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decisions. It involves learning about the gaps in our present knowledge and deciding how best to apply available resources to filling these gaps. A first step was a comprehensive survey of the world's literature; one result has been the publication of a 383-page bibliography of sulfur oxides and other sulfur compounds. Continuing worldwide liaison is maintained on this matter and two representatives of the Department are now in Europe studying sulfur-control methods and related current research in England and Germany. We are also cooperating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in setting up international air pollution studies. One of the studies recommended for top priority is the sulfur problem. Representatives of this Department have been involved in recent official exchange missions which, among other things, investigated these matters—a Presidential Mission to Germany and a Japanese Natural Resources Mission to the United States.
(2) Research on Alternatives to Desulfurization of Fuel and Flue Gas.—This Department attaches utmost importance to its research on the feasibility of means to control atmospheric levels of sulfur oxides by means other than desulfurization of fuels and flue gas. These means include: the use of taller stacks; the location of new fuel-burning sources outside of urban areas; allocating fuel among powerplants so that the better fuels are burned in the plants that are poorly sited or poorly equipped with respect to air pollution and vice versa ; separating fuel into better and poorer fractions at the point of production, to permit the allocation suggested above; allocating power load among powerplants so that less load is carried by those that are poorly sited or poorly equipped with respect to air pollution, and vice versa ; allocating power load among powerplants so that loading reflects the relative dispersive capacity of the atmosphere at any given time at all plants; and shifting from more to less pollution-producing fuels at individual powerplants when the dispersive capacity of the atmosphere decreases.
(3) Necessary Studies of Factors Other Than Control.-As an agency primarily concerned with public health and welfare, the Department must continue and expand its studies of the effects of sulfurous pollutants; and develop Federal criteria as guides to the setting of legal standards—for those and other pollutants-for emissions and for ambient air quality. Reactions which take place after sulfur compounds are emitted to the air must be studied. Surveys must be made in areas of high pollution, and continuing measurements taken throughout the country through the National Air Sampling Network and the Continuous Air Monitoring Program which are operated by the Department.
(4) Supplementary Programs Which Can Aid in Soz Control.Certain basic studies are being pursued which are expected eventually to contribute to a reduction in SO2 emissions. For example, a study is being conducted at Penn State University under the Department's research grant program at a cost of $20.240 which is concerned with "Interaction of Sulfur Dioxide with Carbon Surfaces.” This will help to optimize plant design for minimum operating costs under various flue gas conditions which prevail in the wide variety of existing powerplants.
A major Department program which will importantly affect the overall effort to reduce sulfurous effiuents is the Control of Air Pollution From Federal Installations. On May 26 of this year, President Johnson signed Executive Order 11282, which directs the heads of all Federal agencies to lead in the administration's efforts to improve the quality of the Nation's air. In signing the order, the President stated that the most difficult problem encountered in writing the order was the lack of an economically feasible technology for controlling emissions of sulfur. This Department has supplemented the order by issuing standards which set precise limitations on emissions which will be allowed from Federal buildings and facilities. These standards implement the expressed will of Congress that the Federal Government shall be an exemplary "good neighbor” in abating community air pollution. With regard to sulfur oxides, they require that most Federal Installations burn the lowest-sulfur-content fuel that is reasonably available. Among the factors to be considered in determining “reasonable availability" are: price, reliability of supply, and the magnitude of the air pollution problem.
The Federal Government has proposed spending more than $3 million in 1967 on research to control sulfur emissions. This includes $1 million for designing four sulfur-removal plants, the construction of which would cost a total of $8 million. The President has directed the Secretaries of the Interior and Health, Education, and Welfare to explore with the Bureau of the Budget the feasibility of increasing the Federal effort to find a solution to the sulfur emission problem.
E. TENTATIVE COST ESTIMATES
The Department's program for research and development on the control of air pollution by sulfur compounds has been and may continue to be limited by appropriation ceilings. Although the maximum appropriation authorized under the Clean Air Act has increased each year these ceilings have imposed limitations on the effort which could be expended on these as well as other areas of our total program. We have endeavored to utilize available funds most efficiently and to estimate future needs on the basis of current expectations. However, the areas of interest under consideration here are so relatively new, and are developing so rapidly, that even medium range estimates can be considered only as tentative. If maximum progress at least cost is to be achieved, it will be necessary to review at frequent intervals the authorities and resources required. For example, the above programs as currently envisaged would require approximately $25 million.
