game. As a general rule it is unadvisable to Castle on the Queen's side, but in the present case it is better to remove the King to a place of safety on the left before advancing the Pawns on the right.

§ 2. Philidor's Defence. This close defence is frequently adopted from fear of the Ruy Lopez attack, though it gives Black for some time a very confined game; it gives rise to no combinations at all comparable in interest and beauty to those which occur in the Italian defence It was however a favourite with the great chess-player, Mr. Morphy.

White Black

1. P to K 4 1. P to K 4

2. K Kt to B 3 2. P to Q 3

3. P to Q 4 3. K Kt to B 3

This is now preferred to 3. P x P, since if he made that move you would get a somewhat stronger attack by 4. Q x P.

4. Q Kt to B 3 4. P x P

5. QxP

It makes little difference whether you take the Pawn with Q or Kt.

5. B to K 2

If he should attack your Queen by 5. Q Kt to B 3,


6. B to Q Kt 5 6. B to Q 2

7. BxKt 7. BxB

8. B to K Kt 5

with the advantage.

6. B to K 2 (best) 6. Castles

7. Castles 7. Q Kt to B 3

8. Q to Q 2 8. P to Q R 3

9. B to Q 3 9. B to K 3

You have, perhaps, a slight superiority of position.

§ 3. The Italian Defence.

The Italian Defence (2. Q Kt to B 3) is, as we have already observed, the most satisfactory, as it enables Black to bring his pieces into action at once, and without disadvantage. When followed by 3. B to Q B 4 on both sides, the game is known as

The Giuoco Piano.
White Black

1. P to K 4 1. P to K 4

2. K Kt to B 3 2. Q Kt to B 3

3. B to Q B 4 3. B to Q B 4

3. K Kt to B 3 is a better defence (see § 5, the Two Knights' Defence).

4. P to Q B 3

This is the only move by which you can secure any advantage. 4. Castles is often played (see Variation), but ought to result in an even game, as do 4. P to Q 3, and 4. Q Kt to B 3.«

4. K Kt to B 3 (best)

5. P to Q 4 5. P x P

6. PxP

* For 4. P to Q Kt 4, see § 4. The Evans Gambit.

This is generally preferred to P to K 5

6. B to Q Kt 5 ch.

If instead of checking he retire the B to Q Kt 3, you will be able to maintain your centre Pawns.

7. B to Q 2 7. B x B

8. Q Kt x B 8. P to Q i

9. PxP 9. KtxP

10. Q to Q Kt 3 10. Q Kt to K 2

11. Castles 11. Castles

12. K E to K sq 12. K Kt to K B 5

The Handbuch gives 12. P to Q B 3.

13. E to K 4 13. Q Kt to K Kt 3

14. Q E to K sq

With a good opening.

Variation beginning at White's 4th move.

White Black

4. Castles 4. K Kt to B 3 (best)

5. E to K sq 5. Castles

If 5 Kt to K Kt 5, then 6 P to Q 4.

6. P to Q B 3 6. P to Q 3

7. P to Q 4 7. B to Q Kt 3

The game is even, but instead of 5 E to K sq, you may play 5 P to Q Kt 4, resolving the game into a variation of the Evans Gambit; this is probably your best move; you may also play 5. P to Q. 4, as suggested by M. Max Lange: this brilliant move is now considered unsound, yet I think that it may often be ventured without serious risk, as the defence is very difficult. The game would then proceed as follows:

4. Castles 4. K Kt to B 3

5. P to Q 4 5. KPxP (best)

If 5 B x P, which the TJieorie und Praxis prefers,

6. K Kt x B 6. Q Kt x Kt

7. P to KB 4 7. PtoQ 3

8. PxP 8. P xP

9. B to K Kt 5

with a slight superiority.

6. P to K 5 6. P to Q 4

Black's Q P, by advancing to Q 4, passes over a square commanded by your K P at K 5; you may therefore take it, placing your K P on Q 6, as if he had only moved the Q P one square. This is called taking Pawn en passant.

7. PxKt 7. PxB

8. E to K sq, ch

If 8. P M Kt P, then 8. R to Kt sq, and Black maintains, without difficulty, the Pawn which he has gained.

8. K to B sq (best)

9. PxKKtP, ch 9. KxP 10. Kt to K 5 10 Kt x Kt

If 10. EtoKsq.

11. B to Kit 6, eh. 10. K to Kt sq

12. KtxKtor

Kt x P on Q B i

with the advantage.

11. RxKt 11. B toK 2

12. R to K 4 12. P to Q B 4

13. Kt to Q R 3 13. Q B to K 3

14. R to K Kt 4, ch 14. K to B sq

If 14. B x R, then

15. QxBch 15. KtoBsq

16. B to K R 6, eh 16. K to K sq

17. E to K sq

and you should win.

15. B to K R 6, ch 15. K to K sq

16. R to K 4 16. Q to Q 4

Black keeps the Pawn with the better game, but I am inclined to think that you might do better at your 14th move than check with the Book, which appears purposeless, except as a bait to allure Black to capture Book with Bishop.

§ 4. The Evans Gambit.

This offshoot of the Giuoco Piano is the most brilliant form of the K Kt's opening; by the sacrifice of a pawn less valuable than the King's Bishop's, which is given up in the King's Gambit, the first player is enabled to establish his central Pawns, and to develop his forces with great rapidity. Theoretically it ought to result in an even game, but in practice it is found that the advantage generally rests with the first player, so difficult and dangerous is the defence.

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