the teachers of history, economics, and civics. 2. An ounce of success is worth a ton of At the present moment, the Constitution of the United States, as never before, should be pre

3. When you go hunting, don't leave your gun

at home; in other words, when you apply for sented to pupils as the supreme political classic

enrollment in a new school, bring your credenof the world. There is no room in our schools

tials. for any teacher who believes otherwise and no

4. While that the lamp holds out to burn room in the United States for any except The vilest sinner may return, the Stars and Stripes. As Longfellow, with a

And conversely the greatest saint

May find his boasted virtue ain't. prophet's vision, said:

5. It is better to take time by the forelock "Humanity, with all its fears,

than by the fetlock. With all its hopes of future years,

In other words, practice the school virtues, Is hanging breathless on thy fate.”

which are punctuality, regularity in attendance, Vocational guidance is one of the fundamental

industry, obedience, respect for law, and loyalty. duties of a school. At the earliest reasonable

"To thine own self be true, moment in his school career, a pupil should know

And it must follow, as the night the day, whether he is to earn his bread and butter as

Thou canst not then be false to any man." mechanic or minister, as artisan or engineer, as

Of all the ways in which a pupil can be untrue draughtsman or doctor, as bookkeeper, stenog

to himself, the worst is quitting. The form that rapher, lawyer, teacher, or writer. I say at the

this oftenest takes is asking to drop studies. This earliest reasonable moment, for a hasty or ill

is the worst kind of failure. It is moral and inconsidered decision may be disastrous. At best,

tellectual suicide. Almost always it means that it will mean a loss of time. Pupils who have

the usefulness of the school for that pupil is decided to be artisans will get good preliminary

ended. It spells Ruin with a large R. training in the drawing, building, and automobile classes; the commercial department will take Of all the ways in which a pupil can be uncare of those who are going into business; and true to the school, the worst are whistling, and those who plan to enter law, medicine, engin- defacing school property. Whistling advertises

the fact that the whistler's mind is vacant; there eering, teaching, or literature should take four years of English, four years of mathematics, is nobody at home; it informs the world that four years of Latin, French, science, or history,

the school is a failure. Defacing school propand two years each of any two of the follow- erty indicates a lawless disregard of fundamental ing-Latin, French, science, history, or Greek. morality and in extreme cases a baseness which

is indescribable. Athletics, art, literature, science, proper social organizations, and school entertainments, wisely

All of this preceding stuff is empty verbiage, managed, afford training in the worthy use of however, unless there is in the attempt to preach leisure. Today, as never before, this is essential. and practice it that divine and indescribable The love of good books, if all high-school pupils

thing which we call spirit-school spirit, if you could acquire it, would be a national asset. A please. What I mean I tried to say once upon passion for wireless or chemistry or art or inusic

a time in some lines in the form of Sir William or gardening or carpentry is a priceless protec- Jones's great poem, "What Constitutes a State?” tion against silly society, worse than silly movies,

Here they are: and those indescribable hodge-podges of non

WHAT CONSTITUTES A SCHOOL? sense, noise, and indecency, which are called musical comedies.

What constitutes a school? The last and probably the most vital function

Not gilded architrave or pillared hall,

Carved stone, or marble pool, of a school is to teach ethical conduct. The good

Not storied glass whence rich reflections fall, old laws of right living are not obsolete.

Not picture, map, or book, “The Ten Commandments will not budge

Not old elm-shaded walk or playground wide, And stealing will continue stealing."

Not shop or studious nook

Whereto the fond alumnus points with pride, If society and civilization go to the dogs, the

No! Boys, high-minded boys, school will be to blame. Here, upon our shoul- Full of high hope and aspiration high, ders, rests a heavy load. In addition to teaching Who daily know the joys the Ten Commandments, I believe that we should

Of treading earth and gazing on the sky;

And those delicious sprites also both by precept and example teach the gospel

Composed of innocence and guile and curls, of work. Without work there is neither happi

Whom he who speaks or writes ness nor salvation. As Polonius says, my blessing Must, lacking adequate words, denominate girls, with thee and these few precepts in thy memory:

Each a magician,

Filling the world with wonder and witn joy, 1. Carpe diem, which is Roman for "Do it now.” Making each boy a man

And every man regret he's not a boy;

And teachers, too, who prize
The daily opportunity to do their work,

But prizing, still despise
With calm disdain the hypocrite and shirk.

Knowing no other rule. Than that just pride which guards its own fair

name, These constitute a school, Upbuild its honor, and advance its fame.