(The following information, requested by Congressman Rogers, was subsequently supplied by Mr. Fred Rehm, deputy director, Milwaukee County Department of Air Pollution Control :)
Department of Air Pollution Control
ADOPTED DECEMBER 20, 1961
89.01 Creation of department of air pollution control. 89.02 Definitions. 89.03 Duties of the department of air pollution control. 89.04 Establishment of rules and regulations. 89.05 Installation permit, operating permit, and certificate of operation. 89.06 Sale, use, or consumption of certain fuels. 89.07 Fuel shortage emergency. 89.08 Reporting of sales and purchases. 89.09 Equipment. 89.095 Suitable process or control equipment and fuels. 89.10 Fees, 89.11 Limits of emission and standards of measurement. 89.12 Entrance to premises. 89.13 Persons liable. 89.14 Penalties for violations. 89.15 Period of grace. 89.16 Maintenance of records. 89.17 Appeals to appeal board. 89.18 Co-ordination of municipal and county regulations. 89.19 Declaration of public purpose of ordinance.
(Created December 21, 1961 J. Proc., p. 1996-2020; published and effective J an. 4, 1962.)
TO REPEAL CHAPTER 88 OF THE GENERAL ORDINANCES OF THE COUNTY OF MILWAUKEE, AS AMENDED TO AND INCLUDING DECEMBER 20, 1961, AND, PURSUANT TO AUTHORITY OF SEC. 59.07 (85) STATS. AS CREATED BY CHAP. 508, L. 1961, TO CREATE A CHAPTER 89 OF THE GENERAL ORDINANCES OF THE COUNTY OF MILWAUKEE, CREATING A DEPARTMENT OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL, REGULATING THE EMISSION OF SMOKE AND SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES, FUMES, ACIDS, BURNING EMBERS, SPARKS, PARTICULATE WASTES OR DUSTS, INCLUDING THEIR RADIO-ACTIVE FRACTIONS OR COUNTERPARTS, INTO THE OPEN AIR WITHIN THE TERRITORIAL LIMITS OF MILWAUKEE COUNTY; REGULATING THE CONSTRUCTION, RECONSTRUCTION, REPAIR, USE OF, AND ADDITIONS TO PROCESSES, CONTROL EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES AND THE APPLICATION OF FUELS AND RAW MATERIALS TO EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES; REQUIRING NOTICE TO THE COUNTY OF MILWAUKEE OF ALL PURCHASES AND SALES OF SUCH EQUIPMENT TO BE INSTALLED WITHIN THE COUNTY; PROVIDING FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES FOR EXAMINATION OF PLANS, INSPECTIONS, TESTS, ISSUANCE OF PERMITS FOR EQUIPMENT AND CERTIFICATES OF OPERATION; ESTABLISHING PROCEDURES REGARDING THE TAKING OF APPEAL:S; PROVIDING FOR THE DETERMINATION OF A FUEL SHORTAGE EMERGENCY AND THE EFFECT THEREOF; PROVIDING FOR COMMENCEMENT OF ACTIONS TO ENJOIN ACTS, THREATS OF ACTS AND THE PROCURING OR SUFFERING OF ACTS TO BE DONE IN VIOLATION OF THIS ORDINANCE; AND PROVIDING PENALTIES FOR THE VIOLATION OF ANY OF THE PROVISIONS OF THIS ORDINANCE. PURSUANT TO AUTHORITY OF SEC. 59.07 (85) STATS. 1961, CREATED BY CHAPTER 508, L. 1961, NINETEEN NEW SECTIONS OF THE GENERAL ORDINANCES OF THE COUNTY OF MILWAUKEE ARE CREATED TO BE NUMBERED 89.01 TO 89.19, INCLUSIVE, WHICH MAY BE REFERRED TO AS CHAPTER 89 OF THE GENERAL ORDINANCES, AND TO READ AS FOLLOWS:
89.01 Creation of Department of Air Pollution Control. There is hereby created a Department of Air Pollution Control of the County of Milwaukee, which shall consist of the following:
(1) A Director to be appointed by the County Executive under civil service subject to confirmation by the County Board.
(2) A Deputy Director, who shall be appointed under civil service by the Director, and who shall be authorized to perfom all powers and duties of the Director in his absence or disability and under his direction.
(3) Such other employees as may, in the opinion of the County Board of Supervisors, be necessary for the proper performance of the work of said department, and who shall be paid such salaries as may be fixed by the County Board, and who shall be appointed under civil service by the Director.
(4)(a) An advisory Board of five persons who shall be graduate engineers representing a cross section of the various phases of air pollution or its control as well as with industrial processes and equipment, and whose experience and training qualifies them to give competent technical advice to the Director or to the County Board.
(b) Three members of the Advisory Board shall constitute a quorum provided that each recommendation of such Board shall be adopted by the affirmative vote of at least three members of the board.
(c) The members first appointed shall be appointed for tems of one, two, three, four and five years respectively and thereafter members shall be appointed for five year terms. Appointments to the Board shall be made by the County Executive subject to confirmation by the County Board. The County Executive shall annually appoint one of the members as chairman. The Advisory Board shall annually elect a secretary The members of the board shall serve without pay. The terms of each member shall commence on January 1. In the year 1961, the County Executive may appoint an interim Advisory Board to serve until January 1, 1962.
(d) The Advisory Board shall meet at least bi-monthly and at such