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great powers, who by treaty as condition annexed, that if any of well as connection were interested his cruizers should happen to be in their consequences, brought in. taken, the republic should repair to a train of being settled upon the loss in ready money. the moft permanent and happy These dishonourable proposals footing.
were refused with a proper disdain Germany has offered no matter by the fenate ; and as the Dey of of political observation during the Algiers had broken the peace, and course of the present year. The imprisoned their consul, they equipEmperor and king of Prussia fpend ped a squadron of men of war, the summers, either in reviewing which they dispatched to Algiers, their armies, or in making pro- under the command of Admiral gresses through different parts of Emo, to bring him to reason. The their dominions ; by which they Dey continued obstinate ; upon become eye witneses of the im- which the admiral, according to his provements that are requisite to be orders, immediately declared war made, the encouragement that is against him, and failed out of the neceffary to be given, and of the harbour to fulfil his instructions, distresses and wants of their sub. which were to block up the port, jects. Notwithstanding this at- and destroy all the Algerine cortention to domestic and internal fairs he could meet with. happiness, the two great powers These vigorous resolutions foon of the empire are far from being brought the Dey to temper, and negligent of their military depart. indeed to a submission as mean as ments; she sword seems only to his demands had been insolent; he fumber, but does not neep, and found himself under a necessity of their armies are kept complete, making use of the mediation of and in the best condition. The the British consul, to procure a reEmpress Queen has published an newal of the peace upon the origi. ediêt, whereby the soldiers in all nal terms. her armies are allowed and even The other parts of Italy have encouraged to marry, a corrective afforded little remarkable, except in some degree to the political mis. the expulfion of the Jesuits from chiefs attendant on those extensive Naples and Parma; as these events military establishments.
are intimately connected with, or Turning our eyes to the south. may rather be looked upon as conward, the scene is there alsoentirely sequences of, the measures which pacific. Indeed the new Dey of had been already taken in Spain Algiers had made some extraordi- to the same purpose, we shall innary demands upon the republic of clude them under that head; as Venice : among the rest, besides well as the ineffectual remonthe payment of an exorbitant sum ftrances made by the court of Rome of money, he infifted that his cor- in their favour. The edict which fairs Tould have free liberty to has been passed by the regency of cruize in the gulf of Venice, and Parma, with respect to ecclesialto take the thips of any nation tical affairs, and which almost to. with whom he was not bound by tally secludes the Roman see from treaty; with this extraordinary all jurisdiction in thac duchy,
together with the consequences, couraging, reftraining, and dir. which are said to be an excommu- tresling the British factories and nication, will find their proper commerce in that kingdom. This place in the transactions of the en. conduct seems the more wholly suing year. The power
in unaccountable, as the very exis, rest of the court of Rome is daily tence of that nation as an indelofing ground in Italy ; where pendent state has so long and so other states, besides those we have often depended upon the powerful mentioned, are taking measures protection of Great Britain; which to circumscribe it. The govern- has also, upon every other occasion, ment of Milan, which includes always acted the part of a most the Austrian Lombardy, has pub. faithful ally and generous friend, lished a law, by which all the If the advantages arising from the rights which the pope or the commerce between the two natibishops have hitherto exercised
ons were not mutual, this conduct over ecclesiastics, either with re- , might admit of some plea in its gard to their effects or their, per- justification ; but the contrary is Ions, is transferred to a council, evidently shewn, by the great pre, established for that purpose at Mi- ference which has been so long
All ecclefiaftics are obliged given by England to the Portu. to sell the estates which they have guese wines, for which they could become possessed of since the year find no other market, and the con1722 ; and no subject, whether fequent immende consumption of ecclefiaftic or secular, is permit. them in these countries. Many ted to go to Rome to folicit any fa- have with reason been surprised vour, except letters of indulgence, at the fupineness of the British without the consent of the said minister, in putting up so long council.
