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Exxi. ties than the nobles and natives of the metropolis (67). •- The ignorance and credulity of the Romans are elaborately

displayed in the old survey of the city which was composed about the beginning of the thirteenth century ; and,

without dwelling on the manifold errors of name

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cond example of less importance, though of equal absurdity, may be drawn from the two marble horses, led by two naked youths, which have fince been transported from the baths of Constantime to the Quirinal hill. The o application of the names of Phidias and Praxiteles may perhaps be excused; but these Grecian sculptors should not have been removed above four hundred years from the age of Pericles to that of Tiberius : they should not have been transformed into two philosophers or magicians, whose nakedness was the symbol of truth and knowledge, who revealed to the emperor (67) He excepts and praises the rare knowledge of John Colonna. Qui enim hodie magis ignari rerum Romanarum, quam Romani cives * Invitus dico nusquam minus Roma cognostitur quam Roma. (68) After the description of the Capitol, he adds, statua erant quot sunt mundi provincia: ; et habebat quaelibet tintinnabulum ad collum. Eterant ita per magicam artem dispositae, ut quando aliqua regio Romano Imperio. rebellis erat, statim imago illius provinciae vertebat se contra illam ; unde tintinnabulum resonabat quod pondebat ad collum ; tuncoue wates Capitolii quierant custodes senatui, &c. He mentions an example of the Saxons and Suevi, who, after they had been subdued by Agrippa, again rebelled ; tintinnabulum sonuit ; sacerdos qui erat in speculo in hebdomadā senatoribus nuntiavit; Agrippa marched back and reduced the –Persians (Anonym. in Montfaucon, p. 297, 298.) (69) The same writer affirms, that Virgil captus a Romanis invisibiliter exiit, ivitgue Neapolim. A Roman magician, in the xith century, is introduced by William of Malmsbury (de Gestis Regum Anglorum, l. ii. p. 86.); and in the time of Flaminius Vacca (No. 8 1. Io 3.) it was th: vulgar belief that the strangers(the Goths)invoked the datalons for the discovery of hidden ti easures

cuniary recompense, solicited the honour of leaving this eternal monument of themselves (70). Thus awake to the power of magic, the Romans were insensible to the beauties of art: no more than five statues were visible to the eyes of Poggius; and of the multitudes which chance or design had buried under the ruins, the resurre&tion was fortunately delayed till a safer and more enlightened age (71). The Nile, which now adorns the Vatican, had been explored by some labourers in digging a vineyard near the temple, or convent, of the Minerva; but the impatient proprietor, who was tormented by some visits of curiosity, restored the unprofitable marble to its former grave (72). The discovery of a statue of Pompey, ten feet in length, was the occasion of a law-suit. It had been found under a partition-wall: the equitable judge had pronounced, that the head should be separated from the body to satisfy the claims of the contiguous owners; and the sentence would have been executed, if the intercession of a cardinal, and the liberality of a pope, had not rescued the Roman hero from the hands of his barbarous country

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°..; "taneous produce of freedom and industry. The first and J-, most natural root of a great city, is the abour and populousness of the adjacent country, which supplies the materials of subsistence, of manufaātures, and of foreign trade. But the greater part of the Campagna of Rome is reduced to a dreary and desolate wilderness: the overgrown estates of the princes and the clergy are cultivated by the lazy hands of indigent and hopeless vassals; and the scanty harvests are confined or exported for the benefit of a monopoly. A fecond and more artificial cause of the growth of a metropolis, is the refidence of a monarch, the expence of a luxurious court, and the tributes of dependent provinces. Those provinces and tributes had been lost in the fall of the empire: and if some streams of the silver of Peru and the gold of Brasil have been attracted by the Vatican ; the revenues of the cardinals, the fees of office, the oblations of pilgrims and clients, and the remnant of ecclesiastical taxes, afford a poor and precarious supply, which maintains however the idleness of the court and city. The population + of Rome, far below the measure of the great capitals of Europe, does not exceed one hundred and seventy thousand inhabitants (74); and within the spacious inclosure of the walls, the largest portion of the seven hills is overfpread with vineyards and ruins. The beauty and splendour of the modern city may be ascribed to the abuses of the government, to the influence of superstition. . Each reign (the exceptions are rare) has been marked by the rapid elevation of a new family, enriched by the childless pontiff at the expence of the church and country. The palaces of these fortunate nephews are the most costly monuments of elegance and servitude ; the perfeót arts of archite&ure, painting, and sculpture, have been prostituted in their service, and their galleries and gardens are decorated with the most precious works of antiquity, which taste or vanity has prompted them to colle&t. The ecclesiastical revenues were more decently employed by the popes themselves in the pomp of the Catholic *: ut

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Of these pilgrims, and of every reader, the attention Final conwill be excited by an history of the decline and fall of the clusion.

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deficiency of his materials. It was among the ruins of the Capitol, that I first conceived the idea of a work which has amused and exercised near twenty years of my life, and which, however inadequate to my wishes, I finally deliven to the curiosity and candour of the Public.

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