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So also we have Cyrstemal-ac (=oak). Cod. Dipl. 118. In a charter relating to Niwanham (Newnham), in Kent, we have a point of boundary described as " þær þæt Christes-mæl stod,” (where the Christ-mal stood). Cod. Dipl., 526. All these notices would seem to indicate that way-side crosses, or figures of our Lord on the cross, were customary in this country, as they still are in parts of Europe, in the early days of of Christianity.

All that has been attempted has been to give an example or two under each of the general classes we have endeavoured to explain. Some Names there are which cannot very fitly be placed under any one of these four heads;-others which might be included under more than one. These, together with many that will be additional illustrations of the various portions of this and the two previous papers, we hope some day to give in a supplementary list.

Names of Wiltshire Churches.

By the Rev. CANON J. E. JACKSON.

HAT Churches should be distinguished by names may

not be

necessary where there is only one: but in cities where they are numerous, the time-honoured custom of naming them after some Saint is convenient and almost unavoidable. But it should be remembered that though a church bears the name of St. Paul, St. Peter, St. Leonard, &c., it is not dedicated to them, but to the glory and worship of God, in memory or as a memorial of them.

The word "saint" is properly an adjective, not a substantive: but just as we incorrectly speak of the classic writers as "the classics,"' so, use (the "norma loquendi ") has given a substantive form to "the saints." The word, whether spoken of a person or thing, simply means holy. In the latter case, "Saint cross" and "Saint sepulchre" are merely the equivalent of "Holy cross" and "Holy sepulchre." The authorities for the names of our churches are Ecton's Thesaurus,

1742; Bacon's Liber Regis, 1786; Browne Willis's Parochiale Anglicanum, and the "Liber Scholasticus," an abridgement from the Report of the Commissioners appointed to enquire into the Revenues of the Established Church, presented to Parliament in 1835, which contains the dedication names, so far as was known, of every church in England and Wales.

In some instances these authorities do not agree: and the causes of uncertainty are various. 1. It was sometimes the case in ancient times that one part of a church was finished and consecrated before another part and the name given to a part may have been mistaken for the name of the whole. 2. There were also chantry chapels in the church, each having its altar and name. Confusion has arisen from this. 3. The village feast or revel, originally a religious festival instituted to mark the day of consecration, is generally, but not invariably, good evidence of the name of the church. 4. Sometimes upon the rebuilding or restoration of a church a new name was given; and 5, sometimes when the name had been forgotten the accidental discovery of some fresco-painting of a saint has led to that name being adopted.

If a name cannot be found in any of the authorities above-mentioned, it might possibly be met with in ancient records relating to the parish preserved at the Diocesan Registries: especially in mediaval or pre-Reformation wills. Testators frequently specified by name the church in which they desired to be buried, or to the repair of which they made some bequest of money.1

ALDBOURNE
ALDERBURY

ALDERTON

I. NAMES OF PARISHES.

St. Michael 2

B. V. Mary

ALLINGTON (near Amesbury) St.
John Baptist
St. Anne 3

St. Giles ALD CANNINGS

1 For some of these observations the writer is indebted to various correspondents in Notes and Queries.

2 So in the King's Book. The village feast happening to be held on the Monday nearest to St. Mary Magdalen's day has sometimes connected that name with the church.

So in Ecton and Bacon. In Wilts Mag. (xi,, 14) All Saints is considered more probable.

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B. V. Mary | BOSCOMBE
All Saints

در

BIDDESTON

""

(destroyed) St. Peter St. Peter BISHOPS CANNINGS B. V. Mary BISHOPSTON (S. Wilts) St. John

""

BISHOPSTROW

BLACKLANDS

BLUNSDON

St. Leonard
St. Nicholas

در

St Andrew

BOWDEN HILL (Lacock) St. Anne
BOWER CHALK Holy Trinity
Box
St. Thomas à Becket
B. V. Mary

BOYTON

BRADENSTOKE cum

B. V. Mary

CLACK
BRADFORD-ON-AVON Holy Trinity

""

