Exultation of the French at the successes of their Armies. Their Army in

Italy animated by the Praises of their Countrymen, and the Conversation as well as the Proclamations of Buonaparte to a high Passion for Glory.-Enters the Duchy of Modena. - Spoliation of Monuments of Antiquity and Ario-Abhorrence of the Italian Nobility and Clergy towards the French greater than that of the inferior Clases.-A general Infurrection, rcady to break out, quarned by the l'igilance and Promptitude of Buonaparle.--The Anfirians, under General Beaulieu, reith the. Connicance of the l'enctians, take Pottefion of Peschiera.-Buonaparte advances against Beaulieu, who relreats to the Tyrolife.-The Venetians tremble before the French.---Difmiss froin their Territories the Brother of the late King and Claimant of the Croun of France. Buonaparic takes P'ofesion of Verona.-Blockades Alannun.-Prepares to march into the Tyrolije.- Dztained by Insurrections in the Distrids, knorr under the Name of Imperial Fiefs.These being fupprefer, he carries his Arms to the Southward.--Reduces Tortona, Bologna, anu Urbino.- i fenaces Romc.- Armiflice betrecen the Pope and Bronaparle.--Suspension of Ilofilities with Naples.Buonaparte the Friend and Patron of Men of learning and Science.- Ambitious Views of the French Republic.--Infurreétion in Lugo.Quelled, and the City reduced by the French.---The Blockade of Mantua converted into a close Siege.-Raised by Marshal Il'ur mjer:- Actions betu'een the French Army and that of the Auftrians, reinforced by Detuchments from Mantua.-Remarkable Infance of Presence of Vird in Duonaparte.-The Auftrians driven back beyond the


HE news of these alionishing mies of France, particularly the

, , filled all France with exultation. tion to bear up chearfully against A splendid festival was appointed, the prellures of the war, by the at Paris, by the Directory, in or- prospect of terminating it finally to der to celebrate them with fait. the advantage and glory of France. able magnificence. To render it During an interval of five days niore folemn, it was accompanied reft, allowed hy Buonaparte to his with speeches to the citize:is, and foldiers, he did not forgei to addre's Culogiums of the victorious army, them in his usual manner, and to pronounced by Carnot, tie prelis excite their ardour, by a recital of dent of the day, and ca' plated to their exploits, and a representation animate the public agent the ene- or the honours and applause bestowed upon them by their country, mands of pictures, statues, and and by a prospect of the future sculptures. "It seems to be the fate triumphs awaiting them.

of the great models of the arts, He was now meditating expe- like the arts themfelves, to travel ditions into the territories of those from the east, by the west, to the princes of whose enmity to France north. Perhaps their tour in this difufficient proofs had been given. rection is not yet terminated To A detachment of his army had al- deprive the poor Italians of objects ready entered the duchy of Modena, so long endeared to them, by habit the sovereign of which had fled to and pofleflion, seemed an act of ty. Venice with his treasures. From ranny exercised upon the vanquishthis city he deputed a minister to ed in the wantonness of power. the French general

, with whom he Those objects had been relpected concluded a suspension of arms on by all parties, in the vicillitude of much the same conditions as those those events that had fo frequently granted to the duke of Parma. fubjecied the places that contained

The fpoliation of the repofitories them to different masters. The of art, which was now annexed to . French were the first who had conthe conditions of treaties with the ceived the idea of seizing them as a Italian princes, proved one of the matter of mere property.

Herein most vexatious as well as mortifying they were accused of consulting their circumstances of the French inva- vanity rather than their talte for fion. The monuments of painting the fine arts. The Romans, in their and of statnary, which adorned their triumphant periods, had plundered palaces, cities, and churches, were the Greeks of all the master-pieres viewed by the natives with a mix- they could find in their country. ture of delight and veneration. This appeared to the French a preThey entertained a species of affec- cedent fit for their imitation, and a tion for them; and, in the presence sanction for robbing the Italians of of some of them, they placed not a what they esteemed the most valittle confidence. They had be- luable part of their property, and come a kind of tutelary deities and the most honourable proof they still houtehold gods. The Italians were retained of their former fuperiority sensible of emotions not altogether in thofe departments of genius. dillimilar to those of the Ifraelite The conduct of the French, in Micah, into whose house armed tearing the monuments of antiquity men from Dan entered, and took and art from Italy, and carrying away " the graven image, and the them to Paris, was universally conephód, and the feraphim, and the demned and execrated by all civi. molten image.' In one respect, lized nations. It was, in truth, in the oppressions of the French in fome measure, plucking the role Italy were greater than those of from the tree. the northern hordes under Attila Motives of this nature, conspiring and Odoacer; for those chicfs did with the dissatisfaction experienced · not trouble the Romans with de- by multitudes, at the irreverence

