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By fully following out the method touched upon in the preceding answer, it would be discovered that the scale of Sol has one sharp; Re, two; La, three; Mi, four; Si, five; &c. Again, with flats, that Fa has one ; Si flat, two ; Mi flat, three ; La flat, four; Re flat, five, &c. From this succession of scales, and their requisite sharps and flats, we find that the scale whose tonic is a major fifth above Do, must have one sharp; the one a fifth above that must have two, and so on; the same order obtain with the flats, except that instead of taking the fifth above, it is taken below.
It seldom happens that even the simplest piece of music, if of any length, does not modulate, or change from its original scale to some other, generally the one a fifth above or below. In thus modulating, a sharp or a flat must be used ; and if that sharp or flat is used to raise or depress a note of the same name as the preceding one, then a chromatic semitone is produced; as is the case in Wilhem’s “Leaving Port” (Hullah's Course). There the original scale is Do; it modulates into Sol; to do which, the fa, in the third part, is sharpened to form the leading note to the latter scale. “Write short passages of music in the time indi
3 3 cated respectively by C, each in a different key."
2, 4, In preference to subjoining passages, we refer to the following tunes, copies of which are probably in the possession of every teacher, and will answer the latter two requisites, “ The Old Hundredth,” “ Hanover," and the “ National Anthem.” The first is usually written in the scale or key of La, or A ; the second, in Si flat or B flat; and the last in Sol or G.
SECTION I. 1. Name the principal ports in the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Name the principal divisions of the British posses
sions in North America. Point out the parts chiefly inhabited by a population speaking the French language, and account for its being found
there. 3. Draw a map of England, marking thereon the prin
cipal rivers ; also the Manufacturing Districts, thus — 0; Dock Yards, thus – D; Cathedral Cities, thus-X; Mining Districts, thus-M.
1. What might we expect to be the cargoes of vessels
coming into an English port from the Baltic and
from the Levant? 2. Name the principal mineral productions of Europe,
and the countries from which they are derived. 3. Mention the articles of manufacture for which each
country on the Continent of Europe is most distinguished, and the principal seats of each.
SECTION III. 1. Give some account of the climate of Hindostan,
and of the periodical rains ; name the presidencies into which the British dominions in India are divided, and what religions prevail in those
countries. 2. Describe and account for the Monsoons, the Trade
Winds, and the Gulf Stream.
1. Mention the principal mountain ranges of the world,
with the elevations of their highest summits. 2. What animals are most widely distributed over the
earth? Describe any changes which they undergo
in different climates. 3. Name the chief races of men, the parts of the globe
which they severally occupy, and their principal characteristics.
1. “ Name the principal ports in the Mediterranean Sea.”
In Spain-Gibraltar, Malaga, Carthagena, Valencia, Tarragona, Barcelona. In France - Marseilles, Toulon, Frejus. In Sardinia-Genoa. In Italy-Leghorn, Civitá Vecchia, Naples, Reggio, Taranto, Otronto, Venice. In Austria-Trieste. In Sicily-Messina and Palermo. In Greece - Napoli and Navarino. In Turkey, in Asia-Smyrna and St. Jean d'Acre. In Malta—Valétta. In Minorca-Port Mahon. On the coast of Africa—Algiers, Tunis, Bona, Ceuta, and Tangier, the last on the Straits of Gibraltar.
2. “ Name the principal divisions of the British dominions in North America. Point out
Point out the parts
chiefly inhabited by people speaking the French language, and account for its being found there." States.
Chief Towns. Lower Canada
Quebec, Montreal. Upper Canada
. Toronto, Kingston. New Brunswick
Fredericton, St. John's. Nova Scotia ...
Halifax, Picton. Newfoundland
St. John's. Cape Breton..
.. Louisburg, Sidney. Prince Edward's Island .. Charlotte Town. Labrador
.Nain Fort. Louisburg, Canada, and Cape Breton were French colonies, till the seven years' war (1756-63), during which they were taken by the English. Hence the French language is perpetuated in them in varying degrees, though English is learned by the middle and upper classes.
3. “Draw a map of England, mark thereon the principal rivers ; also the Manufacturing Districts, thus-0; Dock Yards, thus—D; Cathedral Cities, thus--X; Mining Districts, thus-M."
This question requires a mode of reply which, if adopted here, could subserve no useful end, and would in some degree augment the price. Maps of England are accessible to all.
1. “ What might we expect to be the cargoes of vessels coming into an English port from the Baltic and from the Levant?”
From the Baltic-timber, hides, tallow, wheat, oats, flax, hemp, iron, bark, turpentine, resin, tar, pitch, wood-ashes, flax-seed, salt fish, and furs. From the
Levant-coffee, carpets, silks, fruits, drugs, and perfumes.
2. “Name the principal mineral productions of Europe, and countries from which they are derived."
Gold, in small quantities, from the sands of the Danube, the Tagus, the Rhine, and the Rhone. Also, in partial and insignificant quantities, in some streams of Ireland, Scotland, France, and other countries of Europe. The most profitable mines are those of the Oural.
Silver, at Schemnitz and Kremnitz, in Austria, at Kongsburg, in Norway, and in small quantities in most lead-producing districts.
Platina, usually found in connection with gold, abounds in the Ural mountains.
Iron is found in inexhaustible abundance in Great Britain, and is plentifully dispersed over France, Sweden, Norway, Russia, and most of the countries of Europe.
Copper abounds more in England than in any other part of the world of equal extent. It is also found in Sweden, Norway, Austria, and Russia.
Lead, in most countries of Europe ; but chiefly in Spain, the British Islands, France, and Germany.
Zinc, in the same localities as lead.
Tin, chiefly in England, but to some extent in Saxony, Bohemia, and Gallicia.
Quicksilver, in Hungary, Spain, and Deuxponts, in Germany.
Coal, in England, Scotland, Belgium, Prussia, and France.
Sulphur, in Italy, Sicily, Iceland ; and in compound forms in England and Spain.
Salt, in England, Poland, France, Hungary, Germany, and most other countries, to a greater or less extent.