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demand with persons suitably qualified, the fragmentary gleanings of a few days is a problem which has occupied the at- institute may be of service. Testimony tention of wisdom and experience for of the value of the Institute Work comes years. That such supply has not been from Maine, New York, Vermont, Massaobtained is notorious.

chusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Iowa and The State Superintendent of New York Illinois, and the reports of County Supersays: “Had that excellent litany, which intendents of Wisconsin are full of glow. invokes deliverance from battle, murder ing accounts of good done, which may and sudden death, also incorporated a have some weight, after making due petition against incompetent school allowance for mutual admiration. teachers, it would not have trenched

The Report of the State Superintendent upon a subject, in favor of which, wise of Wisconsin for 1872, says: “A convic. and holy men might not properly raise tion of the value of these institutes, is their supplications."

continually growing in the minds of Wm. F. PHELPS, President of the State teachers and people. A teacher is fast Normal School at Winona, Minn., writes: losing caste, who habitually absents him. * The schools are in the hands of igno-self from these educational gatherings, rant, unskilled teachers. Poor schools and is looked upon as unworthy of his and poor teachers are in the majority position. I am of the opinion that throughout the country. Multitudes of teachers should be required to attend in. schools are so poor that it would be as stitutes in their respective counties for at well if they were closed. The pitiable least four days in the year, and that spectacle is presented of ignorance per- school-boards should be required to allow petuating itself at the public expense.” them such time, without any deduction

The Chairman of the Assembly Com- of their wages.” mittee on Education for 1871, says: “More

The President of the Board of Normal
than 90 per cent. of our teachers have School Regents for 1872, says: “A lib.
never received any instruction in the art eral appropriation has been made by the
or science of teaching; 40 per cent. are Board for institute work, and much has
new and inexperienced, changing their been accomplished in this important
places every term, looking upon the field of labor.”
school room as a make-shift for the pres.

This institute work is fragmentary,
ent. Need we wonder that their hearts
and souls are not with their calling, that itinerating, missionary work; it means

labor and sometimes discouragement; it
they are slaves to text-books ?”

needs faith to sow seed here and there in
The Report of the Committee

the day and in the night; but the future
County Academies of the State Teachers'
Association of 1872, reads: “ Certainly,

will bring the fruit, good to look upon

and delicious to the taste.
this lack of qualified teachers is a de-
plorable state of affairs, calling with the

In corroboration of the foregoing views
voice of thunder for a remedy."

the state has, by legal enactment, provided
Our three Normal Schools, from pub- that each County Superintendent shall
lished reports, give not far from 600 of (not may,) hold at least one institute each
all grades each year. From academies, year. The Board of Normal School Re-
high schools and colleges, it is estimated gents and the state have also provided
that 1000 more are furnished. Not one liberally to aid County Superintendents
fourth what is needed, and the above in this part of their work.
number not distributed over the whole Institutes should be held mainly in
state, but supplied mainly to those parts the fall, in the months of September and
contiguous to such schools. How then October, and should continue five days,
shall the mass of teachers be reached ? beginning on Monday and closing on

One-half, or one-quarter, or one-six- Friday, with two sessions each day, from
teenth of a loaf is better than none and 9 to 12 A. M., and from 2 to 5 P. M.



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attend at all, or only nominally. The One-half the time should be devoted statistics of attendance are not reliable, to instruction-class work by whole in- for persons only present a few hours are stitute.

not unfrequently enrolled to swell the One-third of the time to Methods and attendance and make a good showing. School Management, by familiar lectures. In Grant county only one person at.

One-sixth of the time to model class work tended the whole time and that time only and criticism.

four weeks. For trifling causes, teachers The county superintendent should ad. that in charity we are obliged to call vertise, at least two weeks before the time good, absent themselves. of meeting, the specific branches to be The following are proposed as remetreated at the meeting; e. g. :



1. Let the State Superintendent see that 2. Common Fractionş.

ach county superintendent holds an in3. Decimal Fractions and Fed. Money. stitute, as required by law; and in case 4. Percentage.

of failure, notify the county clerk of said GEOGRAPHY-FOUR LESSONS. county of such neglect of duty, and that 1. Globe Work-Shape of Earth, Cir. said county superintendent is liable to cles, Zones.

impeachment. 2. Outline Maps-North America. 2. Let the State Superintendent publish 3. Europe.

a list of county superintendents comply. 4.

United States. ing with law, with attendance at each in. To include, in lessons 2d, 3d, 4th, bodies stitute of actual teachers or those intend. of water and land, elevations of land, nav- ing to teach during the year, and the igable rivers, political divisions, capitals number of teachers needed to supply the and cities.

schools of the county. READING-PHONICS-FOUR LESSONS. 3. Also a list of the county superin. (Standard Webster's Dictionary, Ed. 1864.) | tendents who do not hold such institutes.

1. Vowels in monosyllables and accent- 4. Advise each county superintendent ed syllables, sounds of, and how dis. of above regulation. tinguished.

THROUGH THE COUNTY SUPERIN. 2. Vowels in unaccented syllables.