These, when they leave its walls, Sustain the lowly, calmly meet the great,

And, if stern Duty calls, Fills with large deeds the annals of the state.


lar interests. As before, the general congress of the Detroit Teachers Association will consist of representatives from the various chapters, but the proportion will be determined by the number of teachers in the school. Each division of teachers will organize independently of this general organization and combine all teachers in all schools according to their particular interests. The following six divisions were recommended, and others may be formed as the need arises: (1) Kindergarten; (2) Elementary Schools; (3) Intermediate Schools; (4) High-School and College Units; (5) Administrative and Supervisory; (6) Teachers of Special Activities. A representative from each of these divisions and the general officers of the association will form the executive council of the association, and will serve as a means of co-ordination of the activities of the various divisions. This will make it possible for groups of teach

to bring their problems before the entire teaching body, and, at the same time, will make it possible for the administrative and supervisory forces of the city to present their problems to the teachers for assistance in solution. The plan, as adopted by a five to one vote of the teachers of the city, recognizes the existing organizations, and provides a method whereby they may be coordinated with the general association. The general organization has been perfected by meetings held during September, and during October the first elections were held.





E. W. McFARLAND Detroit Teachers College

An essential to the democratic administration of a city school system is the proper relation between the administrative and supervisory forces and the teaching body. To this end it is necessary that an organization be perfected providing for the expression of the interests of the teachers, in a co-ordinated way with common purposes in mind, and for the mutual presentation and consideration of their problems.

There had been in existence for some time in Detroit, a teachers' association, which had been functioning as the means of expressing the needs of the teachers. With the growth of the city, however, this body became unwieldy and, instead of providing for expression, it suppressed initiative and action. This resulted in the organization of groups of teachers interested in different subjects and problems, such as the Hospital Association, the Art Association, etc. These groups worked independently, and, in case of emergency, there was no centralizing head or unity of purpose. During the past year, the need of centralizing expression and, at the same time, continuing group organization, necessitated the revision of the constitution of the Detroit Teachers Association. A committee appointed to work out this problem received suggestions from many schools of the city and met a number of committees from the different organizations that were in existence.

The general result was that the committee recommended a form of group organization within the Detroit Teachers Association, and, at the same time, continued the older form of representation. To accomplish this, the following plan was devised: The teachers are to be organized in two ways : (1) By chapters within the schools, and (2) by division according to particu



The accompanying diagram fully illustrates the tendency of democracy and shows the glaring need of a more interested electorate. Were this diagram traced back of 1900 we would find the upward trend still increasing.

This decline in the number of potential voters actually voting is more serious than it seems at first glance. It means that our government is controlled by a small percentage of the citizens. Efficiency in our government is probably more in danger from indifference than from either igno. rance or fraud.

The indifference of voters is the result of the lack of education. The average voter is so busy with his own personal interests that he has come

to feel that it doesn't make much difference whether he votes or not. He feels that things will run along about the same anyway. He has failed to comprehend that he is serving his own interests when he votes and secures more efficient government.

The need for vitalizing our elections is fully apparent. It is felt that this vitalizing process can very profitably begin in the public schools. In fact, political education is inseparable from participation in politics.




The election details are placed entirely in the hands of the pupils. The seriousness of their problem is made more effective by having them sworn in before their grade or class. The dignity and business-like way they enter upon their duties would do credit to older officials. Each one of their fellow classmates is held strictly to the regulations, demonstrating the principle that pupils are more exacting with each other than would be a teacher or some older person.

There are many valuable experiences in the registration. Some pupils have forgotten their house numbers, while others are not sure what the exact numbers really are. They find that if they don't know the numbers they are denied the privilege of voting. The lesson of accuracy is vividly taught. Another valuable experience comes from the freedom given them to register at any time they choose. If they miss the opportunity, public opinion of the class will administer the necessary reproof.

After the registration, the real interest comes in the election campaign. Here is a rare opportunity to do some lasting, effective work. Pupils naturally take to organizations. Through this medium the campaign is carried on. Through the groups the spirit of competition stimulates the followers of each party. Slogans, campaign speeches, and banners are brought into effective use to carry their party to success. What a splendid forum the classroom becomes. The boy or girl with the radical ideas has a chance to explode them in the light of a more conservative public opinion than he has been used to. The one with the time-worn party slogans also meets his Waterloo in the classroom. What a splendid opportunity to crystallize these ideas into a broad, upto-date standard of judgment for weighing the present-day problems and candidates. New thoughts become vitalized and become a part of the living, active personality of the pupil.

