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Rhode Island, resulted in his being sentenced to impri-
sonment for life, but in a few years he was restored to
liberty and all his rights. (See Attainder.)

Treasury Department is one of the three original
executive departments of the government. It was es-
tablished by Act of Congress of September 2, 1789. At
its head is the Secretary of the Treasury, who is a
member of the President's Cabinet. He is appointed by
the President and confirmed by the Senate. His salary
is $8,000. This department has charge and control not
only of all the fiscal affairs of the government, but also
of the national banks (so far as they are subject to gov-
ernment control), of the currency and coinage, of the
customs and internal revenue systems, the commercial
marine, the light-house and life-saving systems, the
coast and interior surveys, the inspection of steam ves-
sels and of the marine hospitals. The principal assist-
ants of the Secretary are given below:

SALARy,

Assistant-Secretary $4,500

Assistant-Secretary 4,500

Assistant-Secretary 4,500

Chief Clerk 3.000

Director of Mint .•• 4,500

Chief Bureau of Statistics 3,000

Supt. Life Saving Service 4,000

Chairman Light House Board 5,000

Chief Bureau Engraving 4,500

Supervis. Surg.-General 4,000

Supt. Coast Survey • O.000

Comm. of Navigation 3,600

First Comptroller 5,000

Second Comptroller 5,000

Comp. of Customs 4.000

First Auditor 3,600

Second Auditor 3,600

Third Auditor 3,600

Fourth Auditor 3,600

Fifth Auditor • 3,600

Sixth Auditor 3,600

Treasurer 6,000

Comm. of Internal Revenue 6,000

Comp. of Currency. 5,008

Below is given a list of the Secretaries of the Treasury from the beginning of the government;

Name.

State.

Term.

Alexander Hamilton —

Oliver Wolcott

Samuel Dexter

Albert Gallatin

George W. Campbell ....
Alexander James Dallas
William H. Crawford....

Richard Rush

Samuel D. Ingham

Louis McLane

William J. Duane

Boger B. Taney

Levi Woodbury

Thomas Ewing

Walter Forward

John C. Spencer

George M. Bibb

Robert J. Walker

William M. Meredith ....

Thomas Corwin

James Guthrie

Howell Cobb

Philip F. Thomas

John A. Dix

Salmon P. Chase

William Pitt Fessenden .

Hugh McCulloch

George 8. Boutwell

William A. Richardson..
Benjamin H. Bristow ...

LotM. Morrill...

John Sherman ..:

William Windom

Charles J. Folger

Walter Q. Gresham

Hugh McCulloch

Daniel ManniDg

Charles S. Fairchild

William Windom

Charles Foster

New York

Connecticut

Massachusetts ...

Pennsylvania

Tennessee .... ..

Pennsylvania ...

Georgia

Pennsylvania ...
Pennsylvania ..

Delaware

Pennsylvania ...

Maryland

New Hampshire.

Ohio

Pennsylvania

New York

Kentucky

Mississippi

Pennsylvania

Ohio

Kentucky

Georgia

Maryland

New York

Ohio

Maine

Indiana

Massachusetts...
Massachusetts ...

Kentucky

Maine

Ohio

Minnesota

New York

Indiana

Maryland

New York

New York

Maine

Ohio

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Treasury, Secretary of the. (See Treasury Department. )

Treaties of the United States.—For treaties relating to the Canadian fisheries see Fishery Treaties. For the other important treaties, which have distinctive names see Ashburton Treaty; Burb'ngame Treaty; Clay tonBulwer Treaty; Jay's Treaty; Tripartite Treaty; Treaty of Ghent; Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; Treaty of Paris; Treaty of Washington. See also Annexations; Barbarg Pirates; Extradition; Northeast Boundary; Northwest Boundary.

