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Ancient Elm Tree.

Pittsfield, Mass. July 5.

Our lofty and beloved Elm Tree standing in the centre of the village was struck by lightning, during an intense thunder storm. The fluid struck the highest twigs of the Northern and Southern branches, and united at the main branch and took a perpendicular line to within a foot of the ground, stripping off ten inches width of bark the whole length. For two or three days past some of our noblest tars have been engaged in climbing to the uppermost limbs, by aid of ladders and ropes, in the hope of saving this venerable and notable patriarch. Our citizens, as you well know, feel a deep interest in the preservation of this noble tree. It is one of the grandest specimens of the forest to be found in this whole country-indeed a monument of nature's handiwork, attracting the notice and admiration of all. It has been immortalized in song, and is cherished and remembered by every native of the place present or absent. It was found standing in the forest when the first settler came to this town about 100 years since. It is situated in the centre of the public park, enclosed and surrounded by fence and ornamental trees and walks. It is nearly 150 feet high, perfectly straight, and without a limb for 90 feet. It measures in circumference 15 feet and a half. It is probably several centuries old. We have grieved much over its misfortune, and there are now probably 100 to 200 people in the park witnessing the efforts to preserve its good old life.-Madisonian.

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In addition to these arrivals, which are from foreign and coastwise ports, there are about 1,050 schooners, sloops, &c., employed in coasting inland, not included in the above, averaging about 75 tons, making 78,750 tons. Those vessels are here probably every week during the season of navigation. Also, about 75 steamboats, which probably are here about every other day; tonnage, 30,760.

It will be seen that since 1828 the tonnage has increased about one-third in amount. In 1828 the tonnage of vessels arriving at this port was 412,9374 tons; in 1810 the tonnage of vessels arriving was 618,186 tons.-[N. Y. Herald.

Statistics of Saratoga Springs.


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Library of the Court of Chancery, vols..

4,100 May

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[N. Y. Observer.

Warning to Whalers.

The Journal du Havre mentions the discovery near Okoroa, in New Zealand, of a dangerous rock, lying in the usual course of ships sailing for the whale fishery, and not marked on any chart. It lies 6 miles W. N. W. N. from the Esperance Rock of Admiral Dumott d'Urville. It is not wider than a vessel, and is about four feet under water. Having been discovered by the Havre whaler, the name of that ship has been given to it.

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Surplus Revenue

440,000 00 56,113 60 254,902 26 470,066 55

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[Nash, Rep.

JOS. W. HORTON, Cashier.

Nashville, July 1, 1841. Š

Shad Fishery.

The shad fishermen have been very successful the present season. It is estimated that 3,000 barrels have been already taken in the Sound between Monomoy Point and Bass River. The shad fishery on our shores was commenced by a few individuals four years ago. Now between 2 and 300 men, principally from Connecticut, are engaged in it. The fish are taken with seines, of which two kinds are used; one made of great length and depth for the purpose of surrounding schools of shad where the water is from five to seven fathoms deep; and the other kind are fitted for meshing, the seine being trailed out from a boat or vessel and the shad in attempting to run through it are caught by their gills. The long "Purse Seines" require a crew of sixteen men to manage them, and are capable of holding an immense number of fish. Capt. David Baker, took at one haul two hundred barrels of shad, and Capt. Judah Baker, also enclosed as large a number, but a shark broke through the seine, and made a passage for the shad to escape. Present appearances indicate that the taking of shad on our coast, will soon become as important a branch of business as the cod and mackerel fishery. We are informed that they have, at a certain season of the year, always been abundant in the waters of the Sound, but until recently no means had been discovered for taking them in the open sea, in sufficiently large quantities to justify the expense of fitting out vessels on purpose to take them. It is believed that Shad, like Mackerel, in the Spring, proceed northward along the

State Bank of Tenn. and Branches, July 1, 1841. coast, and that the fishermen when they better understand

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their habits will be enabled to follow them as they now do the mackerel. They arrive in the Vineyard Sound the last of May, or beginning of June, and then as the weather advances proceed northward along the coast as far as Nova Scotia. But the fact that they are taken very nearly as early in the rivers of Maine as in the Sound, seems to favor the supposition that they are a deep water fish, and only visit the coast in the months of May and June to deposit their spawn. None have been taken after June in former years, and it is calculated the fisheries in the Sound will be over in the course of next week.-Yarmouth Register.

