The measures of Government are a painful index of the state of the nation: they show that, in the mind of the majority, there is a real departure from God, by a preference of fancied expediency to strict religious principle. Government could not thus act, if there was a large general manifestation of Protestant principles. But fear of evil consequences so possesses many sincere followers of our Lord, that they dread acting on their principles. May God graciously call forth a general national testimony, that, cost what it may, as a nation we will not support falsehood, and we will nationally adhere to the confession of God's own revealed truth. Then there would indeed be a bright hope for our country. No doubt the difficulties are serious, especially in places where Romanists are the vast majority ; but it is the property of real faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, and of it alone, to overcome all difficulties, and obtain a full triumph for the truth. 2 Cor. ii. 14; 1 John v. The whole history of Christianity shows this. Our departure from this is our national apostasy.

But thanks be to God his true Church amongst us consisting of the blessed company of all faithful people, is not apostate, but is continually increasing in numbers, in decision, and in faithfulness; and no tongue can tell the blessings that this Church may yet diffuse through our land, and through the world, and the victories it may gain in the times of its conflict, even before the full and final victory assured to it, at the return of our Redeemer.

4, 5.

If the views to which the author has been led are correct, we have, however, reason to expect growing conflicts, and that among those who neglect and hate the Gospel, iniquity will yet more fearfully abound, and that all their worldly hopes of earthly prosperity will be suddenly and completely disappointed. We have reason to expect also special trials for the people of Christ, and that their Saviour will speedily return in glory and majesty, to execute vengeance on his enemies, and deliver his people. When we consider how little prepared his professing people are to meet him, what need have we to cry with Habakkuk, O Lord, I have heard thy speech and was afraid. O Lord, revive thy work in the midst of the years ; in the midst of the years

make known ; in wrath remember mercy. When we consider what a glory at his return is before his faithful followers, and what ultimate blessedness then awaits our earth, what reason they have to comfort one another with the hope of His coming. 1 Thess. iv. 18.

May that gracious Lord prosper this effort to the good of his Church!

EDWARD BICKERSTETH. Watton Rectory, Herts,

March 31, 1845.


JOACHIM, the Abbot of Flora, who flourished in the twelfth century, in an Exposition on the Apocalypse, (4to. Venice, 1527,) nearly seven centuries since, applies the sixth Trumpet to the Saracens and Turks. Illustrating it by the passage, Psalm civ. 20. “ Thou makest darkness, and it is night, wherein all the beasts of the forest do creep forth ;" he says, “ Infidel nations are called beasts of the forest, which, after the manner of beasts, thirst for human blood : of whom some come from the east, as the Turks ; others from the south, as the Ethiopians; others from the west, as the Barbarians or Moors, who are commonly called Mahometans; some from the north, as the Alemans report, who have often been afflicted by them: they are sufficiently ferocious and terrible ; all these, up to the sixth time, a time of special darkness, were bound in the great river, that is, in the Roman Empire.' p. 134.

MELANCTHON, in his Commentary on Daniel, (Edition, 12mo. 1555, p. 130,) shews that when the power of the Turks shall have come to the height, and they promise themselves universal dominion, they shall suddenly come to deliver, and immediately that truly joyful day will arrive, in which the Son of God shall raise the dead, and give to his Church life and glory eternal, and drive all the wicked to eternal torment;' and he refers to Ezekiel and the Apocalypse, as saying the same thing. [For the other Reformers, see Calovius, 1676.]

Foxe, (1563,) in his Acts and Monuments, (Seeley's Edition, Vol. IV. p. 102,). By the sixth Trumpet of the sixth angel, is meant the sixth plague, coming last and next before the plague of the great judgment-day, which sixth plague is here described to come by the East Kings, that is, by the Turks, as followeth, to be seen.'

BULLINGER, (1573, Sermons on Apocalypse, translated, 4to. p. 122–125.) The four angels loosed—that is, to bring forth into the world destroyers-Mahomet the destroyer of the world - The Saracens began the desolation—the Persians, &c.—after arose the Turks and Tartarians receiving the religion of Mahomet, who have subdued in a manner all the provinces of the Roman Empire in the east, and towards the south.'

NAPIER, (4to. 1593) v. 13, 14. “In 1296 it pleased God in his wrath to stir up the four nations Mahometists, that dwelled beyond and about the Euphrates, to wit, the Saracens, Turks, Tartarians, and Arabians, who being all confederate together in one law of the Mahomet, and under one great Emperor Ottoman, began even their first empire.' p. 123.

BRIGHTMAN, an English Rector, who died in 1607. (4to. 1640.) In his Commentary on Revelation, “It is not to be doubted but these angels be the Turks, and to this opinion do the most of the interpreters consent.'

Taffin, a Dutch Minister (12mo. 1609,) in his Exposition. These four angels of false doctrine were Turks, loose, ready at all times, hours, and occasion, to kill spiritually the third part of Christians' p. 278.

FORBESIUS, (1614.) " The four angels are the heads of the Mahomedan and Turkish forces.'-Poole's Synopsis, Vol. V.

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BERNARD, in his Key of Knowledge, (4to. 1617) says, “ This plague is the plague of Turcisme, following upon the Antichristian apostacy. The words shew this to be a plague of war, the army infinite, even a Turkish power, as stories tell us, raised up to scourge a wicked and idolatrous people.' p. 194.

PAREUS, (a celebrated divine of the Reformed Religion, who died 1622,) with Bullinger and ILLYRICUS, after allowing that the Turks sufficiently agree to the vision, he includes also the Saracens and then states that about 1300, the Ottoman or Turkish empire accomplished the things prefigured in this vision.' (Works, Vol. III. p. 679.)

PISCATOR (a Protestant German divine, died 1626,) describes among the evil ministers which accomplished the judgments of this trumpet, “evil men, they seem to be Mahometans, say Saracens, Turks, and Tartars.' Works, Vol. III. p. 804.

MEDE, (Works, p. 471. His Clavis first published, 1627.)

· The second Woe, which even now, alas, presses on us, calls forth the Tetrachs of the Turks, with most numerous cavalry from the Euphrates, where they had long been staid, (jam diu hæserant,) against the Roman world.'

P. 529. "Two reasons lead me to interpret these kings to come from the sun-rising of the Jews. Isa. xi. 15, 16, &c.' But what shall we say of the Euphrates, whose waters are to

The mystic Babylon, like the old one, will have its own Euphrates—the Ottoman empire, as I judge, the only obstacle to its new enemies from the east, and bulwark of the beast in that direction. This is confirmed, and not a little, because following the series of trumpets, and the clear truth of history, we have expounded the loosing of the horsemen under the sixth trumpet of the Turks, overflowing into the Roman world.'

MAYER. An English divine, (4to. 1627) • An Exposition em braced by all ours, by which the Saracens and Turks are understood here. “I hold it most clear and certain, that this passage doth properly belong unto the Saracens and Turks, with their associates.' p. 351-354.

TILLINGHAST, in his generation work. (12mo. 1655.) By the river Euphrates, we are to understand the Ottoman family, or Turkish Empire.' 'Rev. ix. 14, by the general consent of Expositors, has reference to the Turkish power.' p. 37.

TRAPP. (fol. 1656.) • The four potent people, the Arabians, the Saracens, the Tartars, and the Turks.' (Vol. V. p. 989.)

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