Treaty of Ghent.—In the summer of 1814 commissioners from England and the United States met abroad for the purpose of negotiating a treaty to end the War of 1812. Our representatives were John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan Russell and Albert Gallatin. The representatives of England were Lord Gambier, Henry Goulburn, and 'William Adams. These agents of both nations met at Ghent, Belgium, where, on the 24th of December, 1814, they signed a treaty of peace. It was unanimously ratified by the United States Senate on February 17,1815, and proclaimed by the President the next day. .The treaty took away from Great Britain the right to freely navigate the Mississippi Biver, it provided for commissions to settle the title to islands in Passamaquoddy Bay and to mark the northern boundary of the United States as far west as the Lake of the Woods; it declared against the slave trade. It was also a treaty of peace and ended the war, but it is noteworthy that the most important dispute between the two nations was left unmentioned. The rights in the fisheries, rights of neutral nations, the rights of expatriation (which see) and the impressment of American seaman, which last was the immediate cause of the war, were thus left unsettled by the treaty. It is supposed, however, that some assurances were given aside from the treaty that impressment should no longer be continued, and, as a matter of fact, our seamen have never since that time been impressed.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.—On February 2, 1848, Nicholas P. Trist, representing the United States, and three commissioners representing Mexico, signed a treaty of peace at Guadalupe Hidalgo, in Mexico. The treaty provided for the final cessation of the hostilities of the Mexican War, and the United States agreed to withdraw its troops from Mexico. The southwestern boundary of Texas was fixed at the Rio Grande, as our government had claimed. New Mexico and California were ceded to the United States, in return for which territory we were to pay $15,000,000 and assume the payment of claims of United States citizens against Mexico, amounting to $3,250,000. Both governments ratified the treaty, and on July 4, 1848, President Polk proclaimed peace. (See Annexations IV.)

Treaty of Paris (1783).—On November 30, 1782, a preliminary treaty of peace was signed with Great Britain at Paris; Congress ratified it in the following April. The commissioners on the part of Great Britain were Oswald, Fitzherbert and Strachey, and on the part of the United States, Franklin, Jay, John Adams and Henry Laurens. On September 3,1783, at Paris, a definitive treaty of peace was signed by commissioners from the nations that had been engaged in war, namely, Holland, Spain, France, Great Britain and the United States. So far as we are concerned, the chief importance of this treaty is that it acknowledged the complete independence of the United States. Great Britain ceded Florida to Spain and retained Canada and Nova Scotia, with exclusive control of the St. Lawrence; the rest of the territory east of the Mississippi was given up to the United States, with the right of free navigation of the great lakes and the Mississippi, and with practically equal rights on the Newfoundland fishing grounds.

Treaty of Washington.—Many treaties have been negotiated at Washington, but the history of the one commonly known as the Treaty of Washington is as follows: In January, 1871, Great Britain proposed to the United States that a joint commission should be appointed to draw up a treaty in settlement of various open questions existing between the two governments. At the instance of the United States the Alabama claims were included among the subjects for consideration, and on February 27, 1871, five high commissioners of each of these nations met at Washington. On May 8th, they concluded their deliberations, and signed the treaty which they had drawn up, and which is the one generally known as the Treaty of Washington, though others have been negotiated in that city. It was at once ratified by the Senate and by Great Britain, and on July 4, 1871, was proclaimed to be in force by President Grant. It provided that the disputed questions should be referred to arbitration as follows: 1. The Alabama Claims were to be settled by a tribunal of five persons appointed by the President of the United States, the Queen of Great Britain, the King of Italy, the President of Switzerland and the Emperor of Brazil. (See Geneva Award.) 2. A commission was to be appointed and to sit at Washington to decide on certain claims of Great Britaim against the United States, for injuries to the persons and property of British subjects by the forces of the United States during the Civil War. 3. It readmitted American fishermen to certain rights in British waters, and the compensation to be paid for this privilege was referred to a joint commission which was to sit at Halifax, Nova Scotia. (See Fishery Treaties; Halifax Fishery Commission.) 4. The dispute as to the Northwestern Boundary line between Vancouver's Island and the mainland was submitted to the Emperor of Germany. (See Northwestern Boundary.) The final settlement of these questions was in flie main favorable to the United States, wholly so as to the Northwestern Boundary, and largely so in the matter of the Alabama Claims, but the Halifax Award to be paid to Great Britain was generally considered in this country as excessive. The Treaty itself was favorably received, the Senate ratifying it by a vote of fifty to twelve; its reference of disputed points to arbitration was applauded by the peace-loving people of the United States., and was an important event in the history of international treaty-making.

Trent Affair.—In the Autumn of 1861, on one of the blockade runners which succeeded in escaping from Charleston, sailed James M. Mason and John blidell, who had been appointed by the Confederate Government as Commissioners to England and France, respectively. They reached Havana, and then sailed on the British mail-steamer Trent. On November 8, 1861, this vessel was stopped by the United States steamer San Jacinto,

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