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enth day's labor to that of the other six would have no other effect than to reduce the price. The laborer himself, who deserved and suffered most by the change, would gain nothing.
2. Sunday, by suspending many public diversions, and the ordinary rotation of employment, leaves to men of all ranks and professions sufficient leisure, and not more than what is sufficient, both for the external offices of Christianity, and the retired, but equally necessary duties of religious meditation and inquiry. It is true, that many do not convert their leisure to this purpose; but it is of moment, and is all which a public constitution can effect, that to every one be allowed the oppor nity.
3. They whose humanity embraces the whole sensitive creation, will esteem it no inconsiderable recommendation of a weekly return of public rest, that it af fords a respite to the toil of brutes. Nor can we omit to recount this amongst the uses, which the divine Founder of the Jewish sabbath expressly appointed a law of the institution.
We admit, that none of these reasons show why Sunday should be preferred to any other day in the week, or one day in seven to one day in six or eight: but these points, which in their nature are of arbitrary. determination, being established to our hands, our obligation applies to the existing establishment, so long as we confess, that some such institution is necessary, and are neither able, nor attempt to substitute any other in its place.
From Paley's Moral Philosophy.
OF THE SCRIPTURE ACCOUNT OF SABBATICAL INSTITUTIONS.
The subject. so far as it makes any part of Christian morality, is contained in two questions:
I. Whether the command, by which the Jewish sab bath was instituted, extend to Christians?
II. Whether any new command was delivered by Christ; or any other day substituted in the place of the Jewish sabbath by the authority or example of his Aposiles?
In treating of the first question, it will be necessary to collect accounts, which are preserved of the institution in the Jewish history; for the seeing these accounts together, and in one point of view, will be the best preparation for the discussing or judging of any arguments on one side or the