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Canada, 1608-1905 (Toronto, W. Briggs). The provinces are treated separately until the union of 1841, then follow the history of the Province of Canada to 1867, and the history of the Dominion from 1867 to 1905. A list of important dates, a copy of the act of 1867, and lists of the first members of the Dominion and Provincial Parliaments are included in appendixes.

A fifth edition of F. X. Garneau's History of Canada, revised by his grandson, M. Hector Garneau, is to be published. M. Garneau will also publish the correspondence of his grandfather and of his father (Alfred Garneau), and a study of his own on the French families that came to Canada in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Canadian Life in Town and Country, by H. J. Morgan and Lawrence J. Burpe, has been added to the interesting series published by George Newnes (London). Of most historical interest are the chapters on the political and judicial systems, and the bibliography.

The latest addition to The Makers of Canada " series (Toronto, Morang) is John Graves Simcoe, by Duncan C. Scott.

A bibliography of Quebec has been published by Dr. N. E. Dionne, Librarian for the Legislature of Quebec: Inventaire Chronologique des Livres, Brochures, Journaux et Revues Publiés en Langue Française dans la Province de Québec, depuis l'Etablissement de l'Imprimerie au Canada jusqu'à nos jours, 1764-1905. This is to be followed by a list of all the books, pamphlets, newspapers, and reviews published in English in Quebec and by a list of all published works relating to the province.

The Literary and Historical Society of Quebec has published a volume of documents relating to the blockade of Quebec in 1775-1776 by the American Revolutionists. The documents included are Ainslie's “ Journal of the most remarkable occurrences in the Province of Quebec from . . . September 1775 until ... the sixth of May 1776" (the original is among the Sparks Papers in the Harvard Library); " Journal of the most remarkable occurrences ... since ... the 14th November, 1775", by an officer of the garrison (the same, with some variations, as that printed in the Collections of the New York Historical Society, 1880); the orderly-book kept by Captain Anthony Vialar and continued by Captain Robert Lester; a list, compiled by L. H. Irving, of the officers of the First Battalion of Royal Highland Emigrants; and two French muster-rolls of the Canadian militia. The documents are edited by Frederick C. Würtele.

An important work on Cuban history should have received earlier attention in these volumes: Introduccion a la Historia de las Instituciones Locales de Cuba, by Dr. F. Carrera y Justiz (Havana, 2 vols., 1905); it is a thorough treatment of the development of local institutions in Cuba from the earliest settlement until the end of Spanish control.

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Under the title of El Conde de Raousset-Boulbon en Sonora (México, Museo Nacional, 1905, pp. 90) Señor Genaro García has edited with an introduction and a number of appended documents a hitherto unpublished narrative written by Colonel M. M. Giménez in 1862 regarding the expedition to Sonora in 1852 (undertaken by himself and Count Raousset-Boulbon in behalf of the Compania Restauradora del Mineral de Arizona) and the results of the expedition. The narrative gives numerous details not known to be elsewhere recorded and is of special interest as the work of the nominal chief of the expedition.

Hurst and Blackett (London) are bringing out a life of Porfirio Diaz, by Mrs. Alec Tweedie.

Students of South-American history should note a recent French publication: Joseph Dombey, Explorateur du Pérou, du Chili et du Brésil, 1778-1785 (Paris, E. Guilmoto), by Dr. E. T. Hamy.

We have received a carefully prepared paper by Assistant Professor Albert G. Keller on “Portuguese Colonization in Brazil”, reprinted as a separate from the Yale Review for February.

Noteworthy articles in periodicals: C. H. McCarthy, The Presentation of American History (Catholic University Bulletin, January); Catholics and the American Revolution (American Catholic Historical Researches, January); John Hay, Franklin in France (Century, January); Mary C. Crawford, Franklin and the French Intriguers (Appleton's Booklovers Magazine, February); Emlin McClain, Written and Unwritten Constitutions in the United States (Columbia Law Review, February); The Growth of American Foreign Policy (Edinburgh Review, January); William S. Rossiter, The First American Imperialist, M. C. Perry (North American Review, February); Charles W. Stewart, Early American Visitors to Japan (Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, December); Frederick T. Hill, Lincoln the Lawyer (running in the Century); Emerson D. Fite, The Agricultural Development of the West during the Civil War (Quarterly Journal of Economics, February); James Schouler, President Johnson and Negro Suffrage (Outlook, January 13); Joseph B. Bishop, A Friendship with John Hay (Century, March).

The

American Historical Review

THE ECOLE DES CHARTES

IN

N the classroom at the École des Chartes the lecturer looks over

the heads of his pupils to a fresco on the wall behind them, representing the monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. The subject was aptly chosen. For the École des Chartes, although housed now in the new Sorbonne, has nothing in common with the traditions of the old University of Paris, depicted in the colors of romance upon the walls of the central arcade. The École des Chartes is an intru-. der, still preserving its autonomy, and linked more closely both in ideals and in actual history to the great Maurist monastery than to the ancient centre of rhetoric and scholasticism which gives it a home. It was created with the definite purpose of continuing the work begun by d'Achery and Mabillon and has been true to its purpose.

