Timasios, master-general, ruined and

banished by Eutropius, iv. 141 ;

various accounts of his death, 142.
Timavus, Virgil's description of the, i.

319, note.
Time without bounds, doctrine of,

when first introduced into the Per-

sian religion, i. 334, note S.
Timothy the Cat, monk, instigates the

murder of Protesius and becomes

patriarch of Alexandria, vi. 30.
TIMOTHY, St., his body transported to

Constantinople, iii. 427.
Timoun or Tamerlane, massacres of,

iv. 202 and note; histories of, viii.
39 and note M. ; pedigree, 40; origin
and meaning of his corrupted name
of Tamerlane, ibi note and note M.;
birth and first adventures, 41; as-
cends the throne of Zagatai, 43; con-
quest of Persia, ib.; of Turkestan,
44; of Kipzak, Russia, &c., 45; of
Hindostan, 46 ; war against Bajazet,
48; letter to that sultan, 49 and
note M. ; invades Syria, 51; takes
and sacks Aleppo, ib.; interview with
the cadhis of, 52; seizes and burns
Damascus, 53; burns Aleppo, ib.;
invades Anatolia, 54 ; gains the battle
of Angora, ib.; treatment of the
captive Bajazet, 56 ; testimonies as
to its harshness, 57, 89.; term of his
conquests, 60; triumphal return to
Samarcand, 62; march to China and
death, 63; character and merits, ib.;

character of his ‘Institutions,' 65.
Tingi, or Tangier, conquered by the

Saracens, vi. 347.
Tipasa, city of, Catholic miracle at

during the persecution of Hunneric,
iv. 336; modern illustration of, 337,

note S.
TIRIDATES, son of Chosroes, king of

Armenia, escapes from the Persians,
i. 403; his Roman education, i.
78; saves the life of Licinius, 79 ;
restored to the throne of Armenia
by Diocletian, ib.; bodily strength,
ib, note ; invades Assyria, 81 ; driven
from Armenia by Narses, 82 ; extra-
ordinary escape, 83; again restored,
88; becomes a Christian, 368 ; iii. 24,
note M.; death, ii. 363; his heir

exiled, ib.
TTTLES, imperial, under Diocletian, ii.

93; of honour under the empire,
304, sq.

Titus invested with in perial power by

his father, i. 212; administration,

TOBOLSKOI, Mongol dynasty at, viii. 16,

and note M.
Togrul Beg, grandson of Seljuk, elected

king of the Turkmans, vii. 153;
character and reign, 154 ; expels the
Gaznevides from Persia, ib. ; a devout
Mahometan, 155; delivers Cayen,
caliph of Bagdad, ib.; his humility
before the caliph and investiture as
temporal lieutenant, 156 and note S.;
affianced to Cayen's daughter, 156

and 157, note S.; death, 157.
TOLBIAC, near Cologne, the Alemanni

defeated at by Clovis, iv. 349.
TOLEDO, Council of under Recared, de

clares the procession of the Holy
Ghost from the Son as well as from
the Father, iv. 340; taken by the
Arabs under Tarik, vi. 358; Nonius'

description of, ib. note.
TOLERATION, religious, happy effects of,

i. 165 ; exceptions to, 166, note, 169;
Galerius' edict of, ü. 278; Maximin's,

281, note.
TOLLIUS, his literary character, iii. 14,

Tongues, gift of, ii. 178 and note M.
Tosgouses and Samoiedes, üi. 306.
Tonsure, circular, what typified by the,

vi. 302, note.
Topa (masters of the earth), name as-

sumed by the Sienpi, iv. 43; invade

and settle in the north of China, ib.
TOPIRUS sacked by the Slavonians, v.

