BOOK have contributed towards reconciling to the church sucfi —as. from indignation at these enormities, had abandoned WJ« its communion. But this excellent pontiff W3S only shewn to the church, and immediately snatched away. The Hit dwh. confinement in the conclave had impaired his health, and the fatigue of tedious ceremonies upon his accession, together with too intense and anxious application of mind to the schemes of improvement which he meditated, exhausted so entirely the vigour of his feeble constitution, that he sickened on the twelfth, and died oh the twentieth day after his election r. The riec- tne rermements 'n artifice and intrigue peculiar to

tinn rf conclaves were displayed in that which was held for Paul iv. electing a successor to Marcellus; the cardinals of the imperial and French factions labouring, with equal ardour, to gain the necessary number of suffrages for one of their own party. But, after a struggle of no long duration, though conducted with all the warmth and eagerness natural to men contending for so great an object, May S3, they united in choosing John Peter Caraffa, the ddest member of the sacred college, and the son of Count Montorio, a nobleman of an illustrious family in the kingdom of Naples. The address and influence of Cardinal Farnese, who favoured his pretensions, CaraffVs own merit, and perhaps his great age, which soothed all the disap. pointed candidates with the near prospect of a new vacancy, concurred in bringing about this speedy union of suffrages. In order to testify his respect for the memory of Paul III. by whom he had been created cardinal, as well as his gratitude to the family of Farnese, he assumed the name of Paul IV. „. . The choice of a prelate of such a singular character,

and dia- and who had long held a course extremely different from ratter. which usually led to the dignity now conferred upon

him, filled the Italians, who had nearest access to observe his manners and deportment, with astonishment, and kept them in suspense and solicitude with regard to his future r Thwan. 5t0. F. Paul, 8CJ. Onupli. Panviu. 321, &c.

conduct. Paul, though born in a rank of life which, B°^K without any other merit, might have secured to him the highest ecclesiastical preferments, had, from his early 1SS5' years, applied to study with all the assiduity of a man who had nothing but his personal attainments to render him conspicuous. By means of this he not only acquired profound skill in scholastic theology, but added to that a considerable knowledge of the learned languages and of polite literature, the study of which had been lately revived in Italy, and was pursued at this time with great ardour. His mind, however, naturally gloomy and severe, was more formed to imbibe the sour spirit of the former, than to receive any tincture of elegance or liberality of sentiment from the latter; so that he acquired rather the qualities and passions of a recluse ecclesiastic, than the talents necessary for the conduct of great affairs. Accordingly, when he entered into orders, although several rich benefices were bestowed upon him, and he was early employed as nuncio in different courts, he soon became disgusted with that course of life, and languished to be in a situation more suited to his taste and temper. With this view, he resigned, at once all his ecclesiastical preferments; and having instituted an order of regular priests, whom he denominated Theatines, from the name of the archbishopric which he had held, he associated himself as a member of their fraternity, conformed to all the rigorous rules to which he had subjected them, and preferred the solitude of a monastic life, with the honour of being the founder of a new order, to all the great objects which the court of Rome presented to his ambition.

Ia this retreat he remaiued for many years, until Paul III. induced by the fame of his sanctity and knowledge, called him to Home, in order to consult with him concerning the measures which might be most proper and effectual for suppressing heresy, and re-establishing.the ancient authority of the church. Having thus allured him from his solitude, the pope, partly by his entreaties, B£j*K and partly by his authority, prevailed on him to accept

—of a cardinal's hat, to reassume the benefices which he

lSSS' had resigned, and to return again into the usual path of ecclesiastical ambition, which he seemed to have relinquished. But, during two successive pontificates, under the first of which the court of Rome was the most artful and interested, and under the second the most dissolute, of any in Europe, Caraffa retained his monastic austerity. He was an avowed and bitter enemy not only of all innovation in opinion, but of every irregularity in practice; he was the chief instrument in establishing the formidable and odious tribunal of the inquisition in the papal territories; he appeared a violent advocate on all occasions for the jurisdiction and discipline of the church, and a severe censurer of every measure which seemed to flow from motives of policy or interest, rather than from zeal for the honour of the ecclesiastical order and the dignity of the holy see. Under a prelate of such a character, the Roman courtiers expected a severe and violent pontificate, during which the principles of sound policy would be sacrificed to the narrow prejudices of priestly zeal; while the people of Rome were apprehensive of seeing the sordid and forbidding rigour of monastic manners substituted in place of the magnificence to which they had long been accustomed in the papal court. These apprehensions Paul was extremely solicitous to remove. The first At his first entrance upon the administration, he laid "dminiatra- aside tllat austerity which had hitherto distinguished his tion. person and family; and when the master of his household inquired in what manner he would choose to live, he haughtily replied, ' as becomes a great prince.' He ordered the ceremony of his coronation to be conducted with more than usual pomp, and endeavoured to render himself popular by several acts of liberality and indulgence towards the inhabitants of Rome q.

