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PART II.-PHYSICAL AND INDUSTRIAL.

GEOLOGY AND MINERALS.

a

Dana says:

The geological history of Missouri commences at the very bottom of the scale, or, in what may be termed the fire-crust period of geologic time. (See chart on page 67). Dana's “Manual of Geology” is the great standard work all over the United States on this subject. In his chapter on Archæan Time he gives a map and brief sketch of our North American continent as it existed at that remote period, which was, according to a calculation made for the Royal Society of London in 1879,* about 600,000,000 years ago. And as this is where Missouri first comes to light, we quote Prof. Dana's account of the very meagre areas and points of our continent which stood alone above the primeval ocean that then enveloped the entire globe with its bubbling, seething, sputtering wavelets—an enormous caldron of boiling, steaming silicious lye, rather than water.

“ The principal of the areas is The Great Northern, nucleal to the continent, lying mostly in British America, and having the shape of the letter V, one arm reaching northeastward to Labrador, and the other north-' westward from Lake Superior to the Arctic. The region appears to

. have been for the most part out of water ever since the Archæan era.t To this area properly belong the Adirondack area, covering the larger part of northern New York, and a Michigan area south of Lake Superior, each of which was probably an island in the continental sea before the Silurian age began.

“Beside this nucleal area, there are border-mountain lines of Archæan rocks: a long Appalachian line, including the Highland Ridge of Dutchess county, New York, and New Jersey, and the Blue Ridge of Pennsylvania and Virginia; -a long Rocky Mountain series, embracing the Wind River mountains, the Laramie range and other summit ridges of the Rocky Mountains. In addition, in the eastern border region, there is an Atlantic coast range, consisting of areas in New Foundland, Nova Scotia and eastern New England. In the western border region, a Pacific coast range in Mexico; and several more or less isolated areas in the Mississippi basin, west of the Mississippi, as in MISSOURI, Arkansas, Texas, and the Black Hills of Dakota.”—Dana's Manual, p. 150.

*See Popular Science Monthly, May, 1879, p. 137.

The “Archæan era," as used by Prof. Dana, in 1874, (the date of his latest revision) included both the “Azoic Age,” and “Age of Zooliths,” as shown on the chart, p. 67. When Prof. Dana wrote, it was still an open question whether the "eozoon" was of animal or mineral origin; but the highest authorities are now agreed that it was animal; and Prof. Reid has, therefore, very properly given it a distinct place in his “Zoic Calendár."

GEOLOGICAL CHART; Inclading the Rock Scale of Geological Periods and the “Zoic Calendar of Creation." Compiled from the works of Agassiz, Lyell, Huxley, Hæckel, Dana, LeConte, and other first rank authorities in Science at the present time. By HIRAM A. REID, Secretary State Academy of Sciences at Des Moines, Iowa. (Published by permission of the Author.]

THIS CALENDAR IS TO BE READ FROM THE BOTTOM UPWARD. EXPLANATION.-The side line AGE OF ANGELS. at the left shows what portions of geological time are comprehended See Psalms 8:5 Luke 20:36 in the terms "eozoic," "paleo- Mark 12:25 1 Cor.15:44 zoic," etc. The first column Heb.2:2 to 9 Rev.99:8,9

Feet in shows the periods or "Ages” of

HISTORIC Hunter thickness geological time during which the

PERIOD.

Tribes of the different successive types of ani- Age of

geological

MYTHIC mal life predominated, or were the

Recent. PERIOD.

group of highest types then in existence. M AN.

Rude Agricul.

ations. And these two divisions form the "Zoic Calendar of Creation." The second column shows the

Terrace .Epoch.
great general groupings of rock
strata, in which are found the fossil

AGE OF
Quaternary. Champlain Epoch.

500 remains of the corresponding ani.

GLACIAL EPOCH. mal types named in the first column. But, at the "Age of Rep.

Pliocene. tiles" occurs a grand divergement,

MAMMALS. TERTIARY. for it was during this age that an

Miocene.

8,000 imal life pushed out into its most

Eocene,
wonderful developments; and
there came into existence strange
and marvelous forms of swimming
reptiles, four-footed and two-foot-

CRETACEOUS.
AGE OF

9,000 ed walking reptiles, and two-footed and four-footed flying reptiles. Here also the true birds began to appear, though with reptilian pe.

JURASSIC. 800 to

1,000 culiarities; and likewise the mar- REPTILES. supial animals, which are a tranantional type, between reptiles

TRIASSIC

3,000 to that produce their young by laying

5,000 eggs and the true mammals, that bring forth their young well ma

PERMIAN tored and then suckle them.

