorcet, vi. 238, note 8.
SQUIRRELS (or dormice--glires), eaten
by the Romans, iv. 81 and notes.
STADIUM, Olympic, compared with the
Roman circus, v. 48.
STATUES, multitude of at Rome, ii.
313 ; had a special guardian, ib. ;
account of those destroyed at Con-
stantinople by the Latins, vii. 317.
STATURE, Roman military, reduction
in the standard, ii. 323 and note.
STAURACIUS, emperor of Constanti-
nople, vi. 88.
STEPHANEPHOROS, an annual, not per-
petual, magistrate of the Chersonites,
ii. 360, note M.
STEPHEN, freedman of Domitilla, assas-
sinates Domitian, ii. 239.
STEPHEN, count of Blois, a leader in
the first crusade, character, vii. 197.
STEPHEN, count of Chartres, letter re-
specting Alexius Comnenus, vii.
207; deserts his standard, 219.
STEPHEN, son of Romanus I., Byzan-
tine emperor, vi. 102; conspires
with his brother Constantine against
his father, and is deposed and
STEPHEN III., pope, visits the court of
France to solicit aid against the
Lombards, vi. 154 ; extraordinary
letter to the French in the name
aud person of St. Peter, 155 and
note ; crowns Pepin king of France,
STEPHEN, St., the first martyr, miracu-
lous discovery of his body, iii. 429;
his blood liquefied at Naples, ib.,
note; prodigies performed by his
relics, 430 ; Gallic proverb respect-
ing, ib. note; couverts 540 Jews in
eight days, 431, note.
STEPHEN, the Savage, favourite of Jus-
tinian II., his expedition against the
Chersonites, vi. 79.
STILICHO, master-general of Theodo-
sius, iii. 400.
STILICHO, general of the West, his
origin and character, iv. 9; marries
Serena, niece of Theodosius, 10; his
military commands, ib. ; appointed
guardian of Arcadius and Honorius
by Theodosius, 11; marches towards
Constantinople, 12 and note S.;
transfers the command of his troops
to Gainas, ib. ; puts Rufinus to death,
ib.; declared an enemy of the state,
14 ; supplies Rome with corn from
Gaul, 17; opposes Alaric in Greece,
27 ; two expeditions, ib, note S.; de-
feats Alaric, 28; allows him to es-
cape, ib. ; reason of this, ib, note S.;
commanded by Arcadius to evacuate
Greece, 29; checks the advance of
the barbarians in Rhætia, 33; recalls
the legions from Gaul and Britain,
34 ; defeats Alaric at Pollentia, 36.
expels him from Italy, 39; triumph
at Rome, ib.; collects an army
against Radagaisus, 46; encloses and
defeats him, 48; puts him to death,
49; allows the remnant of his army
to invade Gaul, 50; concludes a
treaty with Alaric, 57; consults the
senate on the demands of that leader,
58 ; loses the confidence of Honorius,
59; massacre of his adherents at
Pavia, 60; hesitates at rebellion and
repairs to Ravenna, 61: seized and
beheaded by Count Heraclian, 62;
his family and memory persecuted,
ib.; reflections on his fate, ib.
STOIC PHILOSOPHY, when first taught at
Rome, v. 276, note.
Sroza, a private soldier, elected chief
by the revolted army of Justinian in
Africa, v. 211; character, ib.; death,
212 and note M.
STRASBURG, battie of between Julian
and the Alemanni, ii. 417.
STRATA, or Roman road, from Aurani-
tis to Babylonia, v. 188 and note.
STRATEGIUS employed by Constantins
to inquire into heresies, iii, 42 and
STRATOPEDARCH, Byzantine officer, vii.
STUKELY, Dr., his History of Carausius,
ii. 72, notes.
STURGEONS of the Don or Tanais, vii.
407, 408, note.
SUBURBICARIAN churches, iii. 39, note.
SUCCESSIANUS repulses the Goths, i.
SUEVI, their origin and renown, i, 392;
join Radagaisus in invading Italy,
iv. 45; overrun Gaul, 51 ; and Van-
dals occupy Gallicia, 125 ; converter
from Arianism, iv. 340, note.
SUFETULA captured by the Saracens,
SUGER, Abbé, minister of Louis VII.,
vii. 245 and note S.