TURISMOND, son of Theodoric, king of

the Visigoths, his valour at the battle
of Châlons, iv. 235, 237, 238; pro-
claimed king on the death of his
father, 238 ; murdered by his brother

Theodoric, 260.
TORTURE applied only to slares by the

Romans, ii. 331; extended to citizens
in cases of treason under Constantine,

Totila elected to the Gothic throne oi

Italy, v. 215; his real name was
Badvila, ib. note S.; defeats the
Romans at Faenza, 216; reduces
southern Italy, ib.; invests Rome,
ib. ; his virtues, 217 ; defences of the
Tiber, 221 ; takes Rome, 222; his
design to destroy the city averted by
the remonstrance of Belisarius, 223;

occupies one of the camps of Han-
nibal on Mount Garganus, ib.; fails
in the attempt to recover Rome from
Belisarius, 224; admitted, after his
departure, by the treachery of the
Isaurians, 227; ravages Sicily, re-
duces Sardinia and Corsica, and
harasses the coasts of Greece, 228;
his navy destroyed, 230; defeated at
Tagina by Narses, 234; slain by

Asbad, the Gepid, ib. and note M.
Toucusa, brother of the Sultan Malek

Shah, subdues Syria and Palestine,

vii. 176.
TOULOUSE, the residence of the Gothic

kings, iv. 128.
TOULUNIDES, Saracen dynasty of, vi.

Toulux, descendant of Moko, conquers

Tartary, iv.43; vanquishes the Huns,
44; assumes the title of Khan or

Cagan, ib.
TOURAN Shaw, sultan of Egypt, mur-

dered by his Mamalukes, vii, 273.
TOURNAMENTS contrasted with the

Olympic games, vii. 200.
Tours, battle of between Charles Martel

and the Saracens, vi. 389.
TOWERS, built by the nobles in Rome

and other Italian cities, viii. 278.
Towns, walled, origin of, vii. 75.
ToXANDRIA, in Brabant, occupied by the

Franks, ii. 412; extent of, ib. note.
Toxotius, husband of Paula, lineage

of, iv. 71.
TRADE, foreign, of the Romans, i. 191.
TRADITORS, or Christians who deli-

vered up the Scriptures, i. 273.
TRAJAN, emperor, conqners Dacia, i.

142; emulates Alexander, ib.; expe-
ditions in the East, ib.; the only
emperor that entered the Persian
gulf, 143 ; encouraged military know-
ledge, 148 ; forum and pillar, 184 ;
his adoption by Nerva, 213, cha-
racter, ib.; refuses the censorship,
383, note; his arch stripped by Con-
stantine, ii. 134; his rescript regard-
ing the Christians, 241; deemed by
Tertullian a relaxation of the ancient
penal laws, ib, note ; further remarks
ou, 245, notes; his bridge over the

Danube, v.78 and note.
TRAJAN, Count, assassinates Para, king

of Armenia, iii. 281.
T3AJAN and Profuturus, Valens' gene-

rals against the Goths, iii. 328.

TBANI, siege of by Count Roger, vil

TRANSMIGRATION of souls, whether

believed by the ancient Germans,

i. 366 and note.
TRANSOXIANA conquered by the Arabs,

vi. 299.
TRANSUBSTANTIATION, establishment of

that doctrine, vii. 268.
TREASON, cruel and unjust law of

Arcadius against, iv. 142; inserted
in the codes of Theodosius and Jus-

tinian, 144.
TREBATIUS, his opinion of the equality

of crimes, v. 276.
TREBELLIANUS, rebellion of in Isauria,

i. 414.
TREBIZOND taken by the Goths, i. 397;

sovereignty of usurped by the de-
scendants of Andronicus Comnenus,
vi. 131 ; escapes subjection to the
Turks, vii. 169 ; dukedom and em-
pire of, 327 and note S. ; yielded to
the Turks by David, the last em-

peror, viii. 181, 182, note M.
TRÈVES, Gallienus at, i. 391 ; Sarma-

tians settled at, ii. 75, notes; revolts

from Magnentius, 384.
TRIARIAN Goths, v. 5, note 6.
TRIBIGILD, the Ostrogoth, revolt of in

Phrygia, iv. 144 ; demands the head
of Eutropius, 146; joined by Gainas,

TRIBONIAN, minister of Justinian, ar-

raigned by the people, v. 53 ; his
character and various erudition, 281 ;
employed by Justinian, with nine
others, to compile his Code, 282;
employed, with seventeen others, to
compile the Digest or Pandects, 283;
his method, 284; Latinity, ib.,

TRIBUNES, jurisdiction of the, i, 203 ;

situation of under the empire, 204

and note S.
TRIBUNITIÀ POTESTAS of the emperors,

i. 203, note S.
TRIBUTUM, v. Property-tax.
TRIGETIUS, his embassy to Attila, iv.

