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ni mber of persons in a circle, each one of whom holds one end of a ribbon, all the other ends being united in the hand of the leader of the game, who stands in the centre of the circle. when he says "Pull," they must let go, and when he says "Let go," they must pull the ribbons. Any one obeying the leader's order is obliged to pay a forfeit.
RICH MAN, a game of cards played by three persons with a Euchre pack. The player who cuts the lowest card deals, and is called Rich Man. He gives himself I I cards and each of the others to, turning up the remaining card as trump. Each of the other players in order, begining at his left, may then demand of him a card with one more pip than some one card in the asker's hand, and if the dealer have it, he must exchange with the asker. For instance, if a player have a Nine, he may ask the dealer to exchange a Ten for it. Suits are not mentioned. If the dealer have two or more Tens, he would be allowed to give whichever he chose. If he have not the card asked for, he says so, and the nextplayerasks, no onebeingallowed a second chance. In case the cards are exchanged, the third player must not see of what suits they are. Play then begins, the eldest hand leading. Suit need not be followed, but the trick must be taken if possible. Court-cards have no rank and cannot win, and a trick composed entirely of them is always taken by the leader. The highest plain card of the suit led takes the trick, unless an equal one of the same color has been played, when Diamonds always take Hearts, and Clubs take Spades. If Hearts or Spades are trumps, the trump suit is highest in its own color; but a trump has no power to take unless led or played to a trumplead. There is therefore no " trumping in." After the fifth trick is taken, the dealer is allowed to play the trump card,
but he cannot take it in hand. The winner of each trick scores one, and the dealer scores two additional points, but 3 points are forfeited for each failure to take a trick when possible, and 3 points by the dealer for withholding a card in the beginning of the game, if he has it.
RIDING. The art of riding can be acquired by practice only, but instruction from a good master is worth its cost. In this country the American, English, and German styles are all practised.
The German style is rapidly passing out. The American style is generally practised in the Western and Southern States, while in the Middle States the English style has become the fashion. The Germans teach to sit with a straight, stiff body, shoulders well thrown back, toes up and turned partly out, and heels well down, the back of the calf of the leg gripping the horse tightly. The American style is to ride with the body in an easy position, the toes lower than the heels, the knees grasping the saddle firmly, and the toes, only, in the stirrup. The English style is a natural position of the body, the foot thrust all the way into the stirrup, the toes slightly lower than or on a level with the heel. The American style is suited to riding easy-gaited horses only, or on military saddles, while the English style is suited to park riding as well as to rough riding and hunting.
The saddle and bridle should always be examined before mounting. See that the throat-latch (the strap under the throat) is loose enough to easily pass your four fingers between it and the throat; that the curb-chain hangs in the chin groove and is loose enough to pass a finger between it and the jaw, whilst the bit hangs naturally; that the saddle rests where it would lie easiest before fastening the girths: neither high up on the shoulder nor so far back that it will work forward; that the girths are not crossed or wide apart, and that they are tight, but not so tight as to give the horse pain.
The snaffle-bit, used alone or with the curb, should be high enough in the mouth to touch its corners, but not wrinkle the skin; the curb an inch and a half below the corner of the mouth.
To Mount. 1. Stand on the left side of the horse near his shoulder, the body three quarters facing him, the right shoulder farthest from him; take the reins up in the right hand and place them in the left. Grasp a lock of the mane with the left hand a little forward of the shoulder in such a manner as may be most convenient, meanwhile holding the reins firmly but not pulling upon the horse's mouth.
2. Now take the stirrup in the right hand, putting the left foot into it. If you can take it without the use of the hand, so much the better.
3. Put the right hand well over on the right side of the cantle of the saddle (pressing downward to help prevent the saddle turning).
4. Rise with a good spring from the right foot.
5. Throw the right leg over, clearing the horse's back, withdrawing the right hand at the same time, and sink gently into the saddle; release the mane; turn the right foot inward and you will easily find the stirrup. (The forward end of stirrup as it hangs, should be turned away from the horse in putting the foot in.) Lengthen the reins in the left hand by letting them slide through the fingers or by pulling them through with the right. If a whip is carried, grasp it in the palm of the right hand, butt up,
Another method of mounting is I, to stand opposite the saddle-girths;
English Saddle.—A, Pommel; B, Cantle; C, Skirt; D, Flap; E, Panel; F, Stirrup ; G, Stirrup-leather; H, Roll ; I, Dee, for fastening hunting-flask; K, Staple, for fastening breast-plate ; LL, Girths; M, Tread of stirrup.
2, grasp the pommel of the saddle with the right hand, which also holds the reins; 3, take the stirrup in the left hand and insert the foot; 4, take a lock of the mane, half-way up the neck, in the left hand, thumb uppermost; 5, then proceed to get on as described
above. Th is method does away with removing the support of the right hand as the leg is thrown over the horse's back. After one has learned to ride it is well to practise mounting from the right side, reversing the methods given above.