AGE OF The third column shows the les.

Coal ser groupings of rock beds as clas-A

CARBONIFEROUS

6,000 to sified by our American geologists; but many minor subdivisions and AMPHIBIANS.

Measures.

14,570 local groups are omitted for want of space. At the top of this col

Sub-Carboniferous, umn are shown the geological periods of first appearance of races

Catskill. of man, so far as now authentica-10

AGE OF ted by competent scientific au-H

Chemung. thorities.*

Devonian.

9,050 to FISHES

Hamilton. The fourth column shows the

14,400 N number of feet in tbickness of the

Corniferous. different groups of rock layers as indicated by the braces. A

Oriskany This Chart is the most compre

AGE hensive and thorough in its de- H

Upper Silurian.

Helderberg.

6,000 to tails, and get the most systemati

Salina.

10,000 cally and graphically presented to

5
OF

Ningara. the eye, of anything in its line

A that has ever yet been published.

Trenton.
Here is the whole story of geol-

Canadian.
IN VERTEBRATES Lower Silurian.

12,000 to ogy and the ascent of life con

15,000 densed into the space of a few

Cambrian. inchey, yet so plainly set forth as to readily fix itself in the memory AGE OF ZOOLITHS

Huronian.

.10,000 to like an outline map. Scientific “This Age alone was terms in newspapers and maga- probably longer in dura- Eozoon Rocks.

20,000 zines often catch the reader at a tion than all subsequent disadvantage; but a reference to geological time."-Pror.

Laurentian.

30,000 LECONTE. this chart will at once show the relative place or period in crea- Primordial Vegetation Graphite Beds. Metamorphic Granites.

Unstratitional progress to which the best

fied. anthorized geological terms apply.

FIRE CRUST. It reaches, like a Jacob's ladder, from the lowest inklings to the

350,000,000 years in cooling highest ideals of life on the earth,

down to 2000 F. at the surAZOIC AGE.

Depth

face (PROF. HELMHOLTZ), a un known. 88 taught by modern science and

temperature at which very the Christian Bible.

low forms of vegetation can Copyright 1879::H. A. Reid

exist. “The existence of Pliocene man in Tuscany is, then, in my opinioa, an acquired scientific fact." --See Appletons' International Scientific Series, Vol. XXVII, p. 151. "The Miocene man of Ls Besace already know the use of fire, and worked flint." - Ib. p. 943. See also, Prof. Wincbell's "Pre-Adamites,” pp. 426-7-8. “The human race in America is shown to be at least of as ancient a date as that of the European Pilocene."--- Prof. J, D. Whitney. Similar views are held by Profs. Leidy, Marsh, Cope, Morse, Wyman, and other scientists of highest repute.

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Thus, then, with the very first emergence of dry land out of the heavily saturated and steaming mineral waters of the primeval ocean, we have Pilot Knob, Shepherd Mountain, and a few smaller peaks in their vicinity, forming an island in the vast expanse. The next nearest island was a similar one at the Black Hills, in Dakota. There is no reason as yet known for believing that any form of life, either animal or vegetable, had yet appeared in our Missouri region. The ocean water was still too hot, and still too powerfully surcharged with mineral salts, alkalis and acids to admit of any living tissues being formed; and the atmosphere was in like manner thickly loaded with deadliest acids in the form of vapors, which would partially condense as they arose, and fall upon the ironheaded islands to form a mineral crust, and then be broken and washed back into the sea. But this process being kept up and incessantly repeated for millions of years (see Prof. Helmholtz's estimate at bottom of the chart), both sea and air became gradually purified of its excess of minerals and acids; and the water sufficiently cooled to admit of living tissues being formed; and meanwhile the condensing and crust-forming elements precipitated from the vapor-laden air or deposited directly from the bulk waters of the shoreless sea, were busily forming the solid earth. The different incrustations would each be a little different in their component elements; and then being broken up and mixed together and recombined, partly in the form of rough fragments, partly in the form of dust or sand ground into this state by mechanical attrition, partly in the form of fluidized or vaporized solutions, and partly in the form of molten masses produced directly by the earth’s internal fires, the process of combining and recombining, with continual variation in the proportions, went on through the long, dreary, sunless and lifeless Azoic Age.

