Department of Education, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin


Associate Editor, New Practical Reference Library; Author of Cyclopedia

of Civil Government


Librarian, Public Library, Toronto, Ontario

Authors, Editors and Reviewers The person whose initials appear at the end of an article in these volumes either wrote it as original matter or became responsible for its accuracy as critical reviewer of the manuscript of another. ALLEN, EDWARD E., Director, Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for

the Blind, Watertown, Mass. ANCIZAR, R., Chargé d'Affaires, Embassy of Republic of Colombia, Washington, D. C. ANDREWS, BENJAMIN RICHARD, Assistant Professor of Household Economics, Teachers

College, Columbia University, New York City. ARNOLD, SARAH LOUISE, Dean of Simmons College, Boston, Mass. BABCOCK, MAUD MAE, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. BAGLEY, WILLIAM CHANDLER, Dean of the School of Education, University of Illinois,

Urbana, Ill. BALL, T. R., Registrar, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. BANCROFT, JESSIE HUBBELL, Assistant Director of Physical Training, Public Schools

of Greater New York, N. Y. BARGELT, LOUISE JAMES, Art Editor, Chicago, Ill. BEARD, DANIEL CARTER, Artist; author; founder of the Boy Scouts of America,

Flushing, Long Island, N. Y. BEECH, S. C., M. D., Evanston, Ill. BELFIELD, L. M., Staff Editor. BENSON, 0. H., In charge of Boys' and Girls' Club Work, Department of Agriculture,

Washington, D. C. BESTOR, ARTHUR, President, Chautauqua Institution, Chautauqua, N. Y., and

Chicago, Ill. Boyd, THOMAS D., President, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and

Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, La. BRADFORD, MARY C. C., State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Denver, Colo. BRANNON, MELVIN A., President, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. BRIDGES, H. V., Principal, Provincial Normal School, Fredericton, N. B.

BRILLIANT, OSCAR, Staff Editor. Formerly on editorial staff Encyclopedia Britannica,

London, England. BROOKS, EUGENE CLYDE, Professor of Education, Trinity College, Durham, N. C. BRUMMITT, DAN B., Editor, Epworth Herald, Chicago, Ill. BRYAN, W. S., President, University of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind. BRYCE, Rev. GEORGE, Author and educator, Winnipeg, Man. BUNKER, ROBERT E., Professor of Law, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. BURBANK, LUTHER, Naturalist; originator of new fruits and flowers, Santa Rosa, Cal. BURNS, ELMER E., Instructor in Physics, Joseph Medill High School, Chicago, Ill. BURRIS, WILLIAM PAXTON, Dean of College for Teachers, University of Cincinnati,

Cincinnati, O. BURROUGHS, JOHN, Author; naturalist; West Park, N. Y. CABOT, RICHARD CLARKE, Author; physician; Boston, Mass. CALDERON, Don I., Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from Bolivia

to the United States, Washington, D. C. CAMP, WALTER, Author on athletics and sports, New Haven, Conn. CARRINGTON, J. B., Secretary, Chamber of Commerce, San Antonio, Tex. CARY, A., Staff Editor. CHADSEY, CHARLES E., Superintendent of Schools, Detroit, Mich. CLARK, G. A., Academic Secretary, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford

University, Cal. COAKLEY, J. S., Staff Editor. COBB, JOSEPH PETTEE, Dean Hahnemann Medical College, Chicago, Ill. COLEMAN, A. P., University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. COOKE, E., Staff Editor. COOKE, FLORA J., Principal, Francis W. Parker School, Chicago, Ill. COONLEY, AVERY, Christian Science, Committee on Publication, Chicago, Ill. CURTIS, EDWARD S., Author; geographer; Seattle, Wash. DALE, J. A., Professor, McGill University, Montreal, Que. DENNY, GEORGE H., President, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Ala. DONLIN, G. B., Staff Editor. DOPP, KATHERINE ELIZABETH, Instructor, Correspondence Study Department,

University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. DUNLAP, J. D., Secretary, University of Montana, Missoula, Mont. EBERHART, ADOLPH 0., Former Governor of Minnesota, Mankato, Minn. ELLIOTT, EDWARD CHARLES, Chancellor, University of Montana, Helena, Mont. ENRICH, BARON, Chargé d'Affaires, Austro-Hungarian Embassy, Washington, D. C. Evans, WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, Physician; Editor Health Department, Chicago Tribune,

Chicago, Ill. EVANS, W. SANFORD, Chairman, Georgian Bay Canal Commission, Ottawa, Ont. FALK, J. R., Chicago, Ill.

