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CH A P. VI.
Address of the Directory to the French Armies.—Determination to carry the
War into Italy.--Difficulties to be encountered in carrying this Plan into Execution.—Buonaparle.---The French Army, under his Command, makes rapid Progress in Italy.—The Aufirians, under General Beaulieu, conftantly repulfed, yet not dispirited.--Varions Actions.-Sufpenfion of Arms agreed on belzceen the French and Piedmontese Armies.--General Beaulieu re-crosses the Po, for covering the Countries to the North of that Rirer.- Al Paris, Negociation for Peace between the King of Sardinia and the French Republic.-- Treaty of Peace between France and Sardinia. ratified by the Legislative Bodies of France.Laultation and Confidence of the French.---Improved by Buonaparte, for the purpose of leading on the Army to farther Exploits.- Address to the Arm11.-General Oljedt and Tendency of Buonaparte's private Concerfation.--Homage paid to the crit of Buonaparte and the Ariny, by the Directory.-Buonaparte puts his Army in Motion.-Crosses the Po, and leaves General Beuntien to break xp his Camp.-Armistice between the French Army and the Duke of Parma. -The French advance toward the Capital of Lombardy.-Balile of Lodi.The Auftrians retreat to Mantua.-- The French proceed 10 Mtlan, where the French General allore's his People fome Days of Repose. CHILE the armies of the re- the preceding, that many people in
public were successfully em- France, as well as in other parts ployed in fupprefsing those internal of Europe, began to consider the commotions, the directory was anxi- enthusiasm of the French as conoufly taken up with the plans that fiderably abated. But the fanguine were to be profecuted, as soon as disposition of the generality of the domestic difficuties were overcome. French attributed their defeats on In the end of April, they thought the Rhine folcly to the unskilful themselves fo completely deliver- management of their yenerals; and ed from all apprebentions at home, still remained convinced, that, had that they began immediately to turn they been judiciously commanded, their aitention to thołe two under- they would have been victorious as takings, on the fortunate termina- before. tion of which the future security
In order to encourage this perof the republic would be establish- fuafion, the directory published an ed beyond the possibility of being address to the different arınies, preTaken by any external force. viously to their taking the field.' It
The events of the last campaign was conceived in very animated had been so different from thole of terms, and recalled to their notice
the various exploits they had per- lapse of even a few years, they might formed in the two foregoing years, confider as already decided." In this the patience with which they had situation of affairs they determined borne not only the hardships of the to divert the energy and attention field, but the preffures of want, and of the emperor from his Belgian the privation of every convenience territories, where his authority had and comfort, and the invincible for- been fo often disputed, to his Italian titude with which they had persified, dominions, where his will was a amidst all these difficulties, to dif- law, and from whence he drew still charge the duties of brave soldiers. greater fupplies. While they cut It exhorted them to persevere as off the emperors resources in Italy, they had done: fresh toils and victo- they would add to their own. They ries were expected from them by did not doubt of reaping immenle their country, before its enemies benefit from the possession of that would consent to reasonable terms country, the inhabitants of which
It held out the most were known generally to have little flattering hopes of success; and that affection for their present sovereigns. they were at the eve of terminating. The people of the duchies of Milan, their patriotic labours, the illue of Parma, and Modena, were peculiwhich would procure safety to their arly disaffected, and, the nobility and country, and glory to themselves; clergy excepted, seemed rather to who then would return to its bolom, detire, than to dread, a change of to enjoy the love and gratitude fo mafters.' The commonalty, in the justly due to them from their fellow- 'republics of Venice and Genoa, citizens, and so nobiy earned by professed no attachment to their their services.
rulers. In Tuscany, and the papa! This address was sent to all the dominions, there were numbers of military bodies of the republic, and discontented; and in the kingdom read to them with great solemnity. of Naples the number was still It was received with much respect greater. and fatisfaction. The officers and Among these multitudes there foldiers formally renewed their af. were some individuals refolute surances of fidelity to the republic, enough to declare their dillatisfac. and their readiness to lay down their tion at their respective governlives in its defence.
