The oaths of allegiance and of office are made conformable to the principles of the Revolution. The governor, in his legislative capacity, cannot give a negative to any act of the two houses but, in common with the other magistrates, has one voice only.

The state is divided into five counties, in each of which there is a court of common pleas and general sessions of the peace, held twice every year, for the trial of all causes not capital, that arise within their limits; from which an appeal.,lies to the superior court of judicature, court of assize and general, jail delivery, whose jurisdiction extends over the whole state, and who also fit twice a year in each county. The constitution admits not of religious establishments, any farther than depends upon the vor Juntary choice of individuals. All men profefling one Supreme Being, are equally protected by the laws, and no particular fedt can claim pre-eminence.] is nii, in componentus

twice in their limits ;

Court of affazer hole ftate, and

- righe country is divided inis divided in

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CONNECTICUT. no ACCOUNT of the CONSTITUTION of CONNECTICUT. DONNECTICUT is divided into axi counties, and each

county is divided into a number of towns. Each town has a right to send two representatives to the general court or assembly. The general court consists of two branches called the upper and lower house. The upper house is composed of the governor, deputy-governor, and twelve assistants or counsellors s and the lower house of ţhe representatives of the several towns. This court has the sole power to make and repeal laws, 'grant levies, dispose of lands belonging to the state, to particular towns and persons: to erect and stile judicatories and officers, as they shal see necessary for the good government of the people, and also to call to account any court, magistrate, or other officer, for any misdemeanor or mal-administration, and for rjúft cause may fine, displace, or remove them, or deal otherwise, as the nature of the cafe fhall require ; and deal or act in any other matter that concerns the good of the state, except the ele&tion of governor, deputy-governor, afiftants, treasurer, and secretary, which fhal be done by the freemen at the yearly court of election, unless. there be any,vacancy by reason of death or otherwise, after the election, which may be filled up by the general court. This court has power also, for reasons fatisfactory to them, to grant fufpenlion, release, and jail delivery upon reprieve, in capital and criminal cases. The general court has two stated fefsions annually, on the second Thursdays of May and October. Svies . The governor, or in his absence the deputy-governor, may call the assembly, on special emergencies, to meet at any other time.




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The governor, deputy-governor, affiftants, and fecretary, are
annually elected on the second: Thursday in May. The repres
lentatives are newly chosen' for each stated feffion. The judges
and justices arc annually appointed by the general court; the same
persons are commonly re-appointed from time to time during their
'capacity to serve, unless guilty of misbehaviour.". The theriff's
are appointed by the governor and council, without limitation
of time, but may be: Tuper feded by the authority that appoints
them. The governor for the time being is captain-general of the
militia ; the deputy-governoru ljeutexant-gienetatz the other gea
neral officers, and the field officers, are appointed by the general
court; rand commissioned by the governor. The captains and sub-
alterns are chosen by the vote of the company and houfholders
living within the limits of the company, the perfon fo chosen
must be approved by the general court, and commissioned by the
governor, before they have power to execute their offices." AN
the military officers hold their offices during the pleasure of the
assembly, nor can they resign their commissions without leave of
the captain-generat, under penalty of doing duty in the ranks as
private foldiers. pure ;-* penins ft. c o m 1,0

The mode of electing the governor, deputy-governor, affiftants,
treafurer, and secretary is, that the freemen in the several towns
meet on the Monday next after the first Tuesday in April annually
(being the day appointed by law for that purpose, and choosing
representatives), and give in their votes for the perfons they choose
for faid offices respectively, with theit names written on a piece of
paper, which'votes are received and sealed up by a constable in the
freemen's meeting; the votes for each of said officers in a dif-
ferent paper, writing on the outside the name of the town, and
theloffice-for which the votes are giveir in, which are sent hy the
representatives, to the general court,' to be held on the second
Thursday of May next ensuing; at which time, after the house
of reprefentatives have chosen a-speaker and clerk, a com-
mittee is chofen of members of both houses, to fort and
count the votes, and declare the names of the perfons chosen -
to faid offices... Any freemen qualified to vote for representa-
tives, &c. may be elected to any office in the government. In
chopfing affiftants twenty persons are nominated by the votes of
the freemen, given in at their meeting for choosing representatives
in September annually, and fealed up and fent to the general court
'in dober then next, which are counted by a cornmittee of both
houses, and the twenty persons who have the greatest number of
votes Atand in nomination, out of which number twelve-are to .
be chosen assistants by the freemen, the next April, in manner.
afore described.. th ...

The qualifications requisite to entitle a person to vote in election of the officers-of government are, maturity in years, quiet and peaceable behaviour, a civil conversation, and forty shillings free hold, or forty pounds personal estate; if the selectmen of the town



certify a person qualified in those respects, he is admitted a freeman, on his taking an bach of fidelity to the state. .w w ol om 976

The names of all that are thus admitted, are inrolled in the town-clerk's office, and continue freemen during life, unless disfranchised by a sentence of the superior court on convištion of a misdemeanour. : ill 17. Frantir! ! !dowe

The governor or in his absence the deputy goveraor in the upper house, and the speaker in the lower house of afsembly, have a casting voice when the members of the respective houses, including the governor and speaker, are equally divided in opinion on any queftions to bussiin ni aya pu**? B u si

There is in this state.a. fuperior court, consisting of one chief judge and four other judges, which have authority in all criminal cases, extending to life, Jimb, and banishment, and to hear and determine all civil actions brought by appeal from the county courts, or on writs of error. . This court also hath authority in all matters of divorce. There are two stated seffions of the superior court in each county annually... ;;, mas ,

There are also county courts held in the several counties, cona fisting of one judge and four justices of the quorum, who have jurisdiction in al criminal cases arising within their respective counties, where the punifhment does not extend to life, limb, or banishment. The county courts also have original jurifdi&tion in all civil actions wherein the demand exceeds forty shillings.