SUICIDE, how regarded by the Romans,
v. 326 ; under the emperors a means
of escaping the legal penalties of
SULLECTE opens her gates to Belisarius,
v. 106; site, ib. note S.
SULPICIANUS treats for the empire, i.
SULPICIUB, Servius, perfected the
science of Roman law, v, 274; first
applied to it general theories and
Grecian philosophy, 275.
SULTAN, title of, when invented, vii.
147 and note S.
Sultans, Arabic titles of the, how to
be understood, vii. 254, note.
SUMIUM, province of, ii. 86, notes.
SUMNAT, pagoda of described, vii. 148;
idol of destroyed by Mahomed the
Gaznevide, 149; its secret treasures,
ib, and note M.
Sun, worship of introduced at Rome, i.
281; by the Persians, 335; Aure-
lian's temple of the, at Rome, ii. 29;
the, represented the Platonic Logos,
iii. 141; the tutelar deity of Julian,
SUNDAY (dies solis), Lord's day so
named by Constantine, iii. 3, note.
SUPERSTITION, origin of, ii. 15; con-
genial to the multitude, 206 ; incon-
stancy of, viii. 190.
SUPER-INDICTIONS, ii. 334.
SURENAS, Gibbon's mistake respecting
that name, iii. 194, note M.
SURNAMES, uncertain under the Lower
Empire, ii. 35, note ; increase of the
number of among the Romans, iv.
77, note; use of revived by the
Greeks, vi. 111.
Sus, river of Western Africa, vi. 348;
probably confounded by Gibbon with
of that name, ib.
Susa, taken by Constantine, ii. 128.
SWATOSLAUS, sovereign of Russia, cha-
racter and reign, vii. 89; subdues
the Bulgarians, 90; threatens Con-
stantinople, ib.; defeated by John
SWEDES, account of, i, 376.
SWISS CANTONS contrasted with the
Frank Confederacy, i. 391.
SWORD, Roman, described, i. 149; of
Mars, discovered by Attila, iv. 195.
SWORD of Aristotle, i. 338.
SWORD of God," surname of the Ma-
hometan general Caled, vi. 258.
SYAGRIUS, son of Ægidius, king of the
Franks and Burgundians, his domi-
nions, iv. 347 ; title, 348, note ; cha-
racter, 348 ; defeat by Clovis and
SYBILLA, sister of Baldwin IV. of Je-
risalem, crowns her second husband,
Guy of Lusignan, vii. 257.
Sylla, the dictator, his mildness as a
legislator, v. numbers
scribed by him, ib.
SYLLANUS, the consul, addresses the
senate in favour of the Gordians, i.
Sylvania, sister of Rufinus, her mo-
nastic virtues, learning, and fiithiness,
iii, 13, note.
SYLVANUS, general of Constantius in
Gaul, his usurpation and murder, ii.
SYLVERIUS, pore, reproached by Anto-
nina, wife of Belisarius, for treachery,
and banished, v. 144 and notes ;
starved to death by Justinian in the
isle of Palmaria, 216, note.
SYMMACHUS, his account of the pagar
conformity of Constantius, iii. 99;
his rank, genius, and pagan zeal,
409; petition to Valentinian in
favour of the goddess of Victory, ib. ;
firm and dexterous opposition of St.
Ambrose, 410; literary character of
the epistles of Symmachus, ib., note ;
made consul by Theodosius, 425.
SYMMACAUS, father-in-law of Boethius,
v. 28; executed by Theodoric, 33.
SYNESIUS, bishop of Ptolemais, illus-
trious pedigree of, iii. 36, note ;
avowed disqualification as a bishop,
ib., note; excommunicates the pre-
sident Andronicus, 37 ; his patriotic
advice to Arcadius, iv. 29; made
bishop of Ptolemais, ib. note.
SYNODs, provincial, instituted, ii. 193 ;
Gibbon corrected, ib. note G. ; pro-
duced the union of the church, 194 ;
yearly Christian, iii. 39; extraor-
dinary, only convened by the em-
peror, ib.; Nicene canons respecting,
SYRACUSE sacked by the Franks, ii.
48; taken by the Saracens, vi. 409.
SYRIA, province of, described, i. 160,
under the Mamalukes, 187, note;
campaign of Belisarius in, v. 100;
invaded by Chosroes Nushirvan, 190;
conquered by Chosroes II., 391 ; in-
vaded by the Saracens, vi. 300; de-
scribed, 315; final conquest of by
the Saracens, 325; invaded by Nice-
phorus Phocas and Zimisces, 426 ;
Seljukian dynasty of, vii. 167 ; in-
vaded by Timour, viii. 51.