The loss to history resulting from the dissolution of the monasteries in the French Revolution was felt almost immediately. The creation of the Institut failed to supply what had been destroyed, and Napoleon in his concern for the decadence of literature extended his interest to the study of history as well. Though not destined to become the founder of the École des Chartes, he outlined a project by which the Collège de France was to undertake the practical instruction in historical research and the encouragement of that side of literature which would lead to the production of works of real utility. On the nineteenth of March, 1807, when stopping at the castle of Finckenstein between the battles of Eylau and Friedland, Napoleon received from the Duc de Cadore the outline of an institution which was to play the part of a Port-Royal, rather than of a Saint-Germaindes-Prés, in the revival of literature. This plan, drawn up by Cadore's secretary, Baron de Gérando, exhibited some of that quality of its author's mind which enabled him, in the words of Sainte

AM. HIST. REV., VOL. XI.-50. (761)

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Beuve, “ to turn out books like macaroni ". Napoleon's terse comments transformed these propositions into practical terms ;' but the strenuous life of the First Empire did not furnish good soil for such an enterprise, and the Collège de France was left to go its own more or less peaceful way, cut off from the main educational forces which have since then transformed the system of higher education in France.

The proposition of Baron de Gérando was not destined to be realized in connection with either the Collège de France or the Sorbonne. With a conservatism worthy of England, these two historic institutions were left unmolested by the innovators, while alongside of them new and independent schools were founded to meet the demands of the scientific spirit. The École des Chartes and later the École Pratique des Hautes Études were founded for a definite purpose and conducted with a complete disregard of the traditionalism of their environment. Naturally in the course of time the steady pressure of their influence transformed the methods of the ancient institutions, at least of the Sorbonne ; and the triple confusion which is the result offers a threefold advantage if one but learns its reason and its meaning—advantages of which the American student who comes to Paris has seldom any clear idea.

The present École des Chartes was founded in 1829, after an abortive effort in 1821 to give effect to the ideas of Baron de Gérando. Refounded in 1846 and remodelled in 1869, the school was moved from its quarters in the Archives in 1897 to the new Sorbonne, where in the centre of all the educational activity in Paris it maintains its own autonomy and pursues undisturbed its own aims. Its former students, formed into alumni societies, maintain a spirit of loyalty which recalls that of the early days when the contributors to the Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes established the right of the school to exist in spite of the indifference of the monarchy of July. Although the students may supplement the slight curriculum of the school with courses in surrounding institutions, they remain through life stamped with the indelible impress of the École des Chartes.

Outwardly there is little in the curriculum to explain the important part which this school has played in the history of French historiography and in the development of historical research in general. It is in form merely a technical school for the training of archivists and librarians. Its courses are planned with that distinct purpose. Admission as a regular student is accorded to about twenty successful candidates selected each year by a competitive examination. For three years these students must be in regular attendance upon all the lectures, signing the roll at every conférence. Upon graduation the government opens for them the position of archivist either in Paris or in the provinces.

1 See “Notes et Documents pour servir à l'Histoire de l'École Royale des Chartes”, by M. A. Vallet de Viriville, Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, second series, volume IV. (1847-1848), pp. 153-176.

There are only three courses a year, although one runs over from the second into the third. Compared with the imposing prospectus of an American university, the programme of the École des Chartes makes but a poor showing. Yet when one looks over the roll of distinguished scholars who have been trained in its scientific methods of research, one cannot but recognize in its scanty programme a force which has few parallels in the history of modern culture. Though the high renown of the school is due rather to the subsequent achievements of its alumni than to any clear appreciation by outsiders of what they were taught while students, still its graduates themselves have attributed the success of their later work to the simple but strict training of its courses, in which the traditions of the Benedictines of Saint-Maur have been preserved amid the routine of a practical curriculum. Those traditions and their results are well known. But the actual process by which they are achieved and maintained has escaped the chronicler. In order to indicate it, however, we shall have to renounce the easy path of generalities and enter the classroom itself.

No American student has ever taken the full three years at the École des Chartes, and it is not likely that any ever will. To do so, one would divorce himself entirely from the needs and the resources of American universities and libraries. The degree archiviste paléographe which the state accords to the graduate of the school is of value only to those who live in Europe, where there are archives to catalogue and medieval documents to publish. The courses which directly interest the historical student may be taken easily in a year -or could be if the time-table of conférences were rearranged. Even some of these courses need not be followed closely; for they are rather for the training of those whose investigations pave the way for the historian by the preparation of texts than for the historical student who will, as in America, be limited in his researches by whatever texts are at hand. In short, it would be a mistake in almost every instance for the American student either to devote himself to the entire course of studies at the École des Chartes or, in view of other courses at the Sorbonne or the École Pratique des Hautes Études, to devote himself entirely to them even for a year.

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