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many Miles cogether, without an Hill to intercept the free Current of Air which purifies it from all inoxious Vapours. It is wafhed by a great Number of plenteous Streams: On the East, by the different Branches of the Cherwell; on the South and , West, by those of the Thames; all which meet and join a little below the City, forming one beautiful River. The Soil is dry, being on a fine Gravel, which renders ic as healthful and pleasant a Spot as any in the Kingdom.
The Town, including the Suburbs, is a Mile in Length from East to West, and almost as much in Breadth from North to South; being three Miles in Circumference; but it is of an irregular Figure, and many void Spaces are comprehended within these Limits, besides the numerous Courts and Gardens, belonging to the respective Colleges. ,
The City, properly so called, formerly surrounded by an embattled Wall, with Bastions at about 150 Feet Distance from each other, is of an oblong Form, and not much more than two Miles in Circumference. , Magdalen College, with the Eastern as well as Northern Suburbs, which contain the Parishes of Holy-well, Magdalen, and St. Giles's, with Balliol, Trinity, St. Fobin's and Wadham Cola leges, are without the old Walls, of which a confiderable Part remains as a Boundary to New College; beginning near East-Gate, and continuing almost to the Clarendon Printing-house, where there was a Portal and a Chapel ; fome Remains of which are still visible : Likewise from East-Gate Southwards, alniost to Christ-church, making an entire boundary to the East and South Sides of Merton and Corpus Christi Colleges. The Fortifications and Outworks, raised by the Royalists in the Time of the Civil Wars, included all the Suburbs; but they are now almost entirely demolished.
The principal Street of the City runs from East to West, almost the Length of the Town, but under different Names; the High-Street, beginning at the East-Gate, includes at least two Thirds of 'B 2
that Length; the Remainder is called the old Butcher-Rom, and Castle Street. The High Street is perhaps without a Rival; being of a spacious Width and Length, clean and well paved, adorned with the Fronts of three well built Colleges ; St. Mary's and All-Saints Churches; before the former an handsome new built Stone Wall and a broad Pavement, now called the Parade; the latter with a Parapet Wall and Iron Palisades, terminated at one End by the Conduit and Carfax Church, and at the other by East-Gate, and a View of Magdalen College Tower. Some object to its not being stait ; but others think that a Beauty : For every Turn of it presents a new Object, and a different View; each of which would make an agreeable Picture in Perspective : Whereas, had it been strait, every Object would have been seen at one and the same Initant, but more fore-shortened and cclipsed than at present.
The second Street in Oxford is that which runs from South to North, crossing the Street already defcribed, from whence tliat Part of the Town has obtained the Name of Quater Fois, or the Four Ways, corruptly called Carfax; as the Corporation Church, which stands near the Four Ways, likewise is. . ..
The Souch End of this second Street is called Fil-Street, and the other End of it the Corn-Market'; from whence we pass through Bocardo, or the North Gate, into Magdalen Parish, and St. Giles's, which form a very spacious Street, and in some rea fpects is preferable to either of the former, efpeci: ally to such as love Retirement; it having the Pleasure and Advantage of the Country, tho' connected with the Town. It hath much the Appearance of a pear Country Village ; being well planted with Elms, the Houses (mauy of which are handsome ones) having for the most part Grass-plots before. them, and Gardens or Corn-Fields behind them. One End of this Street' is handsomely terminated by St, Giles's Church; and the other by Magdalen
Church : tho somewhat eclipsed by the middle Row of Houses. This Street is likewise adorned with the Front of St. 7ohn's College.
On the East Side of Fiss-Street (commonly called St. Tole's, by Corruption from St. Aldate's, (which Parish includes the greatest Part of this Street) stands Christ-church College; the magnificent Front whereof extends 382 Feet. Also the Town Hall where the Town and Country Selsions, and the Allizes are held; which is newly rebuilt in an elegant Taste, with all Manner of Conveniences for the separate Courts, viz. Rooms for the Grand and Petty Juries, &c. with an Arcade underneath, at the Expence of that worthy Patriot and Citizen Thomas ROWNEY, Esq; one of the present Representatives in Parliament, and High Steward of this City.
