AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS. [Br. XV. Cu. Silk more accurate knowledge of the different sects in the empire, the Manicheans and other similar bodies, and no one could be found able sufficiently to explain them, Musonianus was chosen for the task, having been recomimended as competent; and when he had discharged this duty with skill, the emperor gave him the name of Musonianus, for he had been previously called Strategius. After that he ran through many degrees of rank and honour, and soon reached the dignity of profect; being in other metters also a man of wisdom, popular in the provinces, and of a mild and courteous disposition. But at the same time, whenever he could find an opportunity, especially in any controversies or lawsuits (which is most shameful and wicked), he was greatly devoted to sordid gain. Not to mention many other instances, this was especially exemplified in the investigations which were made into tho death of Theophilus, the governor of Syria, a man of consular rank, who gave information against the Cæsar Gallus, and who was torn to piooes in a tumult of tho peoplo; for which soveral poor mon woro condomnod, who, it was clearly proved, wero at a distanco at the timo of the transaction, while certain rich men who were tho real authors of the crimo were spared from all punishment, except the confiscation of their property.

3. In this he was equalled by Prosper, at that time master of tho horse in Gaul; a man of abject spirit and great inactivity; and, as the comic poot has it, despising the acts of secret robbing he plundered openly.'

4. And, while these iwo officers were conniving togother, and reciprocally helping each other to many means of acquiring riches, the chiefs of the Persian nation who lived nearest to the river, profiting by the fact that the king was occupied in the most distant parts of his dominions, and that these commanders were occupied in pfundering the peoplo placed under their anthority, began to harass our territories with predatory bands, making audacious inroads, sometimes into Armenia, ofton also into Mesopotamia. Ammianus refers to Plautus, Epidicus, Act. I., no. 1., lino 10 :

Theoprio. I am loss of a pilferer now than formo:ly.
Ep. How so?

very cradlo to his last breath. Increasing rapidly in every desirable quality, he soon became so conspicuous both at home and abroad, that in respect to his prudence he was looked upon as a second Titus: in his glorious deeds of war he was accounted equal to Trajan ; in mercy he was the prototype of Antoninus ; and in the pursuit and discovery of true and perfect wisdom, he resembled Marcus Aurolius, in imitation of whom he formed all his actions and character.

5. And since, as we are taught by Cicero, that the loftiness of groat virtuos delights us, as does that of high trees, while we are not equally interested in the roots and trunks; so, also, the first beginnings of his admirable disposition were kept concealed by many circumstances which threw a cloud over them; though in fact they ought to be preferred to many of his most marvellous actions of later life, in that he, who in his early youth had been brought up like Erectheus in the retirement sacred to Minerva, nevertheless when he was drawn forth from tho quiet shades of the academy (and not from any military tent) into the labours of war, subdued Germany, tranquillized the districts of the frozen Rhine, routed the barbarian kings breathing nothing but bloodshed and slaughter, and forced them to submission.

II. § 1. THEREFORE while passing a toilsomo winter in the city aforosaid, he learnt, among the numerous reports which were flying abont, that the ancient city of Autun, the walls of which, though of vast extent, were in a state of great decay from ago, wau now besiegod by the barbarians,

who had suddenly appoarod before it in groat force; and whilo tho garrison remained panio-stricken and inactive, trio town was defended by a body of veterans who wore bohaving with great courage and vigilance; as it often 'happens that extreme despair repulses dangers which appear destructive of all hope or safety.

2. Thorefore, without relaxing his anxiety about other matters, and putting aside all the adulation of the courtiers with which they sought to dirert bis mind towards voluptuousness and luxury, họ bastoned his preparations, and when everything was ready he set out, and on the 24th of

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Juno arrived at Autun ; behaving like a veteran general conspicuous alike for skill and prowers, and prepared to fall upon the barbarians, who were stragaling in every direction over the country, the moment fortune afforded him an opportunity, 3. Therefore having deliberated on his plans, and

consulted those who were acquainted with the country as to what would be the safest Tino of march for him to adopt, after having received much information in favour of dit. ferent routes, some recommending Arbois, others insisting on it that the best way was hy Saulieu and Cure.

* But as some persons affirmed that Silvanus, in com. mand of a body of infantry, had, a short time beforo, mado his way with 8,000 men by a road shorter than either, but dangerous as lying through many dark woods and defiles suitable for ambuscades, Julian becamo exceedingly eager to imitate the audacity of This bravo man.