ments, notwithstanding the perThe object which the directory fonal dangers to which they ex, had now chiefly in contemplation posed themselves by fo daring a was to carry the war into Italy. conduct. But what was more, fome The Austrians were prepared to had the courage to entertain a pripaís the Rhine in great force: thevate correspondence with France, attachment of the Belgians to their and explicitly to solicit some of French conquerors might waver; the principal persons in the res the fate of another campaign was public to invade Italy, where, they uncertain; much was to be loft, no- aflured them, they would find more thing gained, in the Netherlands, by friends than foes among the natives, an appeal to arms, on a question, and meet with no oppolition but
hicli, if the authority of the re- from the Austrians, and their few public should be confirmed by the adherents, among the pollefiors of
OF EUROPE. [87 places and employments in their thousand borse to ferve in the ImService.
perial army. Induced by these various motives, Though the strength with which the directory resolved to begin mili- the French proposed to attack their tary operations abroad, with the at- enemies in Italy was much inferior tack of a country, where the princes, in number to theirs, and far from one excepted, the king of Sardinia, being so well supplied, it was comcould place little reliance on the posed of bardy and resolute soldiers, loyalty of their subjects; and where filled with enthusiasm, and impathis prince had already loft such a tient to enter into action, and to portion of his territories, as greatly indemnify themselves for the fufferendangered the remainder.
ings they had undergone upon the Nerertheless, obstacles of a se- rocky and barren coast
, to which rious nature presented themselves. they had long been confined, through The undertaking was, indeed, ar- want of reinforcements io enable daous. Italy, proverbially the grave them to move forward against the of tbe French, was viewed by the enemy. generality of people as unconquer- The supplies of men and ammuable on the side of France. Envi- nition did not arrive till the beginroned by mountains, the passes of ning of April, when the French dewhich were fortified with the ut- termined immediately to commence most art, and guarded with numerous their operations. They were canwell-disciplined troops, it seemed toned along the coast of that fea, calculated for an invincible refift- called the river of Genoa, within
The French, after reducing three leagues of that city; and the
forts and fortresses in the heart Austrians and Piedmontese were of the Alps, had not been able to posted on the mountains opposite to make an efiecual impression on them. Piedmont, without which an en- The French were commanded by trance into Italy appeared impractic general Buonaparte, already noticed cable. The powers interested in the in the action between the convenpreservation of Italy, aware of the hof- tional troops and the sections of Paiile intentions of France, had made ris,* in October, 1795, a native of ample preparations for defence. The Corsica, born, as it were, a comemperor's forces amaunted to cighty mander, and uniting the intrepidity thousand well-disciplined men, com- of an ancient Roman, with the manded by excellent officers and subtlety and contrivance of a mogenerals, and provided with every dern Italian; ard both these fortiipecies of warlike necesaries. The fied and improved by a liberal; as king of Sardinia's army was sixty well as military, education. Hardly thousand strong, exclulive of mili- thirty years of age, he had fignatia. The pope and the king of lized his military abilities, not only Naples were occupied in embo- on that but some other very decisive dying as many troops as their cir- occafions, and acquired a reputation cumitances woull permit; and the that had raised him to the highest latter had difpatched two or three degree of esteem in his profession.
# See Vol. XXXVII. Page 106.
The troops under his command were rally from the disorder into which little more than fifty thousand they had been thrown. They admen: but he poßefied iheir entire vanced in considerable force, and confidence, and was reputed equal charged the French with great to the arduous task he had ventured vigour. The dispute was long and to undertake.