Already the quest for the platforms of all parties has been started. No one can deny that every party has many good principles in some of the planks of its platform. History shows us that these principles have been taken over by the leading parties in a more or less modified form and have been successfully carried through. The old parties have done this mostly when they saw these principles likely to sweep the country under a new party. Our study in the public schools will not only pave the way for these new ideas but will make them a reality much sooner than is otherwise possible.

More and more it is becoming the function of the public schools to be the center and source of social, economic, cultural, and political life. They have almost passed the merely academic study

1900 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20

Diagram 1-Showing by Years Percentage of Poten.

tial Voters Casting Votes

Our plan in the public schools this year follows as closely as possible the regular election. It is probably new only in so far as it is city-wide. In both registration and election the duty of participating is emphasized. The pupils are permitted to choose the time and go somewhere other than their classroom to register and vote.

In every step of the election much valuable civic information is absorbed by the pupil. He learns why it is necessary to register every four years. The problem of eligibility to register naturally arises, and he learns the meaning of citizenship and the details of naturalization. He at once decides whether or not he himself is a citizen. Several schools have had their pupils go through the naturalization process. We can exprect the boys and girls on the side of the forces that are urging their fathers and mothers to become citizens.

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in these lines. Today it is required of the public school that its work become a part of the actual life of the boys or girls coming under its influence. In other words, the school is trying to have the boys and girls live in the fullest measure the things it is trying to teach. This is the idea back of the school election. The public-school teachers as a group have more at heart the real ideals of our Republic than any other group. And what is more, as a group, they have no special "axe to grind.” Hence, they make good forum directors.

That our citizens are lacking in civic responsibility cannot be denied. That public-school participation in elections makes for more civic usefulness has probably not been fully proved It is hoped to measure the results of this undertaking as far as possible.

their mental activity far beyond their accustomed plane of thinking.

The returns of the election showed that 41,200 votes had been cast. Thirty-three thousand twenty-nine of these

republican, 4,672 democrat, 84 prohibition, 2,879 socialist, 185 socialist-labor, 337 farmer-labor, and 14 single tax.

In the city election the republican vote stood about six times the democratic, while the school election showed 80 per cent of its total vote republican and 11.9 per cent democratic. The socialist vote was heavier in the schools, being 6.9 per cent of the total vote.

For purposes of comparison, four voting precincts in different parts of the city have been selected where the school districts covered practically the same area.

Table 1-Showing Comparison Between Voting in

Typical Schools and Their Districts



Voting Precincts


Angell School 141h Ward 29th Dist. Doty School 4th Ward 33rd Dist.

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% Rep. 94 85 % Dem.

7 9 % Soc. 4 2.3

91 90 62.3 93 ...9 7 10 1.7

4.6 2 .2 33 3.2 36


Tuesday, November 2, saw two sets of election officials and voters in our schools. These were the school and community participating in the same event, each thinking and deciding for himself, on the ballot, the things he thought best for a big country like ours.

The officials and voters of the school showed up well beside the adults. When they received their ballots their minds were fully made up as to just how they were going to vote and for whom. As a result of this experience, our voters will feel perfectly at home in casting their official ballots when the time comes for real voting.

The election campaign was almost entirely in the hands of pupils, the teachers acting as advisers and informants for the party leaders. The pupils besieged the various campaign headquarters in their search for party platforms and campaign literature. The political orators then came before their grades, and, in many instances, before the whole school, and gave their reasons for voting the ticket of their choice. These reasons had to stand the fire of opposition just as in public life. In one school a leading democrat led one discussion. In the controversy that ensued, the various features of the League of Nations were discussed. Articles 8, 10, and 21 were each interpreted. The Monroe Doctrine was defended and compared with the League of Nations. Washington's "entangling alliance" idea was viewed in a modern light. This stimulating discussion called forth the best efforts of the participants. Group stimulus had aroused

The reason for the great difference between the school vote of the Bishop and the Lincoln Schools and their corresponding election precincts is probably due to the fact that many parents of those pupils voting the socialist ticket did not vote at the regular election.

The ballots for the boys and girls were printed on paper of two separate colors, making it possible for the school authorities to count the votes of girls and boys separately. In the republican returns the girls showed a larger percentage of the total vote cast throughout the entire grades participating.

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Since the atmosphere of Detroit is republican and group contacts were all largely dominated by republican ideas, it is quite natural that the more conservative minds would be republican.


Diagram TV-Showing by School Grades Contrast in the Percentages of Republican, Democratic,

and Socialist Votes

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