A Venerable Band of Patriots.

A writer in the New York Express states that there are but but five officers of the regular Revolutionary army alive in that city, and adds that the ages of these advance seriatim from 85 to 89, viz:-Lieut. Abraham Legget, in his 85th; Major Leonard Bleeker, in his 86th; Major General Morgan Lewis, in his 87th; Capt. Theodosus Fowler, in his 88th; and Major William Popham, in his 89th. They are all in good health.

The Mexican Commission.

The Board of Commissioners appointed under the Convention of the 11th of April, 1839, between the United States and Mexico, to adjust certain claims of citizens of the former against the latter, have been in session in this city about one year. The Board consists of four Commissioners, two on each side, their secretaries, and an umpire. A report from the American Commissioners, of the progress and condition of the commission, under date of the 26th of May last, addressed to the President, has been called out and published by order of the Senate. From this it appears that great differences of opinion have arisen between the two sides as to the powers and duties of the Board. The Mexican Commissioners, it seems, took their oaths before each other, and then swore their secretary, and a discussion on the validity of this oath occupied the Board for a week.Then a discussion arose upon the rules of proceeding, which occupied the Board seven weeks-the Mexican Commissioners pretending that the two governments were the parties litigant, that no claimant should be allowed to come before them, and that no document would be received by them unless it came through the Department of State. The American Commissioners were compelled to yield, after long but vain opposition, to these unjust rules of proceeding.-Owing to the great delay occasioned by the difficulties raised by the Mexican Commissioners, it was not until the 28th day of December, 1840, that the first case came before the Board for a hearing on its merits. The denial of access to the claimants, and the circuitous method of obtaining proofs, and the whole course of the Mexicans, have embarrassed all the proceedings, and tended very much to bring the Convention to naught. One of the claimarts, Mr. Santangelo, has published a pamphlet, in which the proceedings of the Convention are strongly objected to, and the conduct of the Mexican Commissioners particularly censured.

The following cases have been brought to a hearing, and awards made by the Board in favor of the claimants, since January last :


J. J. Astor & Son, New York - - 37,661

University of North Carolina.

the 11th December, 1789-the first meeting of the Trustees The University of North Carolina was incorporated on was held at Fayetteville, 15th November, 1790-Chapel Hill was laid off and the corner stone of the East Building laid, 12th October, 1793. The Institution was opened for the reception of students, 12th February, 1795, and the first class graduated 4th July, 1798.

The following table exhibits the number of graduates, at each Commencement, since the establishment of the College, and the number of Matriculates, during each collegiate year, since the organization of the faculty, by the appointment of a President on the 11th July, 1804:


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Eleven other cases have been discussed and sent to the umpire, with the arguments pro and con. as far back as May. Only one claim has been rejected, but a number have been laid aside or suspended-some because they are not among the class that lawfully comes before the Board, and others because additional documents and explanations are wanting. "A large number of cases," it is judged, are yet to be submitted for examination; so that there seems to be no immediate prospect of the sittting of the Board being brought to a conclusion.

The American Commissioners are, William L. Marcy and John Rowan; the Mexican, Senores Joaquin Velasquez

de Leon and Pedro Fernandez del Castillo.


Sickness in Kentucky.-The Frankfort Commonwealth says that the Dysentery prevails to a considerable extent in parts of Fayette, Woodford and Franklin counties, and has been marked by more than usual mortality.

The whole number of Matriculates has been ascertained to be about 1750.