TRINITY, controversy respecting the, its

origin and progress, iii. 45 ; Platonio
doctrine of, 49; term when first
used, ib. note; controversy con-
cerning revived at Alexandria, 53 ;
three hypotheses, 54, sq.; explans.
tion of Boethius, 55, note; decision

of the Council of Nice, 56; equal
deity of the Third Person established
by the Council of Constantinople,
370; interpolated text in St. John

respecting, iv. 335 and notes.
TRIPOD, dedicated at Delphi after the

defeat of Xerxes, how preserved, ii.

298 and note.
TRIPOLI, federation of (Oca, Leptis, and

Sabrata), its miserable condition
under Romanus, iii. 272; its com-
plaints to Valentinian frustrated by
the arts of Court Romanus, ib. ; its

president executed, 273.
TRIPOLI, city, besieged by the Saracens

under Abdallah, vi. 343.
TRISAGION, hymn, religious war con-

cerning, vi. 32.
TRITHEISM of the Gregories, Cyril,

&c., iii. 55.
IRITHEISTS, at the Council of Nice,

join the Sabellians against the Arians,

iii. 57.
TRIUMPH, Diocletian's, the last cele-

brated at Rome, ii. 89.
TROWSERS, a Gallic fashion, ii. 28,

TROY, site of, ii. 291 and note; plain

before at first designed by Constan-

tine for the site of his new city, 292.
I'RUCE of God (Treuga Dei), probable

origin of, i. 365 ; when and where

invented, vii. 182, note.
Troli, name applied to the Goths by

the Vandals of Spain, iv, 127, note.
TRUMPET, Roman, v. 142 note.
TSEPHO, grandson of Esau, legend re-

specting, ii, 223, note.
TUDELA, Benjamin of, his Travels,

whether genuine, vii. 14 and note

TUNGUSCANS described, iii. 302, note S.
Tunis besieged by Louis IX., viii. 274.
TURCILINGI, probable situation of the,

iv. 295, note S.
TURIN, battle of between Constantine

and the lieutenants of Maxentius, ii.

TURISUND, king of the Gepidæ, enter-

tains Alboin, the slayer of his son,

v. 332.
TURKESTAN conquered by Timour, viii.

TURKS, tribes of, described, iii. 303,

note S.; origin and monarchy of the,
v. 172; Turks of Mount Altai and
etymology of their name, ib. note 8.;

their religion and laws, 174 ; con•
quests and territorial limits, 175;
their embassy to Justin II., 178 and
note; alliance with the Romans,
179; offensive against the Persians,
180 their rigorous punishments,
vii. 73 and note; or Turkmans, their
manners and emigrations, 151 ; de-
feat Massoud the Gaznevide at Zen-
decan, and establish the Seljukian
dynasty in Persia, 153; converted to
Mahometanism, 154 ; invade the
Roman empire, 157 ; Gelalæan æra
of, 166; division of the Seljukian
empire, 167; conquer Asia Minor,
168; take Jerusalem, 176 ; oppress
the pilgrims, 177; remove their seat
of government from Nice to Iconium,
239 ; conquer Egypt, 253; Otto-
man, introduced into Europe by
John Cantacuzene, 400, 403; extent
of their race, viii. 2, note S.; inquiry
as to their oldest historical writers,
22 and note M.; first passage into
Europe, 25 ; fleet, ib.; establishment
in Europe, 27 and note M. ; remark-
able delicacy respecting their women,
50 and notes; act with the Christians
against Timour, 60; reason of their
abstaining from legitimate marriage,
59; extension of their name, 73;
their education and discipline, ib. sq. ;

take Constantinople, 171.
TURPILIO, general of Honorius, iv. 67.
TURPIN, archbishop of Rheims, spurious

romance of approved by pope Cal-
lixtus II., vii. 181 and note; by

whom and when composed, ib.
TUSCULUM, battle of between the Rom

mans and Frederick Barbarossa, visi,

TWELVE TABLES, account of the laws

of the, v. 261; on what material
written, ib, and note S.; whether
threy included laws imported from
Greece, ib. notes W. M. and S.; how
far they resemble those of Solon, 262
and note ; esteem of the Romans for,
263; best work on, ib. note S.; se-