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FARRAND, LIVINGSTON, Anthropologist; President, University of Colorado, Boulder,

Colo. FARRELL, GEORGE E., Expert on the Preservation of Food Products, Department of

Agriculture, Washington, D. C. FARRINGTON, EDWARD HOLYOKE, Professor of Dairy Husbandry, University of

Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. FINEGAN, THOMAS E., Assistant Commissioner for Elementary Education, State

Education Department, Albany, N. Y. Fisk, EUGENE LYMAN, Director of Hygiene, Life Extension Institute, New York, N. Y. FOSTER, ELLSWORTH D., Editor, THE WORLD BOOK. FUTRALL, J. C., President, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. GASTON, LUCY Page, Reformer; editor; Woman's Temple, Chicago, Ill. GIGNILLIAT, LEIGH ROBINSON, Superintendent, Culver Military Academy, Culver, Ind. Gillis, Ezra L., Registrar, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. GIRLING, GEORGE, Secretary, Australian Society, Chicago, Ill. GRAFTON, T. W., Pastor, Third Christian Church, Indianapolis, Ind. GROSVENOR, GILBERT H., Editor, National Geographic Magazine, Washington, D. C. GROVES, K. A., Staff Editor. GUITTEAU, WILLIAM BACKUS, Superintendent of Schools, Toledo, Ohio. HAGEN, FRED E., Registrar, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. HART, ALBERT BUSHNELL, Professor of Government; Harvard University, Cam

bridge, Mass. HAVENITH, E., Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from Belgium to

the United States, Washington, D. C. HELMHOLZ, HENRY F., Physician and Surgeon, Chicago, Ill. HENDERSON, V. H., Secretary of the Regents, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. HIGGINS, ANNAS, Instructor in Mathematics, University College, University of

Chicago, Chicago, Ill. HITCHCOCK, H. A., Secretary, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Hoag, ERNEST BRYANT, Physician; Child Specialist; Director of Hygiene and Child

Study, Los Angeles, Cal. HODGE, CLIFTON FREMONT, Professor of Civic Biology, University of Oregon,

Eugene, Ore.
HOLBROOK, FLORENCE, Principal, Forrestville School, Chicago, Ill.
HOLMES, E. BURTON, Author; Traveler and Lecturer; New York City.
HOOVER, M. A., Staff Editor.
HOSKINS, C. H., Staff Editor.
HOWARD, LELAND OSSIAN, Entomologist, Chief, Bureau of Entomology, United

States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
HUGHES, JAMES L., Author; educator; Toronto, Ont.
HUGHES, SIR SAM, Ex Minister of Militia, Canada.
HULLEY, LINCOLN, President, John B. Stetson University, Deland, Fla.

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HUNT, CAROLINE L., Specialist in Dietetics, Washington, D. C.
HUTCHINS, H. B., President, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
JASTROW, JOSEPH, Professor of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
JASTROW, MORRIS, JR., Professor of Semitic Languages and Librarian, University of

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.
JESSUP, WALTER A., President, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
JONES, E. LESTER, Superintendent, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C.
JUSSERAND, JEAN A. A. JULES, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary

from France to the United States, Washington, D. C. KELLOGG, JOHN HARVEY, Physician; Superintendent of the Battle Creek Sanitarium,

Battle Creek, Mich. KELLOGG, VERNON LYMAN, Professor of Entomology and Lecturer in Bionomics,

Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University, Cal. KENT, CHARLES WILLIAM, Professor of English Literature, Rhetoric and Belles

Lettres, University of Virginia, University, Va. KIRKLAND, M., Staff Editor. LARKIN, WILLIAM F., Doctor of Dental Surgery, Chicago, Ill. LATHROP, JULIA CLIFFORD, Chief of Children's Bureau, Department of Labor,