5. And to prevent any delay, taking with him only his cuirassiors and archers, who would not have been sufficient to defend his person had he been attacked, he took the same route as Silvanlis ; and so came to Auxerre.

6. And there, having, according to his custom, devoted a short time to rest, for the purpose of refreshing his men, he proceeded onwards towards Troyes; and strengthened his flanks that he might with the greater effect watch the barbarians, who attacked him in numerous bodies, which he avoided as well as he could, thinking them more numerous than they really were. Presently, however, having occupied some favourable ground, he descended upon one body of them, and routed it, and took some prisoners whom their bwn fears delivered to him; and then he allowed the rest, who now devoted all their energies to flying with what speed thoy could, to escapo unattacked, as his men could not pursue them by reason of the weight of their armour.

7. This occurrence gave him more hope of being able to resist any attack which they might make, and marching forwards with this confidence, after many dangers he reached Troyes so unexpectedly, that when he arrived at the gates, the inhabitants for some time hesitated to give him entrance into the city, so great was their fear of the straggling multitudes of the barbarians.

8. After a little delay, devoted to again refreshing his weary troops, thinking that there was no time to waste, he

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proceeded to the city of Rheims, where he had ordered his whole army, carrying"... to assemble, and there to await his presence. The army at Rheims was under the command of Marcellus, the successor of Ursicinus ; and Ursicinus himself was ordered to remain there till the termination of the expedition.

9. Again Julian took counsel, and after many opinions of different purport had been delivered, it was determined to attack the host of the Allemanni in the neighbourhood of Dieuse; and to that quarter the army now marched in dense order, and with more than usual alacrity,

10. And because the weather, being damp and misty, pred vented even what was near from being seen, the enemy, availing themselves of their knowledge of the country, camo by an oblique road upon the Cæsar's rear, and attacked two legions while they were piling their arms ; and they would almost have destroyed them if the uproar which suddenly arose had not brought the auxiliary troops of the allies to their support.

11. From this timo forth Julian, thinking it impossible to find any roads or any rivers free from ambuscades, proceeded with consummato prudence and caution ; qualities which above all others in great generals usually bring safety and success to armies. 12. Hearing therefore that Strasburg, Brumat,

Saverne, Spiers, Worms, and Mayence, were all in the hands of the barbarians, who were established in their suburbs, for the barbarians shunned fixing themselves in the towns themselves, looking upon them like graves surrounded with nets, he first of all entered Brumat, and just as be reached that place he was encountered by a body of Germans prepared for battle.

13. Having arranged his own army in the form of a crescent, the engagement began, and the enemy wero speedily surrounded and utterly defea'ad. Some were taken prisoners, others wero slain in the heat of the battle, the rest sought safety by rapid flight.




III. $ 1. AFTER this, meeting with no resistance, be determined to proceed to recover Cologne, which had been destroyed

• The text is defective here, as it is wherever these marks occur.

before his arrival in Gaul. In that district there is no city or fortress to be seen except that near Confluentes; a place so named because there the river Mosello becomee Iningled with the Rhine there is also the village of Rheinmagen, and likewise a single tower near Cologne.

2. After having taken possession of Cologne he did not leave it till the Frank kings began, through fear of him, to abate of their fury, when he contracted a peace with them likely to be of future advantage to the republic. In the mean time he put the whole city into a state of com. plete defence.

3. Then, auguring well from theşe first-fruits of victory, he departed, passing through the district of Treves, with the intention of wintering at Sens, which was a town very suitable for that purpose. When bearing, so to say, the weight of a world of wars upon his shoulders, he was occupied by perplexities of various kinds, and among them how to provide for establishing in places most exposed to danger the soldiers who had quitted their former posts ; how to defeat the enemies who had conspired together to injuro the Roman causo; and further, how to provido supplies for the army while employed in so many different quarters.

IV. $ 1. While he was anxiously revolving these things in his mind, he was attacked by a numerous force of the enemy, who had conceived a hope of being able to take the town. And they were the more confident of success because, from the information of deserters, they had learnt that he neither had with him his Scutarii nor his Gentiles, both of which bodies of troops had been distributed among the

different Imunicipal towns in order that they might be the more easily supplied with provisions.

2. Therefore after the gates of the city had been barricaded, and the weakest portions of the walls carefully strengthened, Julian was seen night and day on tho battlements and ramparts, attended by band of armed men, boiling over with anger and gnashing his teeth, because, often as he wished to sally forth, he was pre.

i Coblenz.

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