bloody: the Austrians and Pied. The Auftrians were under gene- montese made repeated efforts to sał Beaulieu, an officer of great liberate the troops in the castle, and experience and talents, though he directed their attacks on the centre had been unfortunate in several of the French: but these stood their actions with the French in the Ne ground immoveably, while their therlands. On the ninth of April two wings turned the right and left heattacked a French post and forced of the adverse army, the rear of it : on the the tenth he advanced which was assailed at the same time upon them, and carried all their by another divifior. Surrounded in entrenchments but one. Here he this unexpected manner, they suf-was arrested by the obstinate bra- tained a dreadful defeat; two thouvery of the officer who commanded fand were pain in the action, and it. 'Rampon, chief of brigade, who upwards of eight thousand made conceived that the fate of the day prisoners, including the corps under depended on the preservation of generat Provara, which' had so this post, made his officers and sol- much distinguished itself by the dediers swear never to abandon it. fence of the castle. This great victory They defended it accordingly dur- was obtained on the fourteenth of ing the whole night with such in- April.- Among the killed were some vincible firmness, that the Auftrians officers of high distinction; and of were constantly repulsed. In the the taken one was a general, and morning of the eleventh, Buona- near thirty colonels, beside inferior parte, hy a circuitous movement, fell officers. Between twenty and thirty upon the rear and flank of the ene- cannon fell into the hands of the my, who were completely routed, French, with fifteen standards, and with the lofs of fifteen hundred an immenfe quantity of stores and killed, and more than two thousand field-equipage. Two French getaken. This battle was fought at nerals, Banal and Quanin, fell in a place called Montenotta.
this battle, which cost the victors à + Eager to improve this victory', number of their bravest men. Buonaparte purlued the Austrians, Though twice defeated in sodewho had retreated to a ftrong posi- cisive a inanner, general Beaulieti tion at a place called Millasimo: was by no means dispirited :: cola but general Angereau forcing the lecting as many of his scattered paslages leading to it, the Auftrians troops, as formed a body of fepen retired to the ruins of an old castle, thousand men he again attacked which general Provara, who com- the French with great impetuosity, manded thenı, hasened to surround the next morning, and drove them with an intrenchment, where he from their incampment at a village food teveral attacks, and riefended called Dego, where they had exhimtelf resolutely for five days. This pected to repose themselves after the afforded time to the Austrians to fatigues of the preceeding day. This unexpected attack, so far dilcom- with great courage, the Piedmontesc posed them, that they were thrown withdrew in the night of the fisinto disorder, and compelled to teenth, abandoning Cava, which furabandon their post, after having rendered to the French. After some thrice endeavoured to retake it. retrograde rootions, wherein they
More than half of the day had were closely pressed by the French, been spent in thelefruitless attempts, who met however with some checks, when Buonaparte, anxious to reco- a general engagement took place near ver a post, without which, the ad- Mondovi on the twenty-second. vantages gained by his two victories, General Colli, who commanded would have been frustrated, imme- the Piedmontese, had drawn up his diately gave orders for a large body army to great advantage; his centre to form in front of the enemy, and being covered by a strong redoubt, occupy their attention, while ang which was resolutely defended for ther charged them on their left, a long time against all the efforts posted at Dego. The intrepidity of the French, who lost numbers in with which the French generals and its attack. It was carried al length officers headed their men, decided after repeated allaults: upon which the fate of the day. After a rigor- general Colli thought it prudent ous defence, the Austrians were in to retreat. His loss amounted to their turn obliged to giveground, and about twelve hundred men, of whom leave the field io the French, with a thousand were taken. Of these, the loss of near two thousand men, three were generals, and four coloof whom, about fifteen hundred nels. One general was slain, and were made prisoners: on the fide eleven standards fell into the hands of the French, numbers also fell, of the French, who lost also one of and among these general Caulla, their generals, and a considerable one of their best ofhcers.
number of men. Thus, in the space of five days, no The Piedmontese army, after its less than three battles were fought, defeat, crossed the river Stura, and in every one of which the French took a strong position between Coni were victorious. The Austrian and and Cheralco. Here it was attackPiedmontelearmies had, in the course ed, on the 25th, by the French, who of these engagements, been separated compelled veneral Colli to retire from each other: which enabled Buo- from the post he occupied at Follano. naparte to effect a junction with a They made themselves masters of considerable body of his army, be- Cherasco, where they took a quanfore which the Piedmontese division tity of cannon and large magazines, had retired, not daring to oppose it and the Piedmontese withdrew to in combination with the corps under Carignano, in order to be nearer general Augeteau who had joined to Turin, for its protection against it. After dislodging the Piedmontese the French army, which was now from their redoubts, at Montezimo, advanced to within nine leagues of this officer followed them to their that city. camp before the town of Cava. It The defeat of his army, at Monwas strongly fortified, but Augereau dovi, had already determined the attacked it with such vigour, that, king of Sardinia to make overtures after defending it the whole day of peace to Buonaparte. General 10