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fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the starboard side, and of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles ;
3. On the port side, a red light, so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the port side, and of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere at a distance of at least two miles;
4. These green and red side lights must be fitted with inboard screens, projecting at least three feet forward from the light, so as to prevent these lights from being seen across the bow.
Article 3 of British Regulations. See The Louisa o. The City of Paris, Holt's Rule of the Road, p. 15.
A vessel with her anchor down, but not actually holden by and under the control of it, is “under way," within the meaning of the Admiralty regulation, (1858,) and is bound to exhibit colored lights. The Esk; The Gitana, Law Rep., 2 Adm. & Ecc., 350.
A vessel driven from her anchor by a gale of wind, and setting sail to get out to sea, is, even if wholly unmanageable, “ under way," within the meaning of the Admiralty regulation, (1858,) and is bound to exhibit colored lights; and an omission to exhibit them is negligence. George Arkle, Lushington's Rep., 382.
? It has been proposed that there be added after “foremast head,” the words,“ or below the foreyard, where it can be best seen." Jenkins' Rule of the Road at Sea, p. 68.
3 The lights must be so placed as to be visible to an approaching vessel on that side.
Lamps duly screened and fixed on stands secured to the paul-bitts of the windlass, are not placed in a proper position, as required by the regulations of 1863, respecting lights. The Gustav ; The New Ed, 9 Lau Times Rep., (N. 8.,) 547.
· The insertion of the words “shall be carried,” after“ red side lights," has been proposed. Jenkins' Rule of the Road at Sea, p. 68.
Lights for steam-tugs.
Rule 4. Steamers, when towing other ships, must carry two bright white masthead lights vertically, in addition to their side lights, so as to distinguish them from other steamers. Each of these masthead lights must be of the same construction and character as the masthead lights which other steamers are required to carry. Article 4 of British Regulations.
Lights for sailing ships.
Rule 5. Sailing ships under way, or being towed, must carry the same lights as steamers under way, with the exception of the white masthead lights, which they must never carry. Article 5 of the British Regulations.
A proposed modification printed in Jenkins' Rule of the Road at Sea, (p. 69,) would substitute the following for the above :
“ Sailing ships under weigh, or being towed, shall carry side lights
port side, (of the same character, and in the same relative position, and screened similar to those of steamers, as in Article 3.)”.
“ If a sailing ship is not astern of the towing steamer, but is lashed alongside of her, or has one on either side of her, then she shall carry a bright white light at the foremast head, or below the foreyard, (where it can be best seen,) in addition to the two side lights, and the steamers shall carry none."
· Lights astern. Any vessel seeing the lights of another coming up astern of her, shall exhibit or wave a light at the stern until such vessel has passed."
Exceptional lights for small sailing ships.'
Rule 6.' Whenever, as in the case of small ships during bad weather, the green and red lights cannot be fixed, these lights must be kept on deck, on their respective sides of the ship, ready for instant exhibition, and, on the approach of or to other vessels, must be exhibited on their respective sides in sufficient time to prevent collision, in such manner as to make them most visible; and so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side.
To make the use of these portable lights more certain and easy, the lanterns containing them must each be painted on the outside with the color of the light they respectively contain, and must be provided with suitable screens.
Article 6 of British Regulations, as amended, 1863.
Lights for ships at anchor.
Rule 7. Ships, whether steamers or sailing ships, when at anchor in roadsteads or fairways, must'exhibit, where it can best be seen, but at a height not exceeding twenty feet above the hull, a white light,' in a globular lantern of eight inches in diameter, and so constructed as to show a clear, uniform and unbroken light, visible all round the horizon, and at a distance of at least one mile.
Article 7 of British Regulations.
"By Order in Council of January, 1863, the words“ between sunset and sunrise,” were omitted here.
? It has been proposed to substitute the words, “a bright white light only,” for the words “ & white light,” after “hull.” Jenkins' Rule of the Road at Sea, p. 70.
Lights for pilot vessels.
Rule 8. Sailing pilot vessels must not carry any of the lights required for other sailing vessels, except the side lights, but must carry a bright white light at the masthead, visible all round the horizon, and must also exhibit a flare-up light every fifteen minutes.