verity of their punishments, 316.
TYANA, besieged by Aurelian, ii. 22.
TYPE of Constans, imposing the law of

religious silence, vi. 42.
TYRANT, ancient meaning of that term,

i. 409.
TYRANTS, Roman, their contempt of

decency, i. 283; thirty, 408; their


real number, 409; lists of, ib. notes UPSAL, temple of, i. 360, note; de
M. and S. ; their merits, 410; ob scribed, 376; destroyed by Ingo, ib.
scure birth, ib.; rebellion how caused, note.
,411 ; violent deaths, ib. ; fatal con URAIAS, nephew of Vitiges, declines

sequences of their usurpations, 412. the command of the Goths in favour
TYRE, council of, iii. 72; degrades and of Hildibald, v. 215; put to death

exiles Athanasius, 73; besieged by by him, ib.
Saladin, vii, 260.

URBAN II., pope, encourages the de-
TYTHES instituted both by Zoroaster sign of Peter the Hermit to deliver

and by Moses, i. 337, note: esta Jerusalem, vii. 179; summons a
blished in the Christian church by council at Placentia, 180; anathe-
Charlemagne, vi. 172.

matises Philip I. of France, 181;
TZAKONES, a people of the ancient La convenes the council of Clermont,

conia, their language and descent, 182; declines to lead the crusade,
vii. 10, note 8.

183; his speech, ib. and note S. ;
TZETZES originated the story of the his secret motives for the crusades,
beggary of Belisarius, v. 246.

205, note M.
URBAN IV., pope, publishes a crusade

against the schismatic Greeks, vii.


URBAN V., pope, his haughty reception
UBII of Cologne, i. 355, note.

of the emperor John Palæologus,
UGRI, or Hungarians, vii. 72 and note viii. 82; his temporary return to

S.; not to be confounded with the Rome from Avignon, 249.
Igours, ib.

URBAN VI., pope, disputed election of,
Ugria or Jugoria, original seat of the viii. 251; excommunicated by the
Hungarians, vii. 71, note S.

cardinals as an apostate and anti-
UGRIANS, Finnish or Tschudish de christ, ib.
scribed, iii, 303, note S.

URSACIUS, bishop of Illyricum, intro-
UKRAINE described, i. 381.

duces Arianism into the Latin
ULDIN, king of the Huns, intercepts church, iii. 62 ; question of his re-

and slays Gainas, iv. 150 ; compelled tractation, 76, note, and 77, note M.
to recross the Danube, 160.

URBACIUS, master of the offices, occa-
ULPAILAS, apostle of the Goths, iv. sions a revolt of the Alemanni, iii.

322 ; translates the Scriptures, ib. ; 257.
his country, ib. note; invents the URSEL of Baliol commands the Franks
Mæso-Gothic alphabet, 323 and note and Normans in the service of Ro-
M.; missions to Constantinople, ib.; manus Diogenes, vii. 160 and note.

taught the Arian doctrine, 327. ! URSICINUS joins and betrays Sylvanus
ULPIAN, head of Mamæa's council, i. in Gaul, ii. 399; defends the East

286; constant guest of Al. Severus, against Sapor, 410; removed by the
288 ; murdered by the prætorians, eunuchs, ib. ; sent back to act under
290; Gibbon corrected respecting Sabinian, 411; punished for the
this fact, ib. note W.; his work on latter's misconduct, ib.
the duties of a proconsul, ii. 316, URSINI, Roman family, history of, viii.
note; his authority as a jurist, v. 223; Guelphs, ib.; hereditary feuds

with the Colonna family, ib.
UMBRIANS, i. 157.

URSINUS, his bloody contest with Da-
UMRA, species of Mahometan pilgrim masus for the see of Rome, iii. 255 ;
age, vi. 232, note S.

banished, 256.
UNITARIANS, Mahometans so called, vi. URSULA, St., and train of virgins, legend

of, iii. 360, note.
UNIVERSAL HISTORY, modern, character URSULUS, the treasurer, unjustly exe-

of the history of the caliphs, vi. 284, cuted by Julian, iii, 127.