But as soon as the great ocean caldron got cooled down to about 200 degrees Fahrenheit, it was then possible for a very low form of vegetation to exist; and although no fossil remains of the first existing forms of such vegetation have yet been found, or at least not conclusively identified as such, yet graphite or plumbago, the material from which our lead pencils are made, is found in connection with the transition rocks between the Azoic and the Zoolithian ages. Graphite is not a mineral at all, but is pure vegetable carbon, and is supposed to be the remnant carbon of these first and lowest forms of tough, leathery, flowerless sea-weeds. Some small deposits of graphite are reported to have been found in connection with the iron and metamorphic granites of our Pilot Knob island; and that would indicate the first organic forms that came into existence within the boundaries of what now we call the state of Missouri. Just think of it! All North America, except a dozen widely scattered spots or islands, was covered with an ocean that spread its seamy expanse all around the globe; no sunlight could penetrate the thick, dense cloud of vapors

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that filled the enveloping atmosphere; according to our English author before cited, this was 600,000,000 years ago, a period which the humani mind cannot grasp; but the Almighty Maker of worlds had even then commenced to make the state of Missouri and its living occupants.

The earliest known forms of animal life, a kind of coral-making rhizopod (root-footed) called Eozoon Canadense, are not found in Missouri, but are found abundantly in what are called the Laurentian rocks, in Canada and elsewhere. (See chart). It is not to be supposed, however, that the enormous period called the “ Age of Zooliths" passed, with forms of animal life existing in Canada, but uone in our iron island region, unless we assume that the mineral acidity of the waters coming in contact with this island was so intense as to require all that vast period for its purification sufficiently to permit the existence of the lowest and most structureless forms of protoplasmic matter known to science. Prof. Swallow says, in writing on the Physical Geography of Missouri,“ below the magnesian limestone series we have a series of metamorphosed slates, which are doubtless older than the known fossiliferous strata; whether they belong to the Azoic, the Laurentian or Huronian, I am unable to say.

The labors of our different state geologists have not discovered any fossil remains in Missouri lower down in the rock scale than what is called the “Lower Silurian” formations, which form the first half of the “Age of Invertebrates ” in the zoic-calendar portion of Prof. Reid's chart. The term "Invertebrates" includes all forms of animal life that do not have a back-bone, such as polyps, mollusks, worms, insects, crustaceans, infusoria, etc. By the time this age (Silurian) had commenced, our lone island had been joined by large areas northward, southwestward, eastward and northwestward, so that there began to be a continent; and several hundred species of animals and plants have been found fossil in the rocks of this period, but they are all marine species-none yet inhabiting the dry land. Our chart shows the Lower Silurian epoch sub-divided into Cambrian, Canadian and Trenton formations, but there are other local sub-divisions belonging to this period, the same as to all the other general periods named on the chart. The animals of this period were polyps or coral-makers; worms, mollusks, trilobites, asterias (star-fishes), all of strange forms and now extinct. The trilobite, some species of which are found in Missouri, was the first animal on the earth which had eyes, although there were likewise a great many eyeless species of them; but the fact that any of them had

of them had eyes during this age is considered by some scientists to prove that the atmosphere had by this time become sufficiently rarefied to let the sunlight penetrate clearly through it and strike the earth. On the other hand, others hold that this did not occur until after the atmosphere had laid down its surcharge of carbonic acid and other gases, in the forms of limestone from animal life and coalbeds from vegetable life; that

.

is, there was nothing which we would now consider as clear sunshine until the carboniferous period. At any rate, Prof. Dana says of the Lower Silurian, “there was no green herbage over the exposed hills; and no sounds were in the air save those of lifeless nature,—the moving waters, the tempest and the earthquake.” Having thus given the reader some idea of the beginnings of land and the beginnings of life in our old, old state, space will not permit us to linger with details upon the remaining geological periods. We have compiled the following table from various writings of our able state geologist, Prof. G. C. Swallow, of the State University:

ROCK FORMATIONS OF MISSOURI.

IGNEOUS Rocks.-Granite, porphyry, syenite, greenstone, combined with those wonderful beds of iron and copper which are found in the Pilot Knob region.

Azoic Rocks.-Silicious and other slates, containing no remains of organic life, though apparently of sedimentary and not of igneous origin. LOWER SILURIAN

Feet thick. Hudson river group (3 local subdivisions).

220 Trenton limestone..

360 Black-river and birds-eye limestone

75 1st magnesian limestone

200 Saccharoidal (sugar-like) sandstone..

125 2d magnesian limestone..

230 2d sandstone

115 3d magnesian limestone..

350 3d sandstone

60 4th magnesian limestone...

300

Total thickness of Silurian rocks...

2035

When the reader remembers that these were all formed successively by the slow process of the settling of sediment in water, he will get some idea of how it is that geology gives such astounding measurements of time.

UPPER SILURIAN

Lower Helderberg formation.
Niagara group
Cape Girardeau limestone

Feet thick.

350 200 60

Total thickness...

610

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