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ASTRONOMICAL CALCULATIONs.

Prepared by Berlin H. Wright, Penn Yan, N. Y., and Lake Helen, Fla.

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JEWISH (CALEN DAR. Yr. 5666–7, The year 5606 is the fourth of the 299th cycle of 19 years. 5666–1906. 5666—1906, d Fast of Tebet............Sunday, Jan. Joast of Ay. .............Tuesday, July 4il; Rosh–Chodesh . . . . . . . . . ;Saturday, Jao #|Rosh-Chodesh.......Tues, wed. Aug. 31–32|| Rosh-Chodesh...Sunday, Monday. Feb. 25–26 5667–1906. Fast of Esther. ......Saturday, March 10*|First Day of New Year, . Thursday, Sept 20. Purim. . . . . . . Sunday, Monday, March 11–12|Fast of Gedallah........Saturday, 'se * { Rosh—Chodesh . . . . . . . . . . Tuesday. March, oom-Kippoor. ...........Saturday, Śēpt. oil First Day of Passover.; Tuesday, April 19 First, Day of Tabernacles....Thurs. Set, "...] Rosh-Chodesh... Wed. Thurs..., April 25–28. Hoshhannah-Rabbah...wednesday, 'Oct. 16|| Lag-B' Omer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sunday, May 13|Sh' mini-Atseres. . . . . . . . . Thursday, Öct. iii. 33d day of Omer. -- Simebas–Torah...... . . . . . . . Friday Öct. 13|| Rosh—Chodesh . . . . . . . . . .; Friday, May 2: Rosh-Chodesh. . . . . . . . Fri., §at., Oct. Yo-2.5| First Day of Pentecost. . Wednesday, May 30|Rosh-Chödesh. . . . . . . . . ....Sunday. Now soli Rosh-Chodesh. . . . . . . Sat., Sun... June 23–24|First Day of Chanukah..... wed'. See, 12|| | Fast 9. Tammuz. . . . . . . . .Tuesday, July to Rosh-Chodesh......Mon., Tues. Sec. so ig | Rosh-Chodesh. . . . . . . . . . . . ; Monday, July 23/Fast of Tebet....... . . . . Thursday. Dec. 27 : - Rosh-Chodesh, Wednesday, Jan, 16, 1907. o *Observed on the previous Thursday. {Observed Šeptember 23.

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# THATE CALCULATIONS AND rxeoloss OF SIGNS AND ABBREWHA- |

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4.

All the calculations except the Moon's Phases, Tides and seasons arā in mean: (See table for its conversion into Standard Time.) Setting is for the upper limb and corrected for refraelion.

local time,

follows:

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: Moon lowest; | Node; £3, Descending Node.

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, Mars; 21,
Mool

Per.—Perhelion, or nearest to Sun; opposed to Planets,
Aph.—Aphelion, or furthest from Sun; applied to Planets.

Per.—Perigee, or nearest to Earth; applied to the Moon,
So-Southing, or Merilian Passage.

STANDARD THME TABLE.

Jupite generally;

To obtain standard time, add or subtract the figures given to local time.

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The Sun’s rising and The signs used are as || conjunction or near approach, at which time a line from the North | Star through one will also pass through the other; 8, opposition or 180° from the Sun, } at which time the Superior Planets are the brightest; [], quadrature or 90° from the ; so, Sun; GP, Earth ; ; , Mercury; $3, Verus; Moon highest; 3.

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Saturn ;

Standard Correc- Standard (JOrrecCity. | Of tion, | • City. tion. § Division. Minutes, w - Division. | Minutes,