TENDENT. 3. Consonant sounds.

1. Let each county superintendent, two SPELLING-FOUR LESSONS. weeks previous to the meeting, notify 1. Rules-two lessons.

each teacher in the county of the time 2. Written lessons-indicating the book and place of holding the institute, with a from which words will be pronounced, specific detail of the work to be done. two lessons.

Admit none to class work after Monday, Thus by specifically stating what will except for reasons satisfactory to the be done, much of the odium of failure county superintendent. on the part of the teacher, will be averted, 2. Publish at the close of the institute because preparation by the teachers will the names of attendants and an account be made, and being prepared they will of the work done. desire to attend and show what they can 3. On examination give to those who do. A healthy emulation may be secured, attend five per cent. additional on each and interest among the citizens excited. branch of regular work treated at the

We have glanced at the necessity for institute. institute work and the kind that should 4. Hold institutes (if possible) in the be attempted. It now remains to consid. months of September and October with er how attendance may be secured. Not examinations at the close, on Friday and 50 per cent. of the teachers of the state Saturday, so that all in attendance may attend and those who need it most do not be accommodated.


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Citizenship-State and National.

53 5. Have any spring examinations sup- | has been disputed, since our government plementary to fall, with certificates of was established, that women and children only six months duration.

if otherwise qualified by birth.or natural

ization, are citizens. Nor has it been 1. Any county necessitated to hold in. disputed that white men, if born or stitute in the spring (March or April) to naturalized here, are citizens, although have preference, for aid from the state, belonging to classes shut out from the for next year, in the fall.

right of suffrage. But it has been denied 2. Each county superintendent to pledge that negroes, whether slave or free, are an attendance of teachers equal to 50 per citizens. By the famous decision of the cent. of the schools in his county. Fail. supreme court of the United States in ure to secure such attendance to forfeit the Dred Scott case, negroes were de. the right to state aid the next year.

clared not to be citizens. But this de3. No county to receive state aid twice cision is of course superseded by the exduring any one school


plicit language of the Fourteenth Amend. 4. Each institute conductor from a nor

ment. mal school, to make such time and place

The first qualification for citizenship for holding institute in his district as in is thus to be a person—not a man, not a his judgment will secure the greatest white person, but simply a person, withgood, giving preference in time to the out regard to age, sex or race. months of September and October for

The second qualification for citizen. fall institutes and last half of March and ship is to be born or naturalized in the the whole of April for spring.

United States. The right of expatriation A few points are thus presented, sug.

has always been defended by the United gested by past experience, and based upon

States; and has at last been fully conced. laws already in existence, as our expe.

ed by most European nations, either rience in the past shows it unwise to tacitly or by formal treaty. One of the predicate results on future legislation. causes of the war of 1812 was the claim The State Superintendent is made to play of England that her subjects could not a prominent part, that county superin. give up their allegiance to the British tendents may point to regulations issuing

crown and become American citizens. from him.

Under this claim English naval officers It is believed, that without further leg. constantly impressed into their naval islation, the above plan, if efficiently service naturalized citizens of this counoperated, will very perceptibly increase try who were born British subjects. the attendance on the institutes, and ren. But millions of subjects of foreign govder them a valuable aid in making the ernments have now been naturalized, and common school more effective.

thereby received to all the privileges of

American citizens, and their right to thus
CITIZENSHIP ... STATE AND NATIONAL. change their allegiance is now fully

recognized. The process of naturaliza-

tion is as follows. At any time after he The Fourteenth Amendment to the becomes a resident of this country a for. United States Constitution defines very eigner may declare his intention to be. clearly what constitutes citizenship of come a citizen of the United States bethe United States.

fore the clerk of any United States or “All persons born or naturalized in the state court, who gives him a certificate to United States, and subject to the jurisdic- that effect. This is popularly called tion thereof, are citizens of the United “ taking out his first papers.” When he States

, and of the State wherein they re- has lived five years in this country, he side.”

can be naturalized, provided he has “deThe words “all persons” include all clared his intention” at least two years colors, all ages, and both sexes. It never before. This is popularly called “ taking

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out his second papers," and is done with United States. We claim all such chil. a great deal more formality than attended dren of American citizens by virtue of taking out the first papers. Full citizen. their parents' citizenship; and we also ship can only be given in open court by claim all children born on American soil the judge of some court of record, either of foreign parents. Other nations also United States or State. All United States make a similar double claim. In such Courts are courts of record; and in this cases one nation claims the child because State the Supreme and Circuit Courts are it is born on its soil; while another nation such also. The would be citizen must claims it because of its parents' nativity. bring two citizens with him to testify to Between the claims of birth and of in. his good character, and he must formally heritance, it is difficult to decide, and as renounce allegiance to his former sov- the question has never yet been settled by ereign and swear allegiance to the United the general consent of civilized nations, States.

we can only say that persons born in When a man is naturalized, that fact countries, of which their parents were naturalizes his wife and all his minor not citizens or subjects, have a double al. children. An unmarried woman who is legiance. Our laws make citizens of the of age may be naturalized in the same children born to foreigners residing here, way as a man, and a few foreign women and also of the children born to Ameri. have been naturalized, in order to take cans residing abroad; but that does not up homesteads.