From a catalogue now in preparation of the alumni, we will be able to present many facts that cannot fail to make a deep impression on the public mind. For the present, we will content ourselves with the following general statements:

Of the 674 graduates, 70 have entered upon the Gospel Ministry. The Governor of this State, five of our ten Judges, the two Judges who vacated their offices during the last year, the late and present Attorney General, are sons of the University. The two Senators in Congress, the two Judges, the two Speakers of the Commons, the Public Treasurer, and three of the four Solicitors elected during the last session of the General Assembly, are Graduates of the Institution. It is very remarkable, that while the average number of students, bas, during the last eight years, been quite equal to 130, no death has occurred since September, 1833. We doubt whether as much can be said for the healthfulness of any of the Collegiate establishments throughout our country. [Raleigh Register.

Steam Bridge.

A striking use of the steam engine has been adopted at Portsmouth: it is a floating bridge, 70 feet long and 60 feet wide, impelled by 2 engines of 20 horse power, and making the passage (2,200 ft.) at the speed of about 350 feet a minute. The bridge draws, with all its machinery, but 2 feet. The capital invention will naturally supersede the awkward contrivances of bridges of boats on the great European rivers, and will, not improbably, obviate the formidable expense of building bridges, and most greatly facilitate communication in colonies and new settlements in every part of the world. [St. Louis Argus.

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not been able to find a record of the fact, that a quantity of these cents were struck off in 1783, but that as soon as the circumstance came to Washington's knowledge, with that modesty which was characteristic of him, and of all true greatness, he took immediate measures to have the impression changed by the removal of his own portrait, and those which had been issued, suppressed. A few, however, went into circulation, and are now eagerly sought, at a high price, by collectors of rare and curious specimens. We are told that Mr. Codman has been offered ten dollars for the one in his possession.-Portland Adv.

Appropriations for the Navy.

The following statement which we derive from a speech of Mr. King of Georgia, shows the amount of appropriations for the Navy in different years, and the number of guns afloat:

In 1800, with a population of 5,305,000 and 669,000 tons of registered tonnage, we had 876 guns afloat; in 1841 our population is 17,000,000 our tonnage 2,960,000, and yet our guns are but 1,007. This shows how far our naval force is from keeping up with the growth of the population and the commerce of the country. Applying the same ratio of defence at this day which existed in 1800, we ought to have 2000 guns afloat.-Newark Daily Adv.



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The UNITED STATES COMMERCIAL AND STATISTICAL REGISTER, is published every WednesThe price to subscribers is day, at No. 76 Dock street. Five Dollars per annum, payable on the 1st of January of each year. No subscription received for less than a year.— Subscribers out of the principal cities to pay in advance.

Charles Codman of this city, who is a curious collector of coins--and has a fine taste for rare specimens of the antique, has showed us a very uncommon coin struck off in this country in 1783. It is of copper, and bears on one side a head of Washington, with the words, " Washington and Independence," around it, and the date--1783--below it. On the other side are the words around the margin, "United States of America;" in the centre between the two olive branches "one cent" (one word above the other,) and at the bottom "1-100." We understand, although we have Where, and at 76, Dock St. Subscriptions will be received.







Red River Raft.

No. 6.

The bayous are generally deep and narrow, their width seldom exceeding 150 or 200 feet. Their channels are generally bounded by abrupt sides, which are guarded against abrasions by imbedded timbers, and the roots of willows and other shrubbery. The lakes are generally broad and shoal, occupying the less elevated portions of the valley. Many of them are occasionally destitute of water in a dry season. The lakes are generally studded with a growth of cypress, and sometimes with willows, cotton wood, and oak, with other upland trees, which successively thrive and decay, ac

occupied by them. Hence the growth and supply, in part, of materials for the formation of rafts.

It is well known that the removal of this raft has caused the expenditure of much money annually, and will require much more, before the work is completed. Very little information has been furnished to the public respecting the intent and formation of these obstructions, upon which Capt. Shreve has been operating for several years. We therefore deem the following report of Col. Long interesting. The removal of the raft is very important, as opening a communica-cording to the prevalence or recess of the water at the sites tion with a very extensive and valuable portion of country. Marietta, June 1, 1841. Sir:-In obedience to your instructions of March 13, 1841, I have personally examined the several sites occupied by the former and present rafts of Red river, for the purpose of ascertaining the nature and extent of the work heretofore done, with a view to the improvement of the navigation of this important river, and of devising a plan of operations adapted to the further improvement still required in subserviency to the same object; and I now have the honor to report the result of my observations and inquiries in reference to those subjects.