(New church) Christ Church BRADLEY, NORTH St. Nicholas (Road Hill) Christ Church

St. Peter

St. James

St. Martin

99

BRAMSHAW

BRATTON

BREMHILL

BREMELHAM (or

Cowidge)
BRINKWORTH
BRITFORD

BRIXTON DEVEREL
BROAD CHALK

BROAD HENTON (or

H. Magna)
St. Peter
BROAD TOWN Christ Church
BROKENBOROUGH St. John Baptist
BROMHAM
St. Nicholas
BROUGHTON GIFFORD B. V. Mary
BULBRIDGE
St. Peter
BULFORD

BURBAGE

BURCOMBE
BUTTERMERE

CALNE

[not known] St. Michael

St. Peter

St. Michael
All Saints

Baptist (N. Wilts) B. V. Mary

St. Aldhelm

St. Peter
St. Andrew

""

BROAD St. Leonard CALSTON WILLINGTON B.V.Mary In "Wiltshire Collections," p. 34, Note, St. Mark is an error of the press

for St. Mary.

St. John Evangelist

All Saints

St. John Baptist

St. James

B. V. Mary 1

(Quemerford) Holy Trinity

CASTLE COMBE

St. Andrew

B. V. Mary

CASTLE EATON
CHALDFIELD, GREAT St. Catharine
CHAPMANSLADE St. Philip and

St. James

CHARLTON (near Pewsey) St. Peter ,, (near Malmesbury) B.V.Mary (near Donhead) All Saints

CHERHILL

St. James

CHESINGBURY PRIORS (destroyed) CHEVEREL, GREAT

LITTLE

در

""

CHICKLADE

CHILMARK

CHILTON FOLYOT

CHIPPENHAM

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St. Mary1
St. Peter

St. Peter
All Saints

St. Margaret

B. V. Mary
St. Andrew

St. Paul

St. John Baptist

Holy Cross

B. V. Mary

All Saints

CHUTE

CLEVERTON [see Lea]

CLYFFE PYPARD

CODFORD

COLLINGBOURNE REGIS,

ABBAT's, or KING

STON

St. Peter

St. Peter

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B. V. Mary

""

St. Nicholas DILTON

All Saints
St. Nicholas

DUCIS

CowIDGE [see Bremelham]

CRICKLADE

""

DINTON

B. V. Mary

B. V. Mary'

St. Michael

B. V. Mary

St. John Baptist DOWNTON

در

CRUDWELL
DAMERHAM

DAUNTSEY

DERRY HILL (Calne) Christ Church
DEVIZES
St. John Baptist

St. Thomas à

Becket 3

B. V. Mary

St. Samson

Holy Trinity

All Saints

St. George
St. James

B. V. Mary
St. Peter

DITCHAMPTON
DITCHRIDGE St. Christopher?

DONHEAD

B. V. Mary

MARSH Holy Trinity

B. V. Mary

St. Andrew

St. Andrew

B. V. Mary

St. Laurence

1 Called by Ecton "St. John Baptist : " but corrected in his Appendix to "St. Mary."

2 Corrected from "St. Andrew" by Ecton in his Appendix, p. 631. So in Bacon; but Ecton says "St. Andrew."

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Baptist

St. Andrew?

FOSBURY

FOVANT

FOXHAM

All Saints

B. V. Mary B. V. Mary

Salisbury)

FIFIELD BAVENT

St. Michael

(Chalke) FIFIELD (Marlborough) FIGHELDEAN FISHERTON AUCHER St. Clement DELAMERE St. Nicholas All Saints

""

FITTLETON
FONTHILL EPISCOPI All Saints
GIFFORD St. Nicholas

Christ Church

St. George St. John Baptist

All Saints St. Michael St. Peter

All Saints?

St. Martin

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1 No early name being known, that of "All Saints " restoration of the church in 1851.

St. Nicholas [not known] B. V. Mary s

St. Thomas

All Saints Holy Cross St. John Baptist St. Nicholas

Holy Trinity

St. Peter St. Michael B. V. Mary St. Laurence

B. V. Mary St. John Baptist

St. Swithun St. Catharine B. V. Mary

was adopted at the

2 Possibly "St. Anne." See Wilts Arch. Mag., xi., 183.
3 Anciently, according to an old record, "All Saints."

So Ecton but the present Rector says "St. Michael and All Angels."

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