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*“ Ye have taken away the gods which I made, and what have I more ?"- Judges

xvii. 24.

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which the French testified for the massacre of all the French they religious practices of the natives, could meet with. Rumours were enabled those who hated them, on circulated, that Beaulieu, strongly this account, to inftil their hatred reinforced, was on his march to into others, and to inflame their Milan, and that a number of French indignation againft men who pre- detachments had been surprised and fumed 10 more sense in those mat- put to the sword. Incensed at the ters than other nations.

ideas of equality upheld by the The two classes, whose inveteracy French, the nobles had dismiflud to the French was most notorious, their domeftics, telling them, that were the nobility and the clergy; as being their equals, they could no the French did not scruple to avow longer employ them as servants.. their enmity and contempt for both, The partilans of Austria were, in it was natural that these thould short, exerting all their activity to hold them in abhorrence. In their raise commotions, and no place speeches and conversations, public was free from them. and private, the former seldom failed On the receipt of this intellito reprelent the nobles as tyrants, gence, Buonaparte hafted back to and the priests as impostors. The Milan with a large body of horse depression which both thele orders and foot. He arrested a number of men had sufferred in France, of suspected persons, and ordered fhewed what was intended for thole to be shot who had been taken them in other parts of Europe, were in arins. He intimated to the archthe French to succeed in the vast bishop, and to the clergy and nodesign imputed to them, of intirely bles of the city, that they should fubverting the political and religious be relponsible for its tranquillity. lyften of this quarter of the globe. A fine was imposed for every for:

Aduated by these apprehensions, tant discharged, and every precauseveral of the most relolute of the tion taken to prevent the conspiracy nobility, and most zealous üf the from gaining ground. clergy, resolved, it was said, to in- It was principally at Pavia, that the cite the commonality to rise against conspirators were the most numethe French, on the first opportunity rous. They had seized on the citadel, that thould seem favourable to such guarded by a small party of French, a design. The day fixed upon for whom they made priloners. Being - its execution, was the twenty-fourth joined by some thousands of peaof May. Early in the morning, Tants, they relolved to defend the Buonaparte set out for Lodi, at the town, and refused admittance to

a strong detachment. He Buonaparte, on bis fummoning theni . had hardly reached that place, when to surrender. But a body of French he was informed, by an express, that granadiers burit open the gates, on an almost general insurrection was which thole who had the cofiody spreading through Lombardy. The of the French, who had been comalarm bells were ringing every pelled to surrender in the citadel, where, and the peasantry and lower set them at liberty. None of then clalles throughout the country, in- were milling: had violent hands stigated by the nobles and the clergy, been laid upon them, the determiwere up in arms, and intent on the nation was taken to destroy Pavia, VOL. XXXVIII.



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and to era on its site a pillar with broken forces of the Austrians had this infcription, Here stood the in their retreat taken refuge on the city of Pavia.'

Venetian territory,

Hither they In order to deter the inhabitants were closely pursued by the French. of this, and the other towns in. But previously to the commencement clined to stir up insurrections, the of operations in the Venetian state, promoters of that at Pavia were Buonaparte was eareful to give forlentenced to be shiot, and two hun. mal notice of his intentions to the dred hostages, for their peaceable senate. behaviour, were delivered to Buona- The disposition of the retian parte, who sent them to France. government, towards France, was He next illued a proclamation, de- justly suspected to be inimical. Had claring, that those who did not lay it been friendly before the entrance down their arms within twenty-four of the French'into Italy, their fuchours, and take an oath of obedience cesses, and the powerful footing they to the French republic, should be had now obtained, would have rentreated as rebels, and their houses dered them toodangerous to be viewcommitted to the fames.

