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repulsed, with loss of 200 killed, wounded and prisoners, besides his wagons, munitions and cattle.

October 13.—Battle near Arrow Rock, Saline county. Confederates reported 2,500 in number, under Cols. Shelby and Coffey, were attacked by Missouri state militia under Gen. E. B. Brown, and defeated with a loss of 300 in killed, wounded and prisoners, besides all their artillery and baggage. Fight lasted five hours. Federal loss not known, though reported as “also large.”

EVENTS ÎN 1864.

January 28.—Gen. Rosecrans arrived at St. Louis and took command of the Department of Missouri.

June The Belgian Consul, who was state commander of the secret order of “ American Knights,” or “Sons of Liberty," was arrested, with forty of the most prominent members, and held as hostages, because proof had been discovered that they were plotting against the Federal authorities.

September 26.-Gen. Price, with 10,000 men, attacked the Federal garrison at Ironton (near Pilot Knob), in command of Gen. Thomas Ewing, jr., with 1,200 men. After a day's hard fighting the Federals spiked their fort guns and retreated in the night to Rolla, having lost 200 killed and wounded. The Confederates lost 1,500.

October 7,--Battle or skirmish of Moreau creek, in Cole county, which Gen. Price crossed, and formed his army in line of battle about four miles long around Jefferson City. But finding the Federal garrison intrenched, he marched on west without attacking them. (The Federals had 6,700 men there).

October 22.-Gen. Pleasanton's Federal cavalry defeated Col. Fagan at Independence, capturing two cannon.

October 23.—Battle on the Big Blue creek, in Jackson county, lasting from 7 A. M., till 1 P. M. Confederates retreated southward.

October 25.–Battle on little Osage Creek in Vernon county. Gen. Price was defeated, the Federals under Gen. Pleasonton capturing eight cannon, and Generals Marmaduke and Cabell, besides five colonels and 1,000 men, with all equipments, supplies, etc. The fighting had been almost continuous by some part of the troops, all along the march from Independence to the Little Osage; and reports at this point give the Federal loss at 1,000 killed and wounded, and about 2,000 taken prisoners; Confederate loss, 900 killed, 3,800 wounded and prisoners, and ten cannon captured from them.

October 28.—Gen. Price again made a stand at Newtonia, in Newton county, and had a sharp fight with the Federals under Gens. Blunt and Sanborn, bit was defeated and escaped into Arkansas. And this was the

last encounter that can be called a "battle" within the bounds of our state. The numbers engaged on either side, and their losses in this last fight are not reported.

MEN AND MONEY FOR THE WAR

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Under President Lincoln's first call, April 15, 1861, for 75,000 volunteers, Missouri furnished 10,501 men; and she furnished a total of 108,773 Federal or Union soldiers during the war. The total number of citizens of Missouri who took up arms on the Confederate side cannot be ascertained.

During the war the state issued its indebtedness called “Defense Warrants” and “Union Military Bonds,” for equipping and maintaining the militia organizations of the state; the total amount was $7,876,575. All of the defense warrants and one-half of the Union military bonds were made receivable for state taxes; and a special fund was created for the redemption of the balance. The United States paid to the state of Missouri a total of $6,440,323.95, to reimburse her for military expenses incurred.

ST. LOUIS IN THE WAR-TIME.

Notwithstanding the strenuous competition of other cities, the superior advantages of St. Louis for distribution, and a due regard for its own interests, compelled the government to make St. Louis the western base of supplies and transportation. During the war the transactions of the government at this point were very large. Gen. Parsons, chief of transportation in the Mississippi Valley, submits the following as an approximate summary of the operations in his department from 1860 to 1865:

AMOUNT OF TRANSPORTATION.

Cannons and caissons

800 Wagons.

13,000 Cattle...

80,000 Horses and mules.

250,000 Troops .....

1,000,000 Pounds of military stores..

.. 1,950,000,000 Gen. Parsons thinks that full one-half of all the transportation employed by the government on the Mississippi and its tributaries was furnished by St. Louis. From September, 1861, to December 31, 1865, Gen. Haines, chief commissary of this department, expended at St. Louis for the purchase of subsistence stores, $50,700,000.' And Gen. Myers, chief quartermaster of the department, disbursed for supplies, transportation, and incidental expenses, $180,000,000.

HOSPITAL SERVICE.

As a part of the war history of Missouri, the military hospitals of St. Louis claim at least a brief mention. After the battle of Wilson's Creek it became apparent that the government provision for hospitals was entirely inadequate to the emergency. A voluntary organization, called the Western Sanitary Commission, was formed, consisting of James E. Yeatman (now of the Merchant's National Bank), Rev. Wm. G. Eliot, D. D., (now Chancellor of Washington University), George Partridge, (recently Vice President of Trustees of State Blind Asylum), Carlos S. Greeley and John B. Johnson. Their purpose was to receive and distribute hospital supplies furnished by the people, and in every practicable way aid and co-operate with the military authorities in the care of the sick and wounded. The first woman regularly mustered into the United States service as a hospital nurse, in Missouri, was Mrs. F. R. H. Reid, M. D., from Wisconsin, (now resides at Des Moines, Iowa). She was the woman coadjutor of U. S. Surgeon, Dr. Mills, in opening and starting the. first large volunteer hospital, which was known as the Chestnut street hospital; and afterward she took the same part in the Fourth street hospital; and also with Dr. Melchior in the Marine hospital; also in a temporary post hospital at Sulphur Springs.