Washington, D. C. LEININGER, G., Staff Editor. LINDSEY, BENJAMIN B., Judge; reformer; Denver, Colo. LINGELBACH, WILLIAM E., Professor of Modern European History, University of

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. LOCKE, GEORGE H., Librarian, Toronto, Ontario, Public Library; Editor, THE

WORLD Book, for Canada. LORIS, JOHN D., Authority on Marksmanship. MACKAY, A. H., Provincial Superintendent of Education, Halifax, N. S. MACLEAN, JAMES ALEXANDER, President, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. MANN, CHARLES RIBORG, Associate Professor of Physics, University of Chicago,

Chicago, Ill. McCaig, JAMES, Editor of Publications, Provincial Department of Agriculture,

Edmonton, Alberta. McCALEB, A., Staff Editor. MCFARLAND, RAYMOND, Professor of Pedagogy, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vt. MCCLELLAND, KELLOGG D., Assistant to the President, Knox College, Galesburg, Ill. MEYER, R. D., Associate Editor, The Dial, Chicago, Ill. MOHLER, J. R., Assistant Chief, Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agri

culture, Washington, D. C. MONTGOMERY, EDWARD GERRARD, Professor of Farm Crops, Cornell University. MORCIRA, A. DE FRANEMA, Secretary, Brazilian Embassy, Washington, D. C. MORSE, MRS. T. VERNETTE, Dean of Vocational Art Institute, Chicago, Ill. MONTESSORI, DR. MARIA, Founder Montessori System in Education; Directress, Houses of Childhood, Rome, Italy.

MUNDELEIN, Most Rev. GEORGE W., Archbishop of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. MÜNSTERBERG, Hugo, Former Professor of Psychology and Director of Psychological

Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Naon, ROMULO S., Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary from Argentina to

the United States, Washington, D. C. NICHOLSON, S. E., Editor, American Friend (Anti-Saloon League), Richmond, Ind. OLIVER, E. H., President, Presbyterian College, Saskatoon, Sask. OLIVER, FRANK, M. P., Editor Bulletin, former Provincial Minister of Interior,

Edmonton, Alberta. OLSON, JOHN C., Professor of Chemistry, Cooper Union, New York. O'SHAUNNESSY, JAMES, Advertising Expert, Chicago, Ill. O'Shea, M. V., Department of Education, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.;

Editor-in-chief, THE WORLD BOOK. PANARETOFF, STEPHAN, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from

Bulgaria to the United States, Washington, D. C. PLATT, E. B., Staff Editor. RAMSEY, ALLAN, Staff Editor. REDWAY, JACQUES W., Author of Natural Geography Series, Mount Vernon, N. Y. REURY, A. E., Staff Editor. Assistant Editor, Human Interest Library. ROCHELEAU, W. F., Staff Editor. Author of Great American Industries and

Geography of Commerce and Industry. RODIN, CARL B., Assistant Librarian, Chicago Public Library, Chicago, Ill. Ross, EDWARD A., Professor of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. ST. AUSTELL, FRANCIS, Staff Editor. SAVAGE, ELMER SETH, Professor of Animal Husbandry, Cornell University. Savage, HERBERT K., Assistant Editor, Field and Stream, New York City. SCHEMANN, C. H., Assistant to the President, State College of Agriculture and

Mechanic Arts, Ames, Iowa. SCHOENWERK, M., Staff Editor. SCHOFF, H. K. (Mrs. Frederic), Reformer; President, National Congress of Mothers

and Parent-Teachers Association, Philadelphia, Pa. SETON, ERNEST THOMPSON, Author; artist; lecturer; naturalist; New York City. Shaw, WILLIAM, General Secretary, United Societies of Christian Endeavor, Boston,

Mass. SKINNER, HUBERT M., Author, Chicago, Ill. SNELL, JOHN F., Professor of Chemistry, Macdonald College, Macdonald College, Que. Snow, BONNIE M., Author; artist; Supervisor of Art Instruction, Milburn, N. J. STEIDTMANN, EDWARD, Assistant Professor of Geology, University of Wisconsin,

Madison, Wis.
STEWART, CoRa Wilson, Founder of the Moonlight Schools; President, Kentucky

Illiteracy Commission, Frankfort, Ky.
STONER, WINIFRED S., Author; educator; Wilmington, N. C.

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