release them from the conflicting claims of But in two cases persons who are not other countries. already citizens may become such, with. By virtue of the Fourteenth Amend. out a formal naturalization. When terri. ment all citizens of the United States are tory is added to the United States either also citizens of the State in which they by cession or by conquest, the inhabitants reside. Beside those citizens of the of that territory become at once citizens United States who reside in this State, of the United States, and when Indians there is another class of persons who are renounce their tribal relations and be citizens of this state. The supreme court come members of a civilized community of Wisconsin has decided that when the in the United States, they become citizens. constitution of the State conferred the

The third condition of citizenship is right of suffrage upon white males, 21 to be subject to the jurisdiction of the years of age, who have resided in the United States. Those Indians, who main. State a year, and who have declared their tain their tribal government, are subject intention to become citizens, the inten. to the jurisdiction of the United States, tion of the framers of that document was not as individuals but only in a modified to make these voters citizens of the State. form as subject tribes or nations. They But this state citizenship does not extend are not citizens of the United States, be to their families. Their foreign-born sons, cause they do not have the responsibilities when they come of age must therefore of citizens and therefore ought not to take out papers for themselves, if they have the rights of citizens.

wish to vote or be drafted into the army, Ambassadors carry the sovereignty of two privileges which only belong to male their country with them, according to citizens of the state of proper age. the theory of international law; and We have thus seen who are citizens, of therefore the children of our ambassadors the State and of the United States. There are American citizens, though born is still another important question as to abroad; and the children of foreign min. what are the privileges of citizens. This isters are not American citizens, though is a question which depends more upon born in this country.

judicial decisions than upon statute law; The case is not as simple with regard and the courts have refused to attempt a to the children of other citizens, born full statement and 'classification of the wbile beyond the jurisdiction of the rights of citizens, leaving cases to be de


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cided as they arise. The Civil Rights act | women and children. Should the ma. in defining the equal rights of colored jority of the women of this country ever

citizens, incidentally defines some of the become dissatisfied with their representalä rights of all citizens. By that act the tives and demand an immediate voice in

freedmen were to “have the same right the government of the country, it will
in every state and territory of the United probably be granted, but not till then.
States to make and enforce contracts; to
sue, be parties, and give evidence; to in.

da! herit, purchase, lease, sell, hold and con.
Et rey real and personal property; and to
full and equal benefit of all laws and pro.

We have been told by the highest of ceedings for the security of person and educational authorities that the present 17. property as is enjoyed by white citizens; great progress in the efficiency of educaoil and to be subject to the like punishments, tion is due to a thoroughly organized sys2. pains and penalties, and to none other." tem of supervision. In Canada, in Great

Besides these certain other rights of citi. Britain and Ireland, even in Australia, zens are allowed by all; among which the supervision is now organized on so are, to be free from inequality of taxation, efficient a basis that Dr. McCosh thinks to intermarry with citizens, to engage in them on the sure road to surpass our any profession or trade, when qualified, American system of schools. The sole to take up homesteads or pre-empt gov- fact of more efficient supervision, in his ernment land, to use the public schools, opinion, will soon make the country to have passports to travel in forein coun. schools of Canada and Australia surpass tries, and to be protected against injus- those of America.

tice abroad as well as at home. These I do not doubt the soundness of his bei privileges, with others not yet fully de- views on the efficiency of supervision. I

fined by judicial decision, the United have witnessed its marvelous effects. The States guarantees to all citizens. For pro- states that have adopted a system of tection in some of these rights we must county superintendency have come to the appeal directly to the United States; for front in so prompt and steady a manner, protection in others we must look to the that even the most skeptical observer State of which we are citizens, and only has been obliged to confess the potency to the United States as the last resort of the instrumentality. It seems to me,

where the State fails to protect us. In however, that Dr. McCosh had not visited e many States aliens are denied the full the schools in those states where county

right to hold property, and to engage in superintendency is well organized.
Certain professions or trades. But in Like all other professional services,
Wisconsin such distinction between citi. superintending schools is one that must be
zens and aliens is unknown. So far as paid well to produce best results. Gratu-
this State is concerned, no distinction is itous services deprecate criticism and
made except in regard to voting or hold- cannot bear it. With a well paid county
ing office.

superintendency the country schools im-
Suffrage is not a right inherent in citi. prove at least fifty per cent. in the first
zenship. All voters are citizens of the year.
State; but not all citizens are voters. The Without supervision the tendency of all
theory of our laws, derived from the com- work is to drift to the lowest level. The
mon law of England, is that every man poorest work that can draw its money
over twenty-one years of age is or ought to drags down the rest to its level irresistibly,
be the head of a family, and that as the when there is no higher authority to meas-
head of the family he represents the fam. ure results and pronounce upon them.
ily by his vote. In our representative with competent supervision all work
government this is the first process of tends to struggle up to the highest level
representation; the men represent the of attainment. The best work is continu-

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