# Albany, N. §:::::::: Eastern — 5 Little Rock, Ark. . . . . Central -# 9 # Austin, Texas. . . . . . . . . Central + 33 Louisville, Ky. . . . . . . . Üentral –– 18 ji Baltimore, Md. . . . . . . ] TCastern | + 6 Lynchburg, Va. . . . . . . . . Eastern + 17 | Baton Rouge, La . . . . . . Central + 4 Memphis, Tenn. . . . . . . . Central Ö | Bismarck, N. Dak. . . . Central + 43 Milwaukee, Wis . . . . . . Central — 8 # Boston, Mass. . . . . . . . . Eastern — 16 Mobile, Aja . . . . . . . . . . Central — 8 # Buffalo, N. Y. . . . . . . . IEastern -ī- 16 |Montgomery, Ala. . . . . {Xentral — 15 is 33urlington, Iowa. . . . Central + 5 Nashville, Tenn. . . . . . Central — 13 | Cairo, ill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central — 3 New Havon, Conn. . . . . Eastern — 8 # Charlestora, S. C. . . . . ; Eastern + 20 ||New Orleans, La . . . . . Central 0 | Chicago, Ili . . . . . . . . . . 3 Central — 10 ||NCw York, N. Y. . . . . ] Eastern — 4 | Cincinnati, Ohio . . . . . ł Central — 22 |Norfolk, Va. . . . . . . . . . Eastern -- 5 | Cleveland, Ohio . . . . . . (Teintral — 33 gdensburg, N. Y. . Eastern + 2 # Columbia, S. C. . . . . Eastern + 24 jQmaha, Neb. . . . . . . . . {`eThtral -- 24 # Columbus, Ohio. . . . . . Çentral -— 28 Pensacola, , Fla... . . . . . . ] Central — 11 # Dayton, Ohio . . . . . . . . j Celntral — 23 is hiladelphia, Pa. . . . . Ea.Sterra + 1 # Denver, Col. . . . . . . . . . . . Mountain 0 ||Pittsburg, Pa.. . . . . t Eastern + 20 | Des Moines, Iowa . . . . Central + 14 |Portland, Me. . . . . . . . . E3 Stern —— 19 # Detroit, Msch. . . . . . . . . Central – 28 |Providence, R. J., , , . . . Eastern — 14 of Dubuque, Iowa-. . . . . . . KCentral + 3 Quincy, Ill . . . . . . . . . . . . Central + 6 # Duluth, Minn. . . . . . . . . Central + 9 taleigh, N. C. . . . . . . }}asierłł + 15 of Erie, Pa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Čel)tral — 3 Richmond, Va. . . . . . . EasterTA + 10 #| Evansville, Ind. . . . . . j Čentral - 10 jRochester, N. Y. . . . . Eastern + 11 il Ft. Gibson, Cher. N: {!entral + 23 Rock Island, Ill. . . . . . . . Central -- 3 | Fort Smith, Ark . . . . . . Central + 19 San Francisco, Cal. . . . Pacific . + 10 | Fort Wayne, Ind., . . . Central – 20 Santa Fe, N., M. . . . . . | Mountain -- 4 ji Galena, Ill. . . . . . . . . . . Central -j- 2 Savannah, Ga. . . . . . . . . . Central — 36 |Galveston, Texas? . . . . . Central + 19 shreveport, La. . . . . . . . Çentral + 15 | Grand Haven, Mich. . . Central — 15 Springfield, Ill. . . . . . . . Central – 2 is Harrisburg, Pa.. . . . . . Eastern + 7 St. Joseph, Mo. . . . . . . . Çentral i + 19 #| Houston, Texas. . . . . . . Central + 21 St. Louis. Mo. . . . . . . . . . Central + 1 il Huntsville, Ala. . . . . . . Central – 12 St. Paul, Minn ... . . , , i Central f 12 | Indianapolis, Ind. . . . ] { entral – 16 Superior City, Wis... Central 8 il Jackson, Miss. . . . . . . i Central + 3 Syracuse, N. Y. . . . . . . ; Eastern + 5. # Jacksonville, Fla... . . . . Central – 33 otöjedo, onio, . . . . . . . . . . Central — 26 # Janesville, Wis. . . . . . | Central — 4 Trenton, N. J. . . . . . . . . Eastern — 1 #| Jefferson City, Mo. . . ] CCII tral + 9 Utica, N. Y. . . . . . . . . . ! Eastern + 1 #| Kansas City, Mo. . . . 1 Central f 19 Washington, D. C. . . . . Eastern i 8 §l Keokuk, Iowa. . . . . . . . . Central 6 |Wheeling, W. Va. . . . Eastern 23 || Knoxville, Tenn. . . . . . Central – 24 Wilmington, Del . . . . . . . Eastern i 2 #| La Crosse, Wis. . . . . . . Central f 5 Wilmington, N. C. . . . . ; Eastern + 13 #| Lawrence, Kan. . . . . . . Central 21 Yankton, S. Dak. . . . . . Central + 29 | Lexington, Ky., . . . . . . , Central 23

: TIME STANH3ARDS. | The following is the table of times, based upon the meridiała used by the United # States and Canada: | | Central Meridian, ii Name of Time. j Degree. | From Greenwich. Nearest Place. i - . . 4 hours west. About 3%" east of Halifax, N. S. | goal.: 5 hours West, Between New York and Philadelphia, | contra: . . . . . . . . . 6 hours West. St. Louis and New Orleans. #| Mountain . . . . . . . 7 hours West, łPonver, Goł. | Pacific . . . . . . . . 8 hours West. 1%" east of Sacramento, Cai.

Sitka . . . . . . . . . . 9 hours west. # 4 east of. Sitka, Alaska.

Tahitl . . . . . . . . . 10 hours West, } % 9 west of the island of Tahiti.

Hawaiian . . . . . . 10 a. 31 m. west. Near centre of Molokai,

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EXPLANATION OF THE CALEND A P. PAGES, .* §

It is obvious that to express the time of rising and setting of the Sun and Moon in standard time would limit the usefulness of such data to the gingle point or plage

#gor which it was computed, while in the meantime it is practically correct for place?

as widely separated as the widt h ()' i' - "" " ' " ent 8 o' already exr, lained, and per80n& for which it was computed, while in the mean time it is practically correct for places making use of the table on page 4. EXPLA NATION OF #. CAB,ENE) AR. PAGES, $- *Joe,

All the calculations in The Tribune Almanac are based upon meat, or clock time unless otherwise stated. The Sun's rising and setting are sor the upper Timb, corrected for paratrax and refraction. Hun the case of the Moon no correction is needed, as in the Sun, for “para: lax and refraction”: with her they are of an opposite, nature and just balance each other. The sikures given, therefore, are for the Moon's centre on a true horizon, such as the ocean or a large plain assords.

