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trace the position of Dory lieu m, Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Archelais, and Germanicia, and may compare those classic appellations with the modern names of Eskishehr the old city. Akshehr the white city, Cogni, Erekli, and Marash. As the pilgrims passed over a desert, where a draught of water is ?xchanged for silver, they were tormented by intolerable thirst; and on the banks of the first rivulet, their haste and n temperance were still more pernicious to the disorderly Jirong. They climbed with toil and danger the steep and slippery sides of Mount Taurus; many of the soldiers cast away their arms to secure their footsteps; and had not terror preceded their van, the long and trembling file might have been driven down the precipice by a handful of resolute enemies. Two of their most respectable chiefs, the duke of Lorraine and the count of Tholouse, were carried in litters: Raymond was raised, as it is said by miracle, from a hopeless malady; and Godfrey had been torn by a bear, as he pursued that rough and perilous chase in the mountains of Pisidia.

To improve the general consternation, the cousin of Bohemond and the brother of Godfrey were detached from the main army with their respective squadrons of five, and of seven, hundred knights. They overran in * rapid career the hills and sea-coast of Cilicia, from Cogni t> the Syrian gates: the Norman standard was first planted on llw walls of Tarsus and Malmistra; but the proud injustice of baldwin at length provoked the patient and generous Italian; a/»d they turned their consecrated swords against each other it? a private and profane quarrel. Honor was the motive, and fame the reward, of Tancred; but fortune smiled on the* more selfish enterprise of his rival.88 He was called to the distance of

and the geographical science of D'Anville. William of ^yre is th« only historian of the crusades who has any knowledge of antiquity and M. Otter trod almost in the footsteps of the Franks from Coitstantinople to Antioch, (Voyage en Turquie et en Perse, torn. i. p. 85 —88)*

88 This detached conquest of Edessa is best represented by Fulcherius Carnotensis, or of Chartres, (in the collections of Bongarsius. Duchesne, and Martenne,) the valiant chaplain of Count Baldwin (Esprit des Croisades, torn. i. p. 13, 14.) In the disputes of thai

* The journey of Col. Macdonald Kinneir in Asia Minor throws consid trabfa light on the geography of this march of the crusaders—M

H Greek or Armenian tyrant, who had been suffered under the Turkish yoke to reign over the Christians of Edessa Baldwin accepted the character of his son and champion; but no sooner was he introduced into the city, than he inflamed the people to the massacre of his father, occupied the throne and treasure, extended his conquests over the hills of Armenia and the plain of Mesopotamia, and founded the first principality of the Franks or Latins, which subsisted fifty-four years beyond the Euphrates."

Before the Franks could enter Syria, the summer, and even the autumn, were completely wasted: the siege of Antioch, or the separation and repose of the army during the winter season, was strongly debated in their council: the love of arms and the holy sepulchre urged them to advance; and reason perhaps was on the side of resolution, since every hour of delay abates the fame and force of the invader, and multiplies the resources of defensive war. The capital of Syria was protected by the River Orontes; and the iron bridge* of nine arches, derives its name from the massy gates ol the two towers which are constructed at either end. They were opened by the sword of the duke of Normandy: his victory gave entrance to three hundred thousand crusaders, an account which may allow some scope for losses and desertion, but which clearly detects much exaggeration in the review of Nice. In the description of Antioch,90 it is not easy to define a middle term between her ancient magnificence, under the successors of Alexander and Augustus, and the modern aspect of Turkish desolation. The Tetrapolis, or four cities, if they retained their name and position, must have left a large vacuity in a circumference of twelve miles; and that measure, as well as the number of four hundred

prince with Tancred. his partiality is encountered by the partiality of Radulphus Cadomensis, the soldier and historian of the gallant Dialquis.

M See de Guignes, Hist, des Huns, torn. i. p. 456.

80 For Antioch, see Pocock, (Description of the East, vol. ii. p. i. p. 188--193,) Otter, (Voyage en Turquie, <fcc, torn. i. p. 81, cfec.,) the Purkish geographer, (in Otter's notes,) the Index Geographicus of Schultens, (ad calcem Bohadin. Vit. Saladin.,) and Abulfeda, (Tabula Syriae, p. 115, 116, vers. Reiske.)

* This bridge was over the Ifrin, not the Orontes, at a distance ot threa iekgaes from Antioch See W ilk en, vol. i. p. 172.—M.

towei-s, are not perfectly consistent with the five gates, so often mentioned in the history of the siege. Yet Antioch must have still flourished as a great and populous capital. A.1 the head of the Turkish emirs, Baghisian, a veteran chief, commanded in the place: his garrison was composed of six or seven thousand horse, and fifteen or twenty thousand foot. one hundred thousand Moslems are said to have fallen by the sword; and their numbers were probably inferior to the Greeks, Armenians, and Syrians, who had been no more than fourteen years the slaves of the house of Seljuk. From the remains of a solid and stately wall, it appears to have arisen to the height of threescore feet in the valleys; and wherever less ait and labor had been applied, the ground was supposed to be defended by the river, the morals, and the mountains. Notwithstanding these fortifications, the city had been repeatedly taken by the Persians, the Arabs, the Greeks, and the Turks; so large a circuit must have yielded many pervious points of attack; and in a siege that was formed about the middle of October, the vigor of the execution could alone justify the boldness of the attempt. Whatever strength and valor could perform in the field was abundantly discharged by the champions of the cross: in the frequent occasions of sallies, of forage, of the attack and defence of convoys, they were often victorious; and we can only complain, that their exploits are sometimes enlarged beyond the scale of probability and truth. The sword of Godfreyn divided a Turk from the shoulder to the haunch; and one half of the infidel fell to the ground, while the other was transported by his horse to the city gate. As Robert of Normandy rode against his antagonist, "I devote thy head," he piously exclaimed. "to the daemons of hell;'' and that head was instantly cloven to the breast by the resistless stroke of his descending falchion. But the reality or the report of such gigantic prow