ed with a favourable


Situated The nables and priests in the in- between two such powers as France surgent districts were to be arrested and Aufiria, Venice had no incliand sent to France. The places nation to befriend the one more than within the precincts of which a the other, and would gladly have Frenchman was allasinated, were been delivered from the proximity condemned to pay triple taxes till of both. Unwilling to offend a state, the aflallin was given up. The between which, and the French resame fine was laid on places where public, an amicable intercourse concealed arms and ammunition tublisted, the French general pubwere found. Persons of rank and lished an addrels to that government fortune who excited the people to and people, wherein he assured revolt, either by dismilling their ser- them, that in following the enemies vants, or by holding inimical dif- of France into the Venelan terrie courses against the French, were to tories, he would observe the stricielt be sent to France, and to forseit discipline, and treat the inhabitants part of their estates.

with all the amity and conlideration Injunctions and declarations of due to the ancient friendthip exthis nature were posied up in every ilting between the two nations. place of rote throughout the Mi- In the mean time, the Austrians lanese. Particular precautions were had taken pofleffion of Peschiera, taken for the security of the city of by the connivance of the Venetians, Milan, the castle of which still re- to whom that town belonged. Here mained in possession of the Austrians, Beaulieu hoped to be able to make who might, in cale of any formidable a stand, till luccours arrived to him infurrection, have given it effectual from Germany. Buonaparte, desirous assistance.

to expel him from Italy, or to comFreed from the perplexity occa- pel him to furrender, 'advanced to fioned by these disturbances, Buona. that town, intending to cut off his parte prepared to prosecute the retreat to the Tyrol, by the aftern plans he had been forming. The fide of the lake of Garden Early

in the morning of the thirteenth of the late residence of the French May, several divisions of the French prince. He now determined to lay approached the bridge of Borghetto, fiege to Mantua, the only place of by which Buonaparte proposed to ef strength and importance left to the fect a passage over the Mincio, and emperor in Italy. The reduction Surround Beaulieu's army. The of this fortress would effectually put Austrians made the utmost efforts to an erid to the influence of the court defend the bridge; but the French of Vienna, and transfer to France, crolled it after a warm action : the the power and credit exercised by Austrian general perceiving their in- the emperor in all the affairs of tent, withdrew in hafte from his Italy. position at Peschiera, and retired This was a deprivation to which with the utmost expedition to the the head of the house of Austria river Adige, which, having passed, could not bear the idea of submithe broke down all the bridges, to ting, and every effort was resolved prevent the French front persuing upon to prevent it. The ill success him. By these means he secured of Beaulieu had been such, that it his retreat to the Tyrol, the only was determined, at Vienna, to subplace of fafcty now remaining to stitute another commander in his hin.

room. Marshal Wurmfet; a veteran Buonaparte might now consider general in high esteem, was aphimself as the undisputed master of pointed to succeed him, though he Italy. He was so much viewed in that had himself experienced several delight by the Senate of Venice, even feats by the French. previously to his passage of the In hope of reducing Mantua beMincio, and the defeat of Beaulieu; fore succours could arrive, Buonathat, foreleeing the danger of ap- parte determined to lay immediate pcaring, too well inclined to the fiege to it. On the fourth of June, house of Bourbon, they had warned it was invested by the French, who out of their territories the unfor- drove the out-posts into the town, tupate brother of the late king of which was now closely surrounded France, who had, on the death on every side. of his nephew, lou to that monarch,

But the want of artillery preatlumed the name of Lewis the vented him from doing any more eighteen, together with the royal than bloçkading it. He had formed title,

hopes of reducing that city by other The circumftances of his difmif- means than a formal fiege ; which fion did the Venetians po credit: were to cut of all succours from Geron that prince's demanding the inany, and all provisions from its sword; formerly presented to the neighbourhood. senate by his ancestor, the celebrated In order to effect the first of these Henry the fourth of France,as a token purpoles, he resolved to carry the of his regard, they refused to reftore war into the Imperial dominions in it, on pretext that a large sum of Germany, and to invade the Tyrol money, due from him to the state, itlelf. This was doubtless a very had never been discharged. bold and hazardous attempt: the

Buonaparte took pofleffion, on the natives of that difficult and moung third of June, of the city of Verona, tainous country tcing not only a



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