SYRIAC tongue, cultivation of and dia-
lects, vi. 45, note.
SYRIAN and Cilician gates, v. 399, note.
SYRIANS, or Oriental Christians, state TAIFALE, Gothic tribe allied with the
of under the kingdom of Jerusalem, Romans, ii. 403 ; join the Visigoths,
iii. 330; their ethnology, ib. note S.;
SYBIANUS, duke of Egypt, expels Atha infamous manners, 331.
nasius from Alexandria, iii. 82. Tartsong, emperor of China, his vir-
SYROPULUS, SYLVESTER, character of tues, vi. 298; assists Yezdegerd, the
his History of the false union of the fugitive emperor of Persia, ib.
Greek and Latin churches, viii. 96 Taiz, town of, i. 340, note.
Talent, the, varieties of, i. 296, note;
Gibbon corrected, ib. note S.
TALMUD, hypothesis respecting the, ii.
TAMERLANE, v. Timour.
TABARI, his biography of Mahomet, vi. TANCRED, king of Sicily, defends Apulia
238, note S. ; account of, 290, note. against the Germans, vii. 144.
TABENNE, or trumpet of the Egyptian TANCRED DE HAUTEVILLE, his family,
monks, iii. 85.
TABENNE, island of the Nile, residence TANCRED, cousin of Bohemond, ac-
of Pachomius, iv. 307.
companies him in the first crusade,
Tabies, or “Successors ” of the Com vii. 199 ; pedigree, ib. note; reluc-
panions of Mahomet, vi. 237, note S. tant submission to the Greek em-
Table, emerald, in the Gothic treasury peror, 207; seizes Tarsus, 214;
in Spain, iv. 116.
worsted by Baldwin, 215.
Tables, or Trictrac, Roman game of, Tanjou, rustic chief of the Huns, iïi.
described, iv. 81 and note.
307 ; how received in the capital of
Tables, astronomical, of the Arabians, China, 311.
TAPROBANA (Ceylon), iii. 180, note;
Tabuc, Mahomet's expedition of, vi. commerce of, v. 60 and note.
TaRachus, sufferings of, ü, 282, note.
TACITURNITY, English, iv. 398. TARANTULA, effects of its bite, vii. 118,
Tacitus the historian, his account of note.
the principles of the Stoics, i. 216, TARANTUS, nickname of Caracalla, i.
note; object of his episodes, 330 ; 264, note.
his Germania, 349 ; how faulty, 350, TARASIUS, secretary of the empress
note S.; account of the revolt of Irene, made patriarch of Constanti-
Civilis, 368, note ; works how pre nople, vi. 163; frames the decrees of
served, ii. 36, note ; his account of the second council of Nice, 164.
the Christians at Rome, 210; of TARGETIU8, ambassador of the Avars,
the persecution of the Christians his address to Justin II., v. 331.
under Nero, 233; passage respecting, Tarif, in Spain, name whence derived,
examined, ib., note; remarks on his vi. 355.
narrative, 234 ; account of his works, TARIK, lieutenant of Musa, lands at
and gives name to Gibraltar, vi. 356;
Tacirus the senator, character, ii. 35; defeats Roderic the Goth at Xeres,
elected emperor by the senate, 36 ; 357; takes Toledo, 358; term of
administration, 37; election con his conquests in Spain, 359 ; im-
firmed by the army, 38; repulses prisoned and scourged by Musa,
the Alani, 39; dies at Tyana, 40; 361.
prophecy respecting his family, 41 TARKHAN, prince of Fargana, entertains
Jezdegerd, king of Persia, vi. 298.
“Tactics,' work of the emperors Leo and TARQUIN, his punishment of suicide, v.
Constantine Porphyrogenitus, vii. 3. 326, note.
TADMOR, v. Palmyra.
TARRAGONA, Roman province of, in
TAGINA, battle of between Narses and Spain, i. 155.
Totila, v. 233; site of, ib, note. TARRAGONA, city of, sacked by the
TAHERITES, Saracen dynasty of, found Franks, i. 392
ed in Chorasap by Taher, vi. 421. TARSUS, in Cilicia, Julian's interment to