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55 “action of the great affairs of the kingdom, at a The next day as soon as the house met, and “ time when a foreign army was ready to invade prayers were read, it resolved again into a grand “it: that he heard the payment of ship-money, committee, the same person being again called to
notwithstanding that it was adjudged his right, the chair : it was expected, and hoped, that there
was not willingly submitted to by the people ; to would have been some new message from the king, “ manifest therefore his good affection to his sub- that might have facilitated the debate; but nothing
jects in general, he made this proposition: that appearing of that kind, the proposition was again “ if the parliament would grant him twelve subsi- read, and men of all sides discoursed much of what “ dies to be paid in three years, in the manner had been said before, and many spoke with more
proposed, (that was, five subsidies to be paid the reflection upon the judgment of ship-money than “ first year, four the second, and three to be paid they had done the day past, and seemed to wish, “ in the last year,) his majesty would then release “ that whatsoever we should give the king should “ all his title or pretence to ship-money for the fu “ be a free testimony of our affection and duty,
ture, in such a manner as his parliament should “ without any release of ship-money, which de" advise.”
“ served no consideration, but in a short time would Though exceptions might have been taken again appear void and null.” And this seemed to ain point of privilege, because his majesty took notice gree with the sense of so great a part of the house, of the difference between the two houses; yet that that Mr. Hambden, the most popular man in the spirit had not then taken so deep root: so that they house, (and the same who had defended the suit resolved to enter the next day after the delivery of against the king in his own name, upon the illeit, upon a full debate of his majesty's message; gality of ship-money,) thought the matter ripe for they who desired to obstruct the giving any supply, the question, and desired that the question might believing they should easily prevail to reject this be put, “Whether the house would consent to the proposition upon the greatness of the sum demanded, “ proposition made by the king, as it was conwithout appearing not to favour the cause in which “ tained in the message?” which would have been it was to be employed, which they could not have sure to have found a negative from all who thought done with any advantage to themselves, the number the sum too great, or were not pleased that it of that classis of men being then not considerable should be given in recompense of ship-money. in the house. It was about the first day of May When many called to have this question, serthat the message was delivered, and the next day it geant Glanvile, the speaker, (who sat by amongst was resumed about nine of the clock in the morning, the other members whilst the house was in a comand the debate continued till four of the clock in mittee, and hath rarely used to speak in such seathe afternoon; which had been seldom used before, sons,) rose up, and in a most pathetical speech, in but afterwards grew into custom. Many observed, which he excelled, endeavoured to persuade the “ that they were to purchase a release of an impo- house “ to comply with the king's desire, for the “sition very unjustly laid upon the kingdom, and “ good of the nation, and to reconcile him to par
by purchasing it, they should upon the matter “ liaments for ever, which this seasonable testi“ confess it had been just;" which no man in his mony of their affections would infallibly do.” heart acknowledged ; and therefore wished," that He made it manifest to them how very inconsider“ the judgment might be first examined, and being able a sum twelve subsidies amounted to, by tell
once declared void, what they should present the ing them," that he had computed what he was to king with would appear a gift, and not a recom pay for those twelve subsidies ;” and when he
pense :" but this was rather modestly insinuated named the sum, and he being known to be thaninsisted upon; and the greater number reflected possessed of a great estate, it seemed not worth more of the proportion demanded, which some of any further deliberation. And in the warmth of those who were thought very well to understand his discourse, which he plainly discerned made a the state of the kingdom, confidently affirmed to be wonderful impression upon the house, he let fall more than the whole stock in money of the kingdom some sharp expressions against the imposition of amounted to ; which appeared shortly after to be a ship-money, and the judgment in the point, which very gross miscomputation. There were very few, he said plainly “was against the law, if he underexcept those of the court, (who were ready to give “ stood what law was,” (who was known to be all that the king would ask, and indeed had little very learned) which expression, how necessary to give of their own,) who did not believe the sum and artificial soever to reconcile the affections of demanded to be too great, and wished that a less the house to the matter in question, very much might be accepted, and therefore were willing, wh irreconciled him at court, and to those upon whom the day was so far spent, that the debate might be he had the greatest dependence. adjourned till the next morning; which was willingly There was scarce ever a speech that more gaconsented to by all, and so the house rose. All thered up and united the inclinations of a popular this agitation had been in a committee of the whole council to the speaker: and if the question had house, the speaker having left the chair, to which been presently put, it was believed the number of Mr. Lenthall, a lawyer of no eminent account, was the dissenters would not have appeared great. But called. But there was not, in the whole day, in all after a short silence, some men, who wished well the variety of contradictions, an offensive or angry to the main, expressed a dislike of the way, so that word spoken : except only that one private country other men recovered new courage, and called again gentleman, little known, said, “ He observed that with some earnestness, “That the question for" the supply was to be employed in the supporting merly proposed by Mr. Hambden should be “ bellum episcopale, which he thought the bishops
3 which seemed to meet with a concurrence. were fittest to do themselves :” but as there was Mr. Hyde then stood up, and desired, “ that quesno reply, or notice taken of it, so there was nobody “ tion might not be put; said, it was a captious who seconded that envious reflection, nor any other “ question, to which only one sort of men could expression of that kind.