with the frequent oppressions, inThis law is the same as that sults, and indignities, which have which was published at Venice been so repeatedly offered to the under the pontificate of Benedict English merchants in that counXIV. and which occafioned fo try. Nor have they been lefs surmany debates, that the Republic prised at the temerity of the Porwas obliged to abolish it in the ingue fe minister, in venturing to beginning of the pontificate of rouse the indignation of a nation, Clement XIII. but the present which could so easily and so effeclaw is passed at a period much tually do it felf ample justice. more favourable to the indepen- The irregularity and inclemency dency of sovereigns.
of the seasons for some years paft, Portugal has afforded but little in different parts of Europe, has material in the course of the past occasioned an uncertainty and year. Whether from sonte mista. great deficiency in the crops of ken notion in politics, or from leveral countries, by which the fome national prejudice, or what. poor have suffered great diftreffes. ever other cause, is uncertain; bat "The ecclefiaftical itate, and some the present prime minister in that other parts of Italy, have been secountry has taken every occasion, verely affected by this calamity, during his administration, of dif- and were it not for that bappy effect of navigation and commerce, which is not interrupted by the by which the wants of one nation squabbles or wars between their are supplied from the superabun. respective states.' This good dis. dance of another, famine would position does not only add greatly have chioned the race of mankind to the advancement of knowledge in many places. England, which and learning, but will also have usually supplied its neighbours a happy effect in wearing off those with such immenfe quantities of illiberal prejudices, and inveterate grain, and allowed a considerable animolities, with which, to the misbounty on the exportation of it, fortune of mankind, they are so has been a sufferer from the same apt to regard all those whom they cause, and it has required the ut. do not know, and who do not form most attention of the legislature, a part of the same particular comto guard against and prevent the munity, or speak the same lan. dreadful consequences attending guage with themselves. This liit.
beral intercourse, together with It gives us pleasure to observe, the continual translation of books as a diftinction peculiar to the pre- from one language to another, will sent age, the friendly intercourse, by degrees bring mankind in some harmony, and free communication measure acquainted, and, it is to of knowledge, which at present be hoped, wear off a great part of fubfifts between the learned of all that hearty ill-will which they the countries in Europe ; and bore to each other as strangers.
Strict attention of the government of Sweden to prevent luxury. An im
portant law made foi enlarging the liberty of the press in that kingdom. Denmark. Great preparations making in Ruffa tó observe the transit of the planet Venus over the fun : The Empress writes a letter upon that subje to the academy at Petersburg. Deputies from all the provinces of the empire are summoned to Moscow, to form a new code of lazus. State of affairs in Turkey. Encouragement given by the Grand Seignior, to introduce the art of printing in his dominions. The pirarical Aates of Barbary refuse to pay ibe ancient tribute to the Porte. An infurre&tion in the pro. vince of Montenero.
of the diet, as well as the mi- out distinction of age or quality ; nistry, is directed to the improve- and it seems to be laid down as a ment of their manufactures, the maxim, to enforce the most rigid encouragement of agriculture, and private, as well as public ecothe restriction within the narroweft nomy. li mits of every kind of foreign This principle has been pursued fu perfuity. The sumptuary laws, to the minuteit detail, and enforced and those against every species of with the greatest rigour.
A counsellor of state, who had ferent opinion upon each subject, neglected to have a velvet border the decisions in every cause, with ftript off a cloak, which he had the reasons for them, are to be in. worn for many years, was fum- serted. Any person, in whatsoever moned before the tribunal, whose office, that refuses to communicate province it is to put the edict as these registers, is to lose his place. gainst luxury in force, and receiv- The fenate alone has an exclued a severe reprimand from those five privilege of not communicatgrave judges for the misdemeanor. ing its debates upon foreign mat. A lady also of the first quality, ters; which it may for a time be was obliged to appear before the requisite to keep secret. Every same tribunal, and underwent an person has liberty, during the selequal çensure for drinking a dish fions of the diet, to make obser. of chocolate in her box at the vations on the debates and resolu. playhouse.