The fuperior and county courts try matters of fact by a jury, i according to the course of the common law. 120.1 ;, > Justices of the peace have authority to hear and determine civil actions where the demand does not exceed forty Thiltings. They also have authority in some cases of a criminal nature, punishable by fine not exceeding forty Thillings, or whipping not exceeding ten stripes, or fitting in the stocks. - ,ker Billiona i

This state is also divided into a number of probate districts, less than counties; in each of which is appointed a judge for the probate of wills, granting adminiftration on inteftate estates, appointing guardians, for minors, ordering distribution of in teftate eftates, &c. An appeal lies from any decree of this court to the superior court. :

. : ! ; al

; : The superior, county, and probate courts appoint their respec-' tive clerks, ......

..... .ilien; ... The general court has till very lately been the only court of clans cery in this state. But by, a late law, the county courts determine matters of equity from five pounds to two hundred pounds.value; the superior court from two hundred to eight hundred pounds value; and the general assembly all cases exceeding the last mentioned fum.

All attornies at law are admitted and sworn by the county , courts; there is no attorney general, but there used to be one • king's attorney in each county ; but since the king has abdi

cated the government, they are now attornies to the governor and company.

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the CONSTITUTION of the State of New-York.

Efablished by the Convention, authorised and empowered for that Purpose, April 20, 1777.

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of them, toge council to Find for that the legislatweive any face

I. THIS convention, in the name and by the authority of the

1 good people of this state, doth ordain, determine, and · declare, that no authority shall, on any pretence whatever, be exercised over the people or members of this state, but such as shall be derived from and granted by them.

2. This convention doth further, in the name and by the authority of the good people of this state, ordain, determine, and declare, that the supreme legislative power, within this state, Thall be vested in two feparate and distinct bodies of men; the one to be called The Adembly of the State of New-York; the other to be called, The Senate of the State of New-York; who together fall form the legislature, and meet once, at least, in every year for the dispatch of business.

3. And whereas, laws inconsistent with the spirit of this conftitution, or with the public good, may be hastily and unadvisedly passed ; be it ordained that the governor, for the time being, the chancellor, and the judges of the supreme court, or any two of them, together with the governor, mhall be, and hereby are, conftituted a council to revise all bills about to be passed into laws by the legislature, and for that purpose hall assemble themselves, from time to time, when the legislature shall be convened; for which nevertheless, they shall not receive any falary or consideration, under any pretence whatever. And that all bills; which have passed the fenate and assembly, shall, before they become laws, be presented to the said council for their revisal and confideration; and if upon such revision and confideration, it should appear improper to the said council, or a. majority of them, that the said bili should become a law of this ftate, that they return the same, together with their objections thereto in writing, to the senate or house of assembly, in which soever the same mall have originated, who shall enter the ob- . jections fent down by the council, at large, in their minutes, and proceed to reconsider the said bill. But if after such reconfideration, two thirds of the said renate or house of assembly, Thall, notwithstanding the said objections, agree to pass the


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same, it shall, together with the objections, be sent to the other branch of the legislature, where it shall also be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of the members present shall be a law.

And in order to prevent any unnecessary delays, be it further ordained, that if any bill shall not be returned by the council within ten days after it sall have been presented, the same shall be a law, unless the legislature Thall, by their adjournnient, render a return of the said bill within ten days impracticable; in which całe the bill shall be returned on the first day of the meeting of the legislature, after the expiration of the said ten days.

4. That the assembly. Thall consist of at least seventy members, to bę annually chosen in the several counties in the pro, portions following, viz.

For the city and county of New-York, nine.
The city and county of Albany, ten.
The county of Dutchess, seven.
The county of Westchester, fix,
The county of Ulfter, fix.
The county of Suffolk, five.
The county of Queens, four.
The county of Orange, four.
The county of Kings, two.
The county of Richmond, two.
The county of Tryon, fix.
The county of Charlotte, four.
The county of Cumberland, three.

The county of Gloucester, two. 5. That as soon after the expiration of seven years, suble. guent to the termination of the present war as may be, a census of the electors and inhabitants in this state be taken, under the direction of the legislature. And if on such census, it shall appear, ihat the number of representatives in assembly from the Faid counties, is not juftly proportioned to the number of electors in the said counties respectively, that the legislature do adjust and apportion the same by that rule. And further, that once in every seven years, after the taking of the faid first cenfus, a just account of the electors resident in each county shall be taken; and if it fhall thereupon appear, that the number of electors in any county, ihall haye encreased or diminished one or more seventieth parts of the whole number of electors, which on the said first census shall be found in this state, the number of representatives for such county shall be increased or diminisha ed accordingly, that is to say, one representative for every seventieth part as aforesaid.

6. And

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