clearly give their vote, which were they who
Debate on the King's Message. Parliament Dissolved. [BOOK 11. were for a rejection of the king's proposition, hatred against the earl of Strafford, lieutenant of “ and no more resuming the debate upon that Ireland, whose destruction was then upon the anvil. “ subject: but that they who desired to give the But what transported the solicitor, who had none
king a supply, as he believed most did, though of the ends of the other, could not be imagined, “not in such a proportion, nor, it may be, in that except it was his pride and peevishness, when he
manner, could receive no satisfaction by that found that he was like to be of less authority there,
question; and therefore he proposed, to the end than he looked to be; and yet he was heard with “that every man might frankly give his yea, or great attention, though his parts were most pre“his no, that the question might be put only, valent in puzzling and perplexing that discourse he
upon the giving the king a supply: which being meant to cross. Let their motives be what they “ carried in the affirmative, another question might would, they two, and they only, wrought so far “ be upon the proportion, and the manner; and with the king, that, without so much deliberation “ if the first were carried in the negative, it would as the affair was worthy of, his majesty the next “ produce the same effect, as the other question morning, which was on the fourth or fifth of May, proposed by Mr. Hambden would do.”
not three weeks from their first meeting, sent for This method was received with great approba- the speaker to attend him, and took care that he tion, but opposed by others with more than ordi- should go directly to the house of peers, upon some nary passion, and diverted by other propositions, apprehension that if he had gone to the house of which being seconded took much time, without commons, that house would have entered upon pointing to any conclusion. In the end sergeant some ingrateful discourse; which they were not Glanvile said, “That there had been a question inclined to do; and then sending for that house to “ proposed by his countryman, that agreed very attend him, the keeper, by his majesty's command, “ well with his sense, and moved that the gentle- dissolved the parliament.
man might be called upon to propose it again.” There could not a greater damp have seized upon Whereupon Mr. Hyde stated the case again as he the spirits of the whole nation, than this dissolution had done, answered somewhat that had been said caused; and men had much of the misery in view, against it, and moved, “ that question might be which shortly after fell out. It could never be
put.” Whereupon for a long time there was no- hoped, that more sober and dispassionate men thing said, but à confused clamour, and call, would ever meet together in that place, or fewer “Mr. Hambden's question,” “Mr. Hyde's ques- who brought ill purposes with them; nor could “tion;" the call appearing much stronger for the any man imagine what offence they had given, last, than the former: and it was generally believed, which put the king to that resolution.
But it was that the question had been put, and carried in the observed, that in the countenances of those who affirmative, though it was positively opposed by had most opposed all that was desired by his maHerbert the solicitor general, for what reason no jesty, there was a marvellous serenity; nor could man could imagine, if sir Henry Vane the secre- they conceal the joy of their hearts : for they knew tary had not stood up, and said, “ That, as it had enough of what was to come, to conclude that the “ been always his custom to deal plainly and king would be shortly compelled to call another
clearly with that house in all things, so he could parliament; and they were as sure, that so many “not but now assure them, that the putting and grave and unbiassed men would never be elected
carrying that question could be of no use; for again. “ that he was most sure, and had authority to tell Within an hour after the dissolving, Mr. Hyde “them so, that if they should pass a vote for the met Mr. Saint-John, who had naturally a great
giving the king a supply, if it were not in the cloud in his face, and very seldom was known to “ proportion and manner proposed in his majesty's smile, but then had a most cheerful aspect, and
message, it would not be accepted by him; and seeing the other melancholic, as in truth he was “ therefore desired that question might be laid from his heart, asked him, “What troubled him?” “ aside ;” which being again urged by the solicitor who answered, “That the same that troubled him, general upon the authority of what the other had “ he believed, troubled most good men; that in declared, and the other privy-counsellors saying “ such a time of confusion, so wise a parliament, nothing, though they were much displeased with " which could only have found remedy for it, was the secretary's averment, the business was no more so unseasonably dismissed: the other answered pressed; but it being near five of the clock in the with a little warmth, “ That all was well : and afternoon, and every body weary, it was willingly “ that it must be worse, before it could be better; consented to that the house should be adjourned “ and that this parliament would never have done till the next morning.