tions of each deputation of the Among these regulations, many states, concerning any business, of which seem of a trifling nature, whether general or particular, exone has been made of the greatest cept such as regard'the immediate importance; a law for enlarging adminiftration of government; and the liberty of the press. By this may print his observations on the edict, all persons have liberty to subject. And to facilitate a free write and reason, on all subjects enquiry, the king is to get an exin general, and to publish their act account of the situation of the opinions. The laws of the king- state in every department, made dom, their utility, or their bad out and printed, before the meeteffects, are subject to discussion ing of each diet. and censure. All alliances, anci. There are however some re, ent and modern, in which the strictions, which will sufficiently kingdom is engaged, and all new guard against the licentioufness of ones which may be hereafter pro. authors. No person is to write posed, or even concluded, are sub- against the established religion of ject to a free enquiry, and to have the kingdom, nor against the funthe good or bad consequences at. damental political constitution, nor tending them pointed out, the rights of the different orders of
In order that the public may re- the state. Personal satires and pafceive the most authentic informa quinades, contrary to the respect tion upon all these points, every due to crowned heads, or injuri. person has a right to demand, of ous to the reputation of privato the different colleges eâablished persons, are strictly forbid. for the administration of public The printer is ordered to insert business, from the fenate to the the author's name in the title-page courts of the lowest jurisdiction, a of each book; in which case, the commanication of the registers or author alone is liable to be brought journals'
, wherein all their decis to an account for any exceptionfions are entered. The courts are able passage ; but if the printer obliged to keep these journals very neglects this injunction, he is to correct : and the debates, the dif. be considered as the author, and is answerable for the book. There cultivate and encourage the arts is however an exception, that if a and sciences; to make her empire writer has particular reasons for an asylum to the learned and ingenot publishing his name, his leav- nious; and to reform the manners ing it in writing with the printer, and instruct the minds of the peoto be produced if legally called ple, through the extent of its most for, will discharge the latter from diftant provinces. all the consequences. This liber. The transit of the planet Venus, ty, that is granted to the public, over the sun, which is to happen of inveftigating the principles up in the summer of 1769, has added a' on which their own business is
new opportunity of thewing as well conducted, and of animadverting, her munificence, as the attention as well upon the acts of the senate, she pays to astronomy. This as upon those of the courts of juf. great princess wrote a letter from tice, and the other departments of Moscow with her own hand, to the state, will be so great a check Count Wolodimer Orlow, director upon the conduct of them all, and of the academy of sciences at Peattended with such manifest ad. tersburgh ; wherein she desires the vantages to the people, that it re- academy to inform her of the quires no comment to explain most proper places in her domithem, and is such a precedent as nions for the making of those ob. may well deserve the attention of servations; with an offer to send other states.
workmen, &c. and to construct A general spirit of improvement buildings in all those places, which seems to reign through the north. the academy may think proper for The young king of Denmark ap- the purpose, and to grant every pears to set out with all those dis- other affiftance to the undertaking positions which can contribute to which it may require. She also make his people happy, and the desired, if there was not a sufficient ftate respectable.
number of astronomers in the His Majesty is said to have a academy to make observations in scheme in agitation to restore the all the places required, to give peasants in his dominions to some her notice, that she might send a share of their natural liberties; in proper number of the officers of which, if he succeeds, he will ac- her marine, to qualify themselves, quire great honour; and by grant- under the eye of the professors in ing to the lower and more nume- the academy, for that undertak. rous part of his subjects the enjoy- ing. ment of personal freedom, will Such is the extent of this vaft make amends to the country for empire, that the observations the loss of their political conftitu. which are to be made, both on the tion.
tranfit and exit of this planet, The Empress of Russia ftill pro, the one in the frozen regions to. ceeds on the fame enlarged and wards the pole, and the other on enlightened plan, which we have the borders of the Caspian sea, had occasion heretofore so much to are to be made within its own lio commend, She still continues to mits; to some part of which,