91 Ensem elevat, eumque a sinistra parte scapularum, tanta virtute intorsit, ut quod pectus medium disjunxit spinam et vitalia interrupt; et sic lubricus ensis super crus dextrum integer exivit: sicque caput integrum cum dextra parte corporis immersit gurgite, partemque quae equo prsesidebat remisit civitati, (Robert. Mon. p. 50.) Cujus ense tiajectus, Turcus duo factus est Turci: ut inferior alter in urltein equitaret, alter arcitenens in flumine nataret, (Radulph. Gadom. c. 53, p. 804.) Yet he justifies the deed by the stnpendis viribus of Godfrey , •ad William of Tyre covers it by obstupuit populus facti novitaU .... mirabilis, (]. v. c. 6, p. 701.) Yet it mus* not have appeared Incredible to the knights of that age.

essM must have taught the Moslems to keep within theii walls: and against those walls of earth or stone, the sword and the lance were unavailing weapons. In the slow and successive labors of a siege, the crusaders were supine and ignorant, without skill to contrive, or money to purchase, 01 industry to use, the artificial engines and implements of assault. In the conquest of Nice, they had been powerfully assisted by the wealth and knowledge of the Greek emperor: his absence was poorly supplied by some Genoese and Pisan vessels, that were attracted by religion or trade to the coast of Syria: the stores were scanty, the return precarious, and the communication difficult and dangerous. Indolence or weakness had prevented the Franks from investing the entire circuit; and the perpetual freedom of two gates relieved the wants and recruited the garrison of the city. At the end of seven months, after the ruin of their cavalry, and an enormous loss by famine, desertion and fa'tigue, the progress of the crusaders was imperceptible, and their success remote, if the Latin Ulysses, the artful and ambitious Bohemond, had not employed the arms of cunning and deceit. The Christians of Antioch were numerous and discontented: Phirouz, a Syrian renegado, had acquired the favor of the emir and the command of three towers; and the merit of his repentance disguised to the Latins, and perhaps to himself, the foul design of perfidy and treason. A secret correspondence, for their mutual interest, was soon established between Phirouz and the prince of Tarento; and Bohemond declared in the council of the chiefs, that he could deliver the city into their hands.* But he claimed the sovereignty of Antioch as the reward of his service; and the proposal which had been rejected by the envy, was at length extorted from the distress, of his equals. The nocturnal surprise was executed by the French and Norman princes, who ascended in person the scaling-ladders that were thrown from the walls: their new proselyte, after the murder of his too scrupulous brother, embraced and introduced the servants of Christ; the army

91 See the exploits of Robert, Raymond, and the modest Tancred who imposed silence on his squire, (Randulph. Cadom. c. 53.)

* See the interesting extract from Kemaleddin's History of Aleppo la IVilken, preface to vol. ii. p. 36. Phironz, or Azzerrad, the breastplate Baker, had been pillaged and put to the tcr.-ire by Bagi Sejan, the prince of Artioch.— M.

rushed through the gates; and the Moslems soon found, thai although mercy was hopeless, resistance was impotent. But the citadel still refused to surrender; and the victims themselves were speedily encompassed and besieged by the innumerable forces of Kerboga, prince of Mosul, who, with twenty-eight Turkish emirs, advanced to the deliverance of A.ntioch. Five-and-twenty days the Christians spent on the verge of destruction; and the proud lieutenant of the caliph and the sultan left them only the choice of servitude or death.9* In this extremity they collected the relics of their strength, sallied from the town, and in a single memorable day, annihilated or dispersed the host of Turks and Arabians, which they might safely report to have consisted of six hundred thousand men.9* Their supernatural allies I shall proceed to consider: the human causes of the victory of Antioch were the fearless despair of the Franks; and the surprise, the discord, perhaps the errors, of their unskilful and presumptuous adversaries. The battle is described with as much disorder as it was fought; but we may observe the tent of Kerboga, a movable and spacious palace, enriched with the luxury of Asia, and capable of holding above two thousand persons; we may distinguish his three thousand guards, who were cased, the horse as well as the men, in complete steel.

In the eventful period of the siege and defence of Antioch, the crusaders were alternately exalted by victory or sunk in despair; either swelled with plenty or emaciated with hunger. A speculative reasoner might suppose, that their faith had a strong and serious influence on their practice; and that the soldiers of the cross, the deliverers of the holy sepulchre, prepared themselves by a sober and virtuous life for the daily contemplation of martyrdom. Experience blows away this

"After mentioning the distress and humble petition of the Franks, Abulpharagius adds the haughty reply of Codbuka, or Kerboga, "Non *vasuri estis nisi per gladium," (Dynast, p. 242.)

■• In describing the host of Kerboga, most of the Latin historians, the author of the Gesta, (p. 17,) Robert Monachus, p. 56,) Baldric, (p. Ill,) Fulcherius Carnotensis, (p. 392,) Guibert, (p. 512,) William of Tyre, (1. vi. c. 3, p. 714,) Bernard Thesaurarius, (c. 39, p. 695,) are content with the vague expressions of infinita multitude, immenium agmen, innumerae copiae or gentes, which correspond with the jLtrh ivapiQfiiiTtav xiAi<i<W of Anna Comnena, (Alexias, 1. xi. p. 318 —820.) The numbers of the Turks are fixed by Albert Aquensis at 800,000, (1. iv. c. 10, p. 242,) and by Radulphus Cadomensis? ^t 4 )0,0O(J borne (a 72, p. 309.)

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