The chief Bridges are, first, the East, called Magdalen Bridge, over the cherwell; this extends 678 Feet, and consists of 20 Stone Arches. It was first built by Robert D'Oylie, who built the Castle as abovementioned; but it has been considerably widened within these Forty Years. This is the Grand Entrance from London. The second, on the South Side of the Town, is over the Thames; where · there is a Gate commonly called Friar Bacon's Study. This is the Entrance from Abingdon in Berks, and is itself also in that County. The third, on the West Side, is likewise over the Thames, and is called High-Bridge; from hence runs a Causey of a Mile in Lengch, across the Meadows abovementioned, which consists partly of Terra firma, and partly of Stone Bridges over the different Branches of the Thames : One in particular near the Middle thereof, viz. Bulstock Bridge, is over the navigable Stream which comes from Letchlade in Gloucestershire, b. There are in the City of Oxford, and Liberties,
teeri Parishes, viz. I. St. Mary's. 2. All-Saints. 3. St. Martin's, or Carfax. 4. St. A'date's, or St. Tole's. 5. St. Ebb's. 6. St. Peter's in the Bayly.
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7. St. Michaels. 8. St. Mary Magdalen. g. St. Pea ter in the East. 10. Holywell. II, St. Giles's (12. St. Thomas's, 12. St. 7oboi's. A plen
Of the Churches which give Names to the leveral Parishes already enumerated, there are but four which are remarkable, viz. Śt. Mary's, AlSaints, St. Peter's in the East, and St. John's. St. Mary's stands on the North Side of the High-Street, and is the Church to which the University refort on Sundays and Holidays to hear Sermons: It is a wellproportioned Church, and handsomely built, tho' Gothic. The Porch, indeed, is in a more modern Taste; it was built at the Expence of Dr. Morgan Owen, Chaplain to Archbishop Laud, A.D. 1637. and . coft 230 1. The Church consists of three Isles, and a large Chancel, which is paved with black and white Marble. The Vice-Chancellor fits at the West End of the middle Isle, on a kind of Throne elevated some few Steps; a little below fit the two Proctors; on either Hand, descending, the Heads of Houses and Doctors; below these, the young Noblemen; and in the Area, on Benches, the Masters of Arts. At the West End, with a Return to the North and South Ines, are Galleries for Bachelors and Under-graduates; and under the middle one are Seats for the Ladies. Adjoining, to the North Isle, is Adam de Brome's Chapel where the Vice-Chancellor, Heads of Houses, Proc-. tors and Preacher assemble before Sermon, and from thence go in Procession to their respective Places. The Pulpit stands in the Center of the middle Ife. In the Arch between the Church and Chancel, is a good Organ, originally built by, Fas* ther Smith, and since improved by Mr. 70bn Byfield. This is not the first Organ erected in this Church; for W. Gray, Archdeacon of Berkshire, dying A D: 1521. bequeathed four Pounds to buy a nem Pair of Organs, to be played upon in it. The Tower and Spire, which' rises from the Ground to the perpendicular Height of 180 Feet, is a very noble Structure, and contains à Ring of Six large
Bells. In Term Time, one or other of these is tolled or rung out, to give Norice of Convocation or Congregation, and the Performance of the Uniyersity Exercises. : : On the Left-side of the West Window, next to the High-Street, is a pretty Piece of Sculpture, representing a Woman down to the Waist: 'It is well designed, and properly executed; though Time or Accident hath somewhat impaired the Face, which has been beautiful. The Hood is of modern Fashion. It is remarkable that Foreigners compliment this Curiosity with their Notice, tho? little observed by the Inhabitants.
AU-Saints Church stands in the fame Street, a little to the Westward of St. Mary's; and is a very beautiful Fabric of white Stone. It is adorned, both within and without, with Pilasters of the Com rinthian Order, an Attic Story and Ballustrade ele gantly finisiing it without, a curious fretwork Ciel. ing, a neat Altar-Piece, and well finished throughout. This Church is 72 Feet' long, 42 wide, and 50 high, without a' Pillar. :)
The Steeple is built after the Manner of some of the new Churches in London. Thé'Architect, the Rev. Dr. Aldrich, formerly Dean of Chrift Church,
St. Peter's in the East, ftanding backwards from the above Street, near Queen's College, is 800 Years old; and was the first Church built of Stone in this part of the Kingdom. It is in good Condition, and likely to stand as many Years longer: It was formerly the University Church; and now the University go to it every Sunday in the Affers noon during Lent. This Parish has more to boast of, perhaps, (exclusive of what has been mentione ed) than any one in Europe beside : For it contains frye Colleges; viz. University, Queens, New-Cola lege, Magdalen, and Hertford Colleges; three Halls; viz. St. Edmund, Magdalen, and Alban Halls'; Two Peals of Ten Bells, and one of Six; and three Organs: Two of which belong-cò College