His natural severity of temper, however, would have soon returned upon him, and would have justified the con» riatina, p. 327. Caetaldo Vita di Paolo IV. Hom. 1615, p. 7».

jectures of the courtiers, as well as the fears of the people, B*9K if he had not, immediately alter his election, called to Home two of his nephews, the sons of his brother the count TneVwc" of Montorio. The eldest he promoted to be governor ofo) h 9 3tRome. The youngest, who had hitherto served asasol-,,, i,„ncdier of fortune in the armies of Spain or France, and whose PhtW~ disposition as well as manners were still more foreign from the clerical character than his profession, he created a cardinal, and appointed him legate of Bologna, the second office in power and dignity which a pope can bestow. These marks of favour, no less sudden than extravagant, he accompanied with the most unbounded confidence and attachment; and, forgetting all his former severe maxims, he seemed to have no other object than the aggrandizing of his nephews. Their ambition, unfortunately for Paul, n c ram~ was too aspiring to be satisfied with any moderate acqui-| ivjctn. sition. They had seen the family of Medici raised, by the interest of the popes of that hoHse, to supreme power in Tuscany. Paul III. had, by his abilities and address, secured the duchies of Parma and Placentia to the family of Farnese. They aimed at some establishment for themselves, no less considerable and independent; and as they could not expect that the pope would carry his indulgence towards them so far as to secularize any part of the patrimony of the church, they had no prospect of attaining what they wished, but by dismembering the imperial dominions in Italy, in hopes of seizing some portion of them. This alone they would have deemed a sufficient reason for sowing the seeds of discoi d between their uncle and the emperor.

But Cardinal CarafTa iiad, besides, private reasons which Rei,on, 0f filled him with hatred and enmity to the emperor. While'1'r,r

J 1 jjusr with

he served in the Spanish troops, he had not received such the emp;maiks of honour and distinction as he thought due to hisrur" birth and merit. Disgusted with this ill usage, he had abruptly quitted the imperial service; and entering into that of France, he had not only met with such n reception as soothed his vanity, and attached him to the French in

VOI.. VI. 5 H

BOOK terest, but, by contracting an intimate friendship with gHw»»; who commanded the French army in Tuscany, he had imbibed a mortal antipathy to the emperor, as the great enemy to the liberty and independence of the Italian states. Nor was the pope himself indisposed to receive impressions unfavourable to the emperor. The opposition given to his election by the cardinals of the imperial faction, left in his mind deep resentment, which was heightened by the remembrance of ancient injuries from Charles or his ministers. They en- Of this his nephews took advantage, and employed vaallenat'e the r'0U8 devices in order to exasperate him beyond a possipope from bility of reconciliation. They aggravated every circumror.empC stance which could be deemed any indication of the emperor's dissatisfaction with his promotion; they read to him an intercepted letter, in which Charles taxed the cardinals of his party with negligence or incapacity, in not having defeated Paul's election; they pretended at one time to have discovered a conspiracy formed by the imperial minister and Cosmo di Medici against the pope's life; they alarmed him, at another, with accounts of a plot for assassinating themselves. By these artifices, they kept his mind, which was naturally violent, and become suspicious from old age, in such perpetual agitation, as precipitated him into measures which otherwise he would have been the first person to condemn *. He seized some of the cardinals who were most attached to the emperor, and confined them in the castle of St Angelo; he persecuted the Colonnas and other Roman barons, the ancient retainers to the imperial faction, with the utmost severity; and, discovering on all occasions his distrust, fear, or hatred of the emperor, he began at last to court the friendship of the French king, and seemed willing to throw himself absolutely upon him for support and protection, induce him This was the very point to which his nephews wished the'kingof *° bring him, as most favourable to their ambitious schemes; France.

'Ripamontii Hist. Patric, lib. iii, 1146, ap. Grsv. Th«j. vol. ii. Mem. <U Ribier, ii, 615. Adrian! lstor. i, 90S.,

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