To give an idea of the largeness of the hospital work, we quote from a circular printed at St. Louis, Nov. 22, 1861,* which says: “There are ten military hospitals in St. Louis alone, with a maximum capacity for 3,500 patients. The number of patients varies every day, but on Wednesday, November 20th, they reported patients under treatment as follows: House of Refuge hospital, [Sisters of Charity nurses].

475 Fifth and Chestnut streets hospital,

464 Good Samaritan hospital, [for measles,]

173 Fourth street hospital,

328 Jefferson barracks hospital.

72 Arsenal hospital,....

16 Camp Benton hospital,

106 Pacific hospital, [depot for the hospital cars]....

30 Duncan's Island hospital, [for small-pox: cases all convalescent,]. 4 Convalescent barracks, [known as Camp Benton,)...

800 Total,.....

...2,468 (This does not include the company, regiment and brigade hospitals, of which there are several.) The average mortality has been about four per cent. A hospital car, properly fitted up and manned, passes daily over the railroad to the interior, to bring in the sick and wounded. The arrangements for decent burial, registration of deaths, idcntification, etc.,

* Prepared and published by H. A. Reid, Associate Member for Wisconsin of the 'U. S. Sanitary Commission

are very complete. The body of any soldier who may die in any of the hospitals may be identified, and removed for other obsequies or burial by relatives or friends. There are no hospital chaplains; but nurses are instructed by the sanitary commission, that every patient who asks for it, will be visited by a clergyman of his own choice, at any hour.”

There were hospitals also at Jefferson City, Rolla and Ironton at this time. This circular contained a classified list, prepared by Mrs. Reid, of over a hundred different articles needed for the care, comfort and welfare of the soldiers in hospital, beyond what the general government could furnish; the whole document was reprinted by state authority at Madison, Wisconsin, and widely circulated. In a letter dated St. Louis, Jan. 14, 1862, Mr. Yeatman said: “Wisconsin has contributed most largely to wards supplying comforts for the sick in camps and hospitals in this department, second to but one other state-Massachusetts.”

There was a prison hospital for sick Confederate prisoners, to whom supplies were furnished from the stores of the sanitary commission, the same as to the Union soldiers; and wounded Confederates were cared for in the general hospitals the same as those of the Federal troops. The writer hereof was an eye-witness to this fact; and is glad to record it as a testimony of the true Christian spirit of the sanitary commission and the magnanimity of the Federal authorities.

THE WAR-TIME STATE GOVERNMENT.

The civil authority of the state remained vested in the state convention from July, 1861, until July, 1863. This provisional body held the following sessions: 1861—Jefferson City, February 28 to March 4.

St. Louis, March 6 to March 22.
Jefferson City, July 22 to July 31.

St. Louis, October 10 to October 18.
1862–Jefferson City, June 2 to June 14.
1863— Jefferson City, June 15 to July 1, when it adjourned sine die.

The course of affairs had now become so far settled and pacified that civil proceedings were again possible, and the regular fall elections were held this year, 1863. On the 13th of February, 1864, the general assembly convened, and passed an act to authorize the election of sixty-six members to a state convention, “to consider such amendments to the constitution of the state as might by it be deemed necessary for the emancipation of slaves;* to preserve in purity the elective franchise to loyal citizens, and for the promotion of the public good.”

This convention met in St. Louis, January 6, 1865; and on the 11th of the same month it passed, by a vote of sixty ayes to four noes, an ordinance emancipating all slaves within the state, and providing that it should take effect immediately. The convention also framed a new constitution, in many respects quite different from the old one. The final vote in convention on the new instrument stood thirty-eight for, to thirteen against it. The convention adjourned April 10, sine die. In June the people voted on the new constitution, and the vote stood 43,670 for, to 41,808 against it.

* President Lincoln's emancipation proclamation, January 1, 1863, only applied to slaves within such states or parts of states as were then controlled by the Confederate power.

The following are some of the most notable new features embodied in the organic law of the state, and will readily explain why there was such a large vote against its adoption: It established an oath of loyalty to the United States; and those who would not take the oath it excluded from the right to vote or hold any civil office whatever, or act as a teacher in any public school, or to solemnize marriage as a clergyman, or to practice law in any of the courts. It limited the amount of land which

any

church or religious society might hold to five acres of land in the country, or one acre in town or city; provided for taxing church property; and declared void any will bequeathing property to any clergyman, religious teacher or religious society as such. There was a section designed to prevent the state from giving public property, lands or bonds, to railroad companies. It provided that after January 1, 1876, no one could become a lawful voter who was not sufficiently educated to be able to read and write.

July 1, 1865, the governor, Thomas C. Fletcher, made proclamation that the new constitution had been duly ratified by a lawful majority of the people, and was thenceforth the organic law of the state. A few amendments have been since adopted; but in all important points it remains the same to this day.

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