“ what was necessary to be done;" as indeed Both sir Henry Vane, and the solicitor general it would not, what he and his friends thought Herbert, (whose opinion was of more weight with necessary. the king than the others,) had made a worse repre The king, when he had better reflected upon sentation of the humour and affection of the house what was like to fall out, and was better informed than it deserved, and undertook to know, that if of the temper and duty of the house of commons, they came together again, they would pass such a and that they had voted a supply, if sir Henry vote against ship-money, as would blast that Vane had not hindered it by so positive a declararevenue and other branches of the receipt; which tion that his majesty would refuse it, was heartily others believed they would not have had the confi- sorry for what he had done; declared with great dence to have attempted; and very few, that they anger, “That he had never given him such authorwould have had the credit to have compassed. ity; and that he knew well that the giving him What followed in the next parliament, within less “ any supply would have been welcome to him, than a year, made it believed, that sir Henry Vane “ because the reputation of his subjects assisting acted that part maliciously, and to bring all into “ him in that conjuncture was all that he looked confusion; he being known to have an implacable “ for and considered.” He consulted the same
57 day, or the next, whether he might by his procla- dear to the two earls ; and indeed, by a very extramation recall them to meet together again : but ordinary fate, (he had] got a very particular interfinding that impossible, he fell roundly to find out est and esteem in many worthy men of very difall expedients for the raising of money, in which ferent qualifications. He had been born a soldier he had so wonderful success, that, in less than in his father's garrison of the Brill, when he was three weeks, by the voluntary loan of the particular governor there; and bred up, in several commands, lords of the council, and of other private gentle under the particular care of the lord Vere, whose men about the city, some relating to the court, and nephew he was; and though he was married young, others strangers to it, there was no less than three when his father was secretary of state, there was hundred thousand pounds paid into the exchequer no action of the English either at sea or land, in to be issued out as his majesty should direct: a which he had not a considerable command; and sum that sufficiently manifests the plenty of that always preserved a more than ordinary reputation, time, and greater than any prince in Europe could in spite of some great infirmities, which use to be have commanded in so short a time; and was an a great allay to the credit of active men ; for he unanswerable evidence, that the hearts of his sub- was a voluptuous man in eating and drinking, and jects were not then aliened from their duty to the of great license in all other excesses, and yet was king, or a just jealousy for his honour.
very acceptable to the strictest and the gravest All diligence was used in making levies, in which men of all conditions. And which was stranger few of the general officers which had been employed than all this, he had always (from his pleasure, to the
year before were made use of; though it was which his nature excessively inclined him, and from great pity that the earl of Essex was not again his profession, in which he was diligent enough) taken in; which had infallibly preserved him from reserved so much time for his books and study, swerving from his duty, and he would have dis- that he was well versed in all parts of learning, at charged his trust with courage and fidelity, and least appeared like such a one in all occasions, and therefore probably with success : but he was of a in the best companies. He was of a very pleasant rough, proud nature, and did not think his last and inoffensive conversation, which made him summer's service so well requited that he was ear- generally very acceptable : so that the court being nestly to solicit for another office; though there at that time full of faction, very few loving one was no doubt but he would have accepted it, if it another, or those who resorted to any who were had been offered.
