to get a full conception of a man's share in the commonwealth. More men in our high schools will mean more boys remaining in school to graduate, and then going out into the community as dynamic citizens.

While the adolescent girl suffers less than the boy from exclusively feminine training, still it does her a world of good to come in contact with vigorous masculine mind. The great forces of the times are shaking society out of its ruts and revealing the man's world to woman. If a girl is sickly and sentimental, her men teachers may stiffen her spine and tone up her sense of humor. If she is narrow-minded or impractical, they will help her to grip reality and will broaden her views. She will leave high school with a better all-around education, with more ability to see both sides of a question, and with a more vital conception of citizenship, if she has had some able men teachers.

This comparison of the influence of men and women as teachers shows that men should be kept in the secondary schools even if the public is forced to pay them half as much as they might earn at other work. In various ways they are really more valuable than women, assuming an equality of teaching skill and devotion to the work. Most of the men marry and shoulder their share of the community duties; the women have to renounce their normal destiny, have few ties that knit them into the community, and often fade and shrink because the social currents do not flow through their veins.

For psychological and economic reasons women are less valuable than men to an industry or profession. The normal girl chooses an occupation as a mere interval between school and marriage. She expects Him to come any day and take her away to a little realm of her own. Comparatively few girls prepare themselves for teaching or any other profession with a firm purpose to follow it for life. Many of them drift through school looking for Him, and when they suddenly realize that they need something to do, teaching is the most attractive work they are fitted for. Relatively speaking, it ranks high as a profession for women, low as a profession for men. Yet our chivalrous educators would join hands with the feminists to increase this disparity, to make teaching still more attractive to women, still less so to men! Why not bar men entirely?

To be sure, many new occupations are being opened to women, but they are not entering these rapidly yet. The village high school and the small college do not prepare a girl for these new occupations, do not even bring them to her notice. At the same time the rapid spread of high school training courses for teachers is increasing the number of young girl applicants. Boys of the high school age almost never want to teach. Later on, when college has aroused their scholarly or humanitarian instincts, they might really desire to enter the profession if the shoals of women were not already over-crowding it, lowering salaries and making the public feel it to be a "woman's job.”

The equal salary plan would not only injure the schools; it would be detrimental to the women teachers themselves in certain ways. For instance, there are now a good many women principals and superintendents, usually in the smaller towns but occasionally also in large cities where women of unusual administrative ability are developed. But there is a deep seated preference for men as school executives, provided they do not cost too much. If the public had to pay the woman the same salary as the man, how many women would be chosen ? So long as there were any trousered beings in the field, it would be almost hopeless for a woman to seek a principalship or superintendency. On the other hand, men will not even now accept subordinate teaching positions unless they receive from ten to fifty dollars a month more than a woman

would get.

It is

very natural for the efficient woman teacher to feel that she works at least as hard and teaches as well as the man across the hall, and should therefore receive what he does. She can hardly help resenting the fact that some boy with the ink scarcely dry on his degree is given a position and salary that she has worked five years to reach, or may even be placed over her as her executive superior. The injustice of it is flagrant in individual cases. But economic and social laws work impersonally. Let this woman consider how little she contributes to the community aside from teaching, and how many of her sisters drift into the profession with a diploma and flutter out with a husband about the time when they have learned enough to be reliable and useful!

The policy that women teachers should adopt is that of raising educational standards so as to exclude the unprepared and relieve the overcrowded condition of the profession. Then if they con

centrate their efforts on reaching maximum efficiency in the schoolroom, and on becoming wide-awake citizens besides, they will get higher salaries without feminizing the whole school system to do it. If they finally marry, they will not grumble because their husbands receive that premium which natural laws award to men.

What the public wants is maximum efficiency in the schools. This aim necessitates paying to able men teachers salaries that will keep a sufficient proportion of them in the schools. Voting to pay equal salaries, almost inevitably means lowering the present level for men, driving into other work many of the best ones now teaching, and discouraging ambitious young men from entering the profession. Why should a man teach, if his salary will be so low as to make marriage and family a great risk, if he has to compete with women subsidized by equal salary laws or free board at home, and if he has to renounce normal masculine associations and ambitions ?

Outline Study of Caesar's Gallic War

BY SUPERINTENDENT A. T. SUTTON, CHELAN, WASHINGTON. (Continued from February Education)

BOOK IV. The Crossing of the Rhine and the First Invasion of Britain.

B. C. 55.
1. The war with the Usipites and Tenchtheri. (1-15)

a. Introduction. (1-3)
1. The Usipites and Tenchtheri (Germans), for sev-

eral years having been oppressed by the Suevi,
cross the Rhine (sometime after the first of Jan-

uary) near its mouth, into Gaul. (1) 2. National character of the Suevi. (1-3)

I. The Suevi are the most warlike of all

the Germans. The men take turns, a
year at a time, at tilling the land and
serving in the army. Individuals
among them own no private (as is usu-
ally the case among uncivilized nations)
and separate lands. They subsist mostly
on milk and flesh. In the coldest parts
they wear only skins over a part of the
body and bathe in open rivers. (Cf. Bk.

VỊ, Ch. 21.) (1)
II. They sell spoils of war to the "merca-

tores”. They use the native, poor, ill-
shaped cattle for labor. Their horses
are trained for war (Cf. Bk. I, Ch. 48)
and housings are not used. They suffer
no wine (Cf. Bk. I, Ch. I; Bk. II, Ch.

15) to be imported. (2) III. It is a matter of national pride to them

to keep the territories about them unoccupied by other tribes. (3)

b. Cause and progress of the war. (4)
1. The Ūsipites and Tenchtheri, (about 430,000

strong) having been harrassed for several years
by the Suevi, finally force a passage over the
Rhine into the lands of the Menapii (Cf. Bk. II,
Ch. 4; Bk. III, Ch. 9) and seizing all their
houses live upon their provisions the rest of the
winter. (4)
I. Upon this news (i. e. Ch. 4) Caesar de-

cides that nothing should be entrusted
to the Gauls (he did not know what
sort of commotion the arrival of these
two German tribes might cause) be-
cause they are so fickle. They have a
fashion of questioning travellers and be-

lieve any sort of report. (5) II. Caesar sets out for the army (Cf. Bk.

III, Ch. 29) earlier than usual and discovers that these two tribes of Germans, invited by some of the Gauls (Cf. Bk. I, Chs. 31, 44), are preparing to leave the Rhine (go farther into Gaul) and assist them. Caesar resolves to make

war against the Germans. (6) III. Caesar marches (northeast from Amiens,

where the concillium” of Ch. 6 was probably held to Maestricht, crosses the Meuse and marches down along its right bank) toward the Germans whose embassadors say to him that the Usipites and Tenchtheri came into Gaul reluctantly, and that they are surpassed only by the Suevi, to whom even the immortal gods can not show themselves equal. (Compare the speech in this chapter

with those in Bk. I, Chs. 13, 36). (7) IV. Caesar replies that they may settle in

the territories of the Ubii whose consent he will obtain for them. (8)

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