Grasp the mane near
the shoulder with the
left hand, which also
holds the reins;
place the right hand
on the right skirt; to
steady the body withdraw the right
foot from the stirrup, and whilst
throwing it over the saddle slide the
right hand back to and grasp the
cantle, to ease the descent.
Restlessness in being mounted is often caused by the rider's foot tickling the horse's side, but oftener from rough treatment, or allowing the horse to rush off the moment the rider is seated : he should always be made to stand a few seconds. If he starts before you are ready to rise from the ground, say "whoa" and shorten the reins with the right hand to check him, then let them slide through the fingers to position. It is better to mount only halfway, not throwing the leg over, and come back to the ground to quiet him than to get on whilst he is moving. He may often be made to stand by shortening the right rein or reins, thus pulling his head to the right and holding it there until mounted. A simple way to make him stand, if very restive, is to let the groom pick up his off fore-leg and hold it close to the horse's elbow. Some horses do not like to have their heads held by a groom while being mounted and will be quiet so soon as released.
The Seat. Sit without putting the feet into the stirrups, the weight of the body resting on the buttocks; shoulders back; elbows close, though not pressed to the body; the thighs grasping the saddle; the legs, below the knees, hanging per- i pendicularly, and back far enough J to cover the girths; toes slightly in; the side of the calf of the leg and the inside of the knee will then be found to grasp the saddle; the whole body at ease. A strong grip J at the knee and with the inside of the calf is as important as the thigh grip and is easily secured by turn- j ing the toes well in. The foot should be nearly parallel with the horse's body. The shapes of differ-1 ent men require modifications in the seat, but a good rule to bear in i mind is "toes in and heels down." i The length of the stirrup-leathers should now be regulated so as to I make the bottom of the iron hang about an inch higher than the hollow of the foot just in front of the heel of the boot, when "the seat" I will remain as above described, excepting a slight throwing forward j and raising of the knees. The
length of stirrup, however, must be regulated, somewhat, by the feeling of comfort after trial. Having once ascertained this length it will be found convenient to note it by measuring from the finger-tips, resting on the buckle of the stirrup (the latter, of course, being against the stirrup-bar of the saddle) toward the arm-pit, with the stirrup and leather under the arm. See how near the arm-pit the bottom of the stirrup comes, and thereafter, keeping this point in mind, the rider may know whether his stirrups are about the right length before mounting on any saddle.
One of the quickest ways to learn "balance" and to get "shaken down" into the saddle is to ride on a pad a few times, or in the saddle without the stirrups, upon a gentle horse in a riding-school, if possible; or, if no riding-school be available, have the halter left on with the bridle and fasten to it a rope twenty or twenty-five feet long; let an attendant hold this and cause the horse to trot in a circle and at the same time retain control of him.
It is a good plan to practice riding without stirrups (crossing them over the front of the saddle). In road or park riding the stirrups may be under the ball of the foot. In hunting or rough riding the foot should be pushed "home," that is, as far into the stirrup as it will go. Never use too small stirrups; there is danger of the foot catching in case of a fall. Stirrups with broad "treads" (the bottom where the foot rests) are the most comfortable. Do not ride the same horse upon all occasions; frequent changes give ease and security to one's seat and teach general management.
In first rides, only a snaffle-bit
as soon as the horse stops. Most Southern and Western horses are trained to guide by simple pressure of the reins on the side of the neck opposite to which it is desired to turn, and all well-trained saddle-horses should be so trained.
Having become accustomed to the motion of the horse at a walk, he may be made to trot by steadying the reins, leaning slightly forward and pressing the legs against his side, clucking to him, or touching him lightly with the whip if necessary. There are two methods of riding at the trot: the close-sitting, and rising in the stirrups. In the former, the rider gives himself up to the motions of the horse, holding the body and legs without stiffness. It is possible for the rider who has attained good "balance" to sit upon most trotting-horses without being ■ thrown noticeably from the saddle, though on a rough-gaited horse it is very fatiguing.
In " rising to the trot," the rider partly raises himself and is partly thrown up from the saddle at every other step of the horse, using the knee as a pivot, aided by a slight pressure upon the stirrups. This rising is easily acquired, but must only be attempted when the rider feels the rise to be in accord with the step of the horse. Do not allow the legs from the knees down to swing backward and forward; nothing is more awkward. Keep the head and shoulders well back. Be careful not to throw the waist forward at each rise: it is better even to throw the head and shoulders forward to overcome this most awkward fault.
The Canter is an acquired form of slow galloping. When a horse begins to canter, he turns himself a little to one side, that he may advance the fore-leg he is going to "lead" with, and he may be made to take this gait from a walk or slow trot, by lightly pulling and raising the rein, at the same time touching him