not loved by them, he alone was even domestic A general was appointed, the earl of Northum - with all, and not suspected by either of the lords' berland; and the lord Conway general of the horse: or the ladies' factions. which made the great officers of the former year, The war was generally thought to be as well the earl of Arundel, the earl of Essex, and the earl provided for, as, after the last year's miscarriage, of Holland, (who thought themselves free from any it could be, by his being made general of the oversights that had been committed,) more capable horse; and no man was more pleased with it than of infusions by those who were ready to work the archbishop of Canterbury, who had contracted according to the occurrences upon their several an extraordinary opinion of this man, and took constitutions, and I am persuaded if this war had great delight in his company, he being well able to been left to the managery of the same officers, or speak in the affairs of the church, and taking care rather if the earl of Essex had been made general, to be thought by him a very zealous defender of (who, notwithstanding the trivial disobligation he it; when they who knew him better, knew he had had received in being denied the command of no kind of sense of religion, and thought all was Beedon-forest, might easily have been caressed,) alike. He was sent down with the first troops of it would have been more prosperously carried on. horse and foot which were levied, to the borders of But the reputation of the earl of Northumberland, Scotland, to attend the motion of the enemy, and who had indeed arrived at a wonderful general had a strength sufficient to stop them, if they estimation, was believed to be most instrumental: should attempt to pass the river, which was not and the lord Conway by as gentle and as general fordable in above one or two places, there being a concurrence was thought an able soldier, and of good garrisons in Berwick and Carlisle. And in great parts. Besides, the earls of Essex and Hol- this posture he lay near Newburn in the outskirts land (for, for the earl of Arundel, there was neither of Northumberland. reason why he was general in the first expedition, and Whilst these things were thus publicly acted, why he was not in this ;) were thought less govern- private agitations were not less vigorously inable by those councils to which the main was then tended. The treaty and pacification of the former to be intrusted, the earl of Strafford bearing a part year had given an opportunity of forming correin them; to whom the first was very averse, and spondences, and contriving designs, which before the latter irreconcilable.
had been more clandestine ; and the late meeting Despatches were sent into Ireland to quicken the in parliament had brought many together, who preparations there, which the earl had left in a could not otherwise have met, and discovered great forwardness, under the care of the earl of humours and affections, which could not else have Ormond, his lieutenant-general: monies issued out been so easily communicated. The court was full for the levies of horse and foot there, and for the of faction and animosity, each man more intending making a train : all which were as well advanced the ruin of his adversary, and satisfying his private as, considering the general discomposure, could be malice, than advancing his master's service, or reasonably expected.
complying with his public duty, and to that purAnd the king, the earl of Northumberland, and pose directing all their endeavours, and forming the earl of Strafford, thought they had well pro- all their intercourse ; whilst every man sottishly vided for the worst in making choice of the lord thought him whom he found an enemy to his Conway to be general of the horse : a man very enemies, a friend to all his other affections: or
routed at Newburn. The Scots enter Newcastle. [BOOK II. rather by the narrowness of his understanding, of by the physician, or pronounced to be expected and extent of his passion, having contracted all very slowly; so that there would be no possibility his other affections to that one of revenge. for him to perform the service of the north: where
And by this means those emissaries and agents upon he sent to the king, that he would make for the confusion which was to follow were fur- choice of another general. And though the lord nished with opportunity and art to entangle all Conway in all his letters sent advertisement, “ that those (and God knows they were a great people) “ the Scots had not advanced their preparations to who were transported with those vulgar and vile “ that degree, that they would be able to march considerations : cheap, senseless libels were scat “ that year,” yet the king had much better inteltered about the city, and fixed upon gates and ligence that they were in readiness to move; and public remarkable places, traducing some, and so concluded, that it was necessary to send another proscribing others of those who were in highest general; and designed the earl of Strafford for that trust and employment: tumults were raised, and command, and to leave the forces in Ireland, which all license both in actions and words taken; inso- were raised to make a diversion in Scotland, to be much as a rabble of mean, unknown, dissolute governed by the earl of Ormond. The earl of persons, to the number of some thousands, at- Strafford was scarce recovered from a great sicktempted the house of the lord archbishop of Can- ness, yet was willing to undertake the charge, out terbury at Lambeth, with open profession and of pure indignation to see how few men were forprotestation, “ that they would tear him in pieces;" ward to serve the king with that vigour of mind which (though one of that rabble, a sailor, was ap- they ought to do, and knowing well the malicious prehended and executed in Southwark, upon an designs which were contrived against himself, but indictment of high treason) was so just a cause he would rather serve as lieutenant-general under of terror, that the archbishop, by the king's the earl of Northumberland, than that he should command, lodged for some days and nights in resign his commission : and so, with and under Whitehall; which place likewise was not unthreat- that qualification, he made all possible haste toened in their seditious meetings and discourses. wards the north, before he had strength enough This infamous, scandalous, headless insurrection, for the journey. quashed by the deserved death of that one varlet, And before he could arrive with the
that was not then thought to be contrived or fomented infamous irreparable rout at Newburn was fallen by any persons of quality: yet it was discoursed out; where the enemy marched at a time and after in the house of commons by Mr. Strode (one place, when and where they were expected, through of those ephori who most avowed the curbing and a river deep though fordable, and up a hill, where suppressing of majesty) with much pleasure and our army was ranged to receive them: through content; and it was mentioned in the first draught those difficulties and disadvantages, without giving of the first remonstrance (when the same was or taking any blows, (for the five or six men of brought in by Mr. Pym) not without a touch of ours who were killed, fell by their cannon, before approbation, which was for that reason somewhat the passing of the river,) they put our whole army altered, though it still carried nothing of judgment to the most shameful and confounding flight that upon it in that piece.