USURY, how practised by the Roman
UNIVERSITIES, European, in the middle nobles, iv. 75 and note (v. Interest
ages, viii. 107 and note.

of money).

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VABALATHUS (or Balbatus) son of

Zenobia, ii, 22, note S.
VADOMAIR, a prince of the Alemanni,

entrapped and made prisoner by
Julian, ii, 111; enters the Roman
service, ib. note ; employed by Valens

in the East, 279.
VALARSACES, æra of, ii. 79, note; first

of the Arsacides, ib. ; when appointed

king of Armenia, iv, 170, note.
VALDRADA, wife or concubine of Lo-

thaire II., vii. 25.
VALENs, general of the Illyrian fron-

tier, made Cæsar by Licinius, ii.

140; put to death, 141.
VALENs associated in the empire by his

brother Valentinian I., iii. 236 ; his
mediocrity and attachment to Valen-
tinian, ib. ; appointed to the empire
of the East, 237; abject fear at the
revolt of Procopius, 241; character
contrasted with that of Valentinian,
245 ; fiscal administration, 248; de-
clares for the Arians, 250; baptism,
ib.; ecclesiastical government, ib.;
just idea of his persecution, 251;
transactions with archbishop Basil,
252; edict against the monks, ib.;
assists Sauromaces, king of the Ibe-
rians, 279; treacherous behaviour
towards Para, son of that monarch,
280, 899.; negociations and war with
the Goths, 285, sg.; residence at An-
tioch, 319; grants the Visigoths, after
their overthrow by the Huns, a
settlement in Thrace, 320; forbids
the Ostrogoths to pass the Danube,
322; marches against the rebellious
Visigoths, 328; defeated by Fritigern

at Hadrianople, 336 ; death, ib.
VALENs, bishop of Illyricum, introduces

Arianism into the Latin Church, iii.

VALENs, Arian bishop of Mursa, artful

conduct towards Constantius II., iii.
66 ; question of his retractation, 76,
note, and 77, note M.

VALENTIA, new province in Britain

settled by Theodosius, iii. 271.
VALENTIA, city of, destroyed by Adol-

phus, iv. 123.
VALENTIN, general, espouses the cause

of the children of Constantine III.,

vi. 73.
VALENTINIAN I. elected Emperor, ii.

233; origin and character, ib. and
note M. ; genealogical table, ib., note
S.; intrepid address to the troops,
235; associates his brother Valens,
236; reforms the administration, ib. ;
divides the empire into East and
West, 237 ; assigns the East to Va-
lens, ib. ; resides at Milan, ib.;
punishes the crime of magic, 242;
his character contrasted with that of
Valens, 245; his cruelty, 246; his
favourite bears, ib. ; care for the
public interest, 247; establishes
schools at Rome, Constantinople, &c.,
ib. ; institutes defensors or tribunes,
248 ; his universal religious tolera-
tion, 249; edict against clerical ava-
rice, 253; war with the Alemanni,
257 ; punishes the Batavians for
losing their standard, ib.; invades
Germany, 259; defeats the Ale-
manni at Mount Solicinium, 260;
exhibits triumphal games at Trèves,
ib. ; fortifies the Rhine, ib. ; and
Neckar, ib. note M.; his mechanical
skill, 261 and note; deceives the
Burgundians, 262; gains over Ma-
crianus, prince of the Alemanni, ib.;
despatches Palladius to inquire into
the state of Africa, 272; condemns
the president of Tripoli and others to
death, 273 ; war with the Quadi anıl
Sarmatians, 287; marches to Sir-
mium, 289; interview with a Cynic,
ib. ; inroad on the Quadi, ib. ; winters
at Bregetio, 290; singular death, ib. ;
defended from the charge of poly-

gamy, ib. sq.
VALENTINIAN II., son of Valentinian

and Justina, saluted emperor by the
soldiers, iii. 292; after the death of
Gratian, confirmed in the sovereignty
of Italy, Africa, and Western Illyri-
cum, 362; expelled by Maximus,
382 ; restored by Theodosius, 396;
who adds the countries beyond the
Aips, ib.; character of Valentinian,

ib.; murdered by Arbogastes, 397.
VALENTINIAN III., an infant, installed

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