Article 8 of British Regulations, changed so as to include side lights. Proposed alterations suggest that the range and intensity of the lights, and a fixed relative position for the side lights, should be determined. Jenkins' Rule of the Road at Sea, p. 72.
Lights for fishing vessels and boats.
Rule 9. Open fishing boats and other open boats are not required to carry the side lights required for other vessels ; but if they do not carry such lights, they must carry a lantern having a green slide on the one side and a red slide on the other side; and on the approach of or to other vessels, such lantern must be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision, so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side.
Fishing vessels and open boats, when at anchor, or attached to their nets, and stationary, must exhibit a bright white light.
Fishing vessels and open boats shall, however, not be prevented from using a flare-up light in addition, if considered expedient.
Article 9 of British Regulations.
Fog-signals. Rule 10. Whenever there is fog, whether by day or night, the fog-signals described below must be carried and used, and must be sounded at least every five minutes, viz. :
1. Steamers under way must use a steam-whistle, placed before the funnel, not less than eight feet from the deck;
2. Sailing ships under way must use a fog-horn;
3. Steamers and sailing ships, when not under way, must use a bell.
Article 10 of British Regulations.
Two sailing ships, or two ships under steam, meet. ing.
Rule 11.' If two sailing ships, or two ships under steam, are meeting, end on, or nearly end on, in such manner as to involve risk of collision, the helms of both must be put to port, so that each may pass on the port side of the other.'
This rule only applies to cases where ships are meeting end on, or nearly end on, in such a manner as to involve risk of collision, and does not apply to two ships which must, if both keep on their respective courses, pass clear of each other.
The only cases in which it applies, are when each of the two ships is end on, or nearly end on, to the other: in other words, to cases in which, by day, each ship sees the masts of the other in a line, or nearly in a line, with her own, and, by night, to cases in which each ship is in such a position as to see both the side lights of the other. It does not apply, by day, to cases in which a ship sees another ahead crossing her own course; or, by night, to cases where the red light of one ship is opposed to the red light of the other; or,
where the green light of one ship is opposed to the green light of the other; or, where a red light without , a green light, or a green light without a red light, is seen ahead ; or, where both green and red lights are seen anywhere but ahead.
Articles 11 and 13 of British Regulations. ? The following substitutes for the first paragraph have been proposed. (Jenkins' Rule of the Road at Sea, p. 72:)
“A sailing ship on the port tack shall keep out of the way of a sailing ship on the starboard tack, and a sailing ship which is to windward shall keep out of the way of a sailing ship which is to leeward."
“A steamer having another end on, shall port. On her port side, shall port."
3 The qualifications which follow are from the Order in Council of 1868.
This amendment of the rule seems to have introduced uncertainty in its practical application.
The collision of the Bombay with the Oneida, near Yokohama, Japan, January 24, 1870, gave rise to a discussion of the terms of this role in the Pall Mall Gazette, issues of March 21st, 22nd and 24th, and April 12th, 1870.
In the issue of the 21st March, a writer (“' Byng Giraud ") avers, that collisions at sea are to some extent caused by what he supposes to be the unsettled state of the rule of the road at sea.
And in the issue of the 24th March, the same writer quotes the language of Mr. S. Cave, Vice-President of the Board of Trade: “Collisions are not caused by observance, but by neglect or misconception of these rules."
In the issue of March 22nd, a writer (“T. G.") says, in substance, as follows :
Article 13 applies to two ships under steam, each meeting the other “end on, or nearly end on."
In no other position than end on, or nearly end on, will each show to the other both her colored side lights. And in the case of such meeting, each ship is required by this Article to port, and each passes to the right of the other. This Article can never apply to one of two ships, (as assumed by “ Byng Giraud," in letter of 21st instant,) and can never apply at all, unless it applies to both of “two ships meeting end on, or nearly epd on."
If one of two ships is required to act under this Article, they are both required to do so.
An Order in Council has expressly stated that this Article applies only to two steamships, (at night)“ each of which is in such a position as to see both the side lights of the other."