was ever heard of; our foot making no less haste Things standing thus both in the court and city, from Newcastle, than our horse from Newburn; and the Scots preparing amain for an invasion, both leaving the honour, and the coal, to those and we, at least, for a defence, on a sudden the who had not confidence enough (notwithstanding lord Lowden, (who before was said to be com- the evidence they had seen of our fear) to possess mitted for desiring protection and aid from the that town in two days after ; not believing it posFrench king, by a letter under his hand) was dis- sible that such a place, which was able to have charged from his imprisonment; without impart- waged war with their nation, could be so kindly ing that resolution to the council; and after a few quit to them : the lord Conway never after turning days admittance and kind reception at Whitehall, his face towards the enemy, or doing any thing was dismissed into Scotland ; his authority and like a commander, though his troops were quickly power with that people being as considerable as brought together again, without the loss of a dozen any man's, and his conduct as necessary for the men, and were so ashamed of their flight, that they enterprises they had in hand. This stratagem was were very willing as well as able to have taken never understood, and was then variously spoken what revenge they would upon the enemy, who of; many believing he had undertaken great mat were possessed with all the fears imaginable, and ters for the king in Scotland, and to quiet that could hardly believe their own success, till they distemper : others, that it was an act entirely com were [assured that the lord Conway with all his passed by the marquis of Hamilton, who was like army rested quietly in Durham, and then they to stand in need of great supporters, by that extra- presumed to enter into Newcastle.] ordinary obligation to endear himself with that But it seemed afterwards to be a full vindication nation; or to communicate somewhat to that na to the honour of the nation, that, from this intion, if his condition before were so good that it famous defeat at Newburn, to the last entire conneeded no endearment. They who published their quest of Scotland by Cromwell
, the Scots' army thoughts least, made no scruple of saying, “ that never performed one signal action against the Eng
if the policy were good and necessary of his first lish, but were always beaten by great inequality of “ commitment, it seemed as just and prudent to numbers as oft as they approached to any encounter, “ have continued him in that restraint,"
if they were not supported by English troops. The progress in the king's advance for Scotland In this posture the earl of Strafford found the was exceedingly hindered by the great and danger- army about Durham, bringing with him a body ous sickness of the earl of Northumberland the much broken with his late sickness, which was not general, whose recovery was either totally despaired clearly shaken off, and a mind and temper confess
1640.] The King's army retreats towards York. 'A Council called.