Preliminary to a discussion of these topics, however, I shall attempt a brief description of that part of the river and its valley in which the rafts have been formed; such a description being essential to a clear illustration of the nature and bearings of the subjects, and to a proper apprehension of their import.

Various theories have been suggested by way of accounting for the changes that have occurred in the valley of Red river, and especially for the process by which alluvial deposits have been made, and rafts formed therein. But speculations of this nature, in so far as they relate to the origin and commencement of the difficulties in question, have very little claim upon our attention. In connexion with this subject, and in reference to delta formations generally, we would merely observe, that the more they are enlarged the greater will be the elevation of the surface of the stream by which they are made, at any given point within the formation. For example, when the delta formation at the mouth of the Mississippi terminated at New Orleans, the surface of that river, which was then as it is now, at its mouth, on a level with the surface water of the Gulf of Mexico, was lower at that point than it is at present, by about four feet, which is the difference now existing between the surface of the Mississippi at New Orleans, in a low stage of the river, and the surface

It may, moreover, be observed, that alluvial deposits or delta formations are carried at least to the elevation of the higher freshets that have given occasion to such formations. Hence, the flats or bottom lands in the valleys of streams, generally, are approximate indications of the highest freshets that have prevailed in such streams.

Red river, in its course within the State of Arkansas, pre-of mean tide in the Gulf. sents a single channel of an average width of about two hundred and fifty yards, and during the more elevated stages of the water has a depth sufficient for steam navigation, for many hundred miles, before it reaches the northern boundary of Louisiana. But, on entering the State last mentioned, it passes into the region or district in which the rafts had their origin and existence, and is divided into numerous small channels of very considerable depth, but generally, and almost uniformly, too narrow to admit the passage of floating trees, especially when their lengths are presented transversely of any channel or bayou through which the water has to pass.

The district constituting the region of the raft is situated entirely within the State of Louisiana. It embraces an extent from south-east to north-west, about 180 miles, and a width varying from five to twelve miles. The navigable channel through this district embraces a distance of about 500 miles. Numerous other channels, more or less devious, many of them navigable for steamboats in all stages of the water for considerable distances, are also included within this district as before intimated. The entire tract or valley now under consideration, abounds in bayous, lagoons and lakes, profusely distributed, and pervading its surface in every direction.

Moreover, when the alluvial lands in the valley of a river are more elevated above the low water table at one point than at another, as is strikingly the case in the valley of Red river, we may conclude with certainty, that there is a corresponding difference in the extreme range from low to high


The obstructions in Red river claiming our attention, are obviously attributable to causes like those that are still operative in working changes in the character and condition of this stream. Floating trees, and other drift, are brought down by every freshet. The channels through which it has a tendency to pass are, in some places too narrow to admit of its passage, and in others so thickly set with snags, planters, &c. that its progress downward is effectually interrupted by them. In either case the drift is arrested in its progress, and becomes stationary. A raft is thus commenced, and accumulates incessantly, so long as the drift continues to run. Every successive freshet contributes to its enlargement, by furnishing new supplies of floating materials; and in the course of a few years a raft many miles in extent is formed. The accumulations having been continued for a year or two, the materials first deposited become water soaked and sink to the bottom of the channel, while those more recently

The flats or bottom lands comprised within the valley, are invariably composed of a rich and fertile alluvion, of a redish complexion and sandy consistency, and are, throughout, analogous in all respects to the alluvious formations still in progress in the same region, which are composed of a very fine sand, intermixed with ferruginous clay, the former predomi-brought down, successively follow the same example. The nating.

current of the stream, which began to be checked in its vc

VOL. V.-11

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