The calculations in each of the geographical divisions &s each calendar page Will apply with gufficient accuracy to all places in , the contiguous North American zone: indicated by the headings of the divisions. This statement 13 based on the sact that in the same tatitude, or in the same line running due east and West, the Son &nd : Moon rise and set at almost the same monent of HGéal or rolean time, the disse, ron re

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- 90 * Assap of the Standard Time Belts, in extromes being so slight as to kre of no importance for ordinary purposes, CXCept in the case of the Moon's rising, southing and setting, when &m. for Pacific Coast points and 3m. for Mississippi River Valicy region, including Chicago, etc., must be added, or 2m. for each hour of longitude. ,” & The heavy dotted lines show the arbitrary divisions of time in the United States, The plus and minus marks on either side of the meridian lines show whether it is necessary to add to or subtract from the standard time of points east- or west of these tiries to arrive at actual, or nearl Irzcak, time. See table on page 4. STAND AIRD T’s ATE, For the convenience of the railwoads and business in general S. standard of time was established by mutual agreement in 1883, and it is by this method of calculation that trains atre now run and focal to me #8 regulated. In accordance with this system the United States, extending from 65° to 125° west longitude, is divided into four time sections, as shown on the map. Inside of each of these sections standard time is wom. and the time of each section differs from that next to it by exactly Qūe hOUl!". $f the standard time correction for any place not enumerated in the table be

| desired proceed as follows: Lorcate the place, as eny one can approximately on this

map, and then subdivide the hour space in which the place is until

time (60 m. = one space) from that meridian within Who! bounds the so o is apparent... Then add or subtract the result to mean, time as the sign at the top of the map tradicates, Example: What wiłł be the standard time of sun rise jury o £ut Penn Yann. N. Y. 7 The map does not give the lines of fatitude and longitude, but most people can locate their own place in its respective State on the tnap with suñ. cient correctness. By this moaros I ‘ocate Penn Yann at about oue—eighth of the osstance between the 75th and 90th meridians and within the Eastern time zone. Thia

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43d year of the 76th cycle of 60 years.

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. This is due to the slower motion of the Earth (Sun's apparent motion) while in that || portion of its orbit most distant from the Sun (aphelion). Hence in the summer i months we are further from the Sun than in the winter time.

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ASTRONOMICAL •

CHINESSE CALENEDAR, • ‘ o The year 1906 corresponds mearly to the year 4603 of the Chinese era, and is the

Washington mean time,

Summer begins,

Autumn begins,

THE PLANETs.

1906 Seventh month begin;...----...August 20

Eighth month begins. .......September 18 Ninth month begins...........October 18 Tenth month begins.........November 16 Eleventh month begins......December 16 1907 Twelfth month begins. . . . . . . . . January 14

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JD. H. M. o begins, and lasts 89 0 8 S3 of Equator. . .

begins, and lasts 92 19 50 N. of Equator.l. and lasts 93 15 4 N. of Equator.

and lasts 89 18 38 S. of Equator. |

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longer north of the Equator than south of it.}

H–Just before superior conjunction, | Nov. 20. - SUPERIOR PLANETS. Mars (cf), after July 15. + Jupiter (hp, from June 10 to October 8. l. Saturn (h), from February 24 to June 6, TJranus (3), until March 29. Neptune (g), from July 2 to October 6,

EVENING STARS–EAST OF SUN, INFERIOR PLANETS.

Mercury, from February 20 to April 4, June 4 to August 12 and September 24 to November 30. Venus, from February 14 to November 29.

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THE PLANETs (continued).

| Mércury will be brightest— * . (1) As an evening star, east of the Sun, setting shortly after the Sun, March #,

to 15. He will be at greatest castern elongation March 18. . (2) As a morning star, west of the sun, rising shortly before sunrise September j to 10 and Decembér 10 to 20. His times of greatest western elongation ; nearest these dates are: August 29 and December 18. This planet is not at nis brightest, or, at least, best seen, . where at his ç! Ongations, as some ad mana ('s Slate. - - | . Ventis will be brightCst as 3. Il GVenirig | star October 25, being at her greatest | eastern elongation September 2, 20, when her angular distance from the Sun Will be 46° 29'.

Toward the Sun.

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- N - -
Phases of

t

* | || | An opera, glass or small telescope wiłł | bring out her phases, as shown in the an| nexed cut. Her difference in apparent size & ~f or diameter is due to her varying distance from the IEarth, according as slo is between • - wo. *.* * C. as and the Sun or in the opposito portion of Š

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