59 ing the dregs of it, which being marvellously pro In these distractions and discomposures, bevoked and inflamed with indignation at the late tween an enemy proud and insolent in success, an dishonour, rendered him less gracious, that is, less army corrupted, or at best disheartened, a country inclined to make himself so, to the officers, upon mutinous and inclined to the rebels, at least not his first entrance into his first charge; it may be, inclined to reduce them, and a court infected with in that mass of disorder and unsoldierliness, not all three, the king could not but find himself in quickly discerning to whom kindness and respect great straits ; besides that his treasure, which had was justly due. But those who by this time no hitherto kept that which was best from being worse, doubt were retained for that purpose, took that was quite spent. The raising and disbanding the opportunity to incense the army against him; and first army so unfortunately and wretchedly, had so far prevailed in it, that in a short time it was cost full three hundred thousand pounds, which more inflamed against him than against the enemy; the good husbandry of the ministers of the revenue and was willing to have their want of courage im- had treasured up for an emergent occasion; and puted to excess of conscience, and that their being the borrowing so much money for the raising and not satisfied in the grounds of the quarrel was the supplying this latter army had drawn assignments only cause that they fought no better. And in this and anticipations upon the revenue to that degree, disposition in all parts, the earl found it necessary that there was not left wherewithal to defray the to retire with the army to the skirts of Yorkshire, constant necessary expense of the king's houseand himself to York, (whither the king was come,) hold. A parliament would not be easily thought leaving Northumberland and the bishopric of Dur- of for many other considerations than that it could ham to be possessed by the victors; who being abun- not come together speedily enough to prevent that dantly satisfied with what they never hoped to pos- mischief, to which it should be chiefly applied : for sess, made no haste to advance their new conquests. if we were not then in a condition to defend our
It was then and is now very much wondered at, selves, in forty days (the soonest a parliament could that the earl of Strafford, upon his first arrival at meet) an army elate with victory, when no town the army, called no persons to a council of war for was fortified, or pass secured, would run over the that shameful business of Newburn, or the more kingdom ; especially the people being every where shameful quitting of Newcastle, (where were not so like to bid them welcome. ten barrels of musquet bullets, nor moulds to make A new convention (not before heard of, that is, any; the enemy having been long expected there, so old, that it had not been practised in some hunand our army not less than a month in that town; dreds of years) was thought of, to call a great time enough, if nothing had been done before, to council of all the peers of England to meet and have made that place tenable for a longer time than attend his majesty at York, that by their advice it could have been distressed.) Whether the earl that great affair might be the more prosperously saw that it would not have been in his power to managed. Whether it was then conceived, that have proceeded finally and exemplarily upon that the honour of the king and kingdom being so inquisition, and therefore chose rather not to enter visibly upon the stage, those branches of honour, upon it; or whether he found the guilt to be so which could not outlive the root, would undoubtinvolved, that though some were more obnoxious, edly rescue and preserve it; or whether it was few were unfaulty; or whether he plainly discerned believed, that upon so extraordinary an occasion whither the whole tended, and so would not trouble the peers would suffice to raise money; as it was himself further in disc ering of that, hich, in- in that meeting proposed by one of them, “that stead of a reproach, miglat prove a benefit to the “they might give subsidies” whether the advice persons concerned ; I know not: but any public was given by those who had not the confidence in examination it never had.
plain terms to propose a parliament, but were conThe Scots needed not now advance their pro- fident that would produce one ; or whether a pargress; their game was in the hands (no prejudice liament was then resolved on, and they called to to their skill) of better gamesters. Besides, they be obliged by it, and so to be obliged to some were not to make the least inroad, or do the least sober undertaking in it; or what other ground or trespass to their neighbours of Yorkshire ; who intention there was of that council, was never were as solicitous, that, by any access or concur- known : or whether indeed it was resolved out of rence of the strength of that large county, they the trouble and agony of afflicted thoughts, beshould not be driven further back; and therefore, cause no other way occurred: but such a resoluinstead of drawing their trained bands together tion was taken, and writs immediately issued un(which of themselves would have been a greater or der the great seal of England to all the peers to a better army than was to contend with them) to attend his majesty at York within twenty days ; defend their county, or the person of the king then and preparations were made in all places accordwith them, they prepared petitions of advice and ingly. good counsel to him to call a parliament, and to Whilst the lords are on their way thither, it will remove all other grievances but the Scots. At the not be amiss to consider the general state of affairs same time some lords from London (of known and in that time, and the persons to whom the managsince published affections to that invasion) at- ing the public business was principally then, and tended his majesty at York with a petition, signed for some time had been, intrusted ; that so, upon by others, eight or ten in the whole, who were view of the materials, we may be the better enabled craftily persuaded by the liegers there, Mr. Pym, to guess how those dexterous workmen were like Mr. Hambden, and Mr. Saint-John, to concur in to employ themselves. It is told you before, that, it, being full of duty and modesty enough ; with- upon the dissolution of the parliament but four out considering, that nothing else at that time months before, the lords of the council bestirred could have done mischief; and so suffered them themselves in levying the ship-money, and in lendselves to be made instruments towards those ends, ing great sums of money for the war. which in truth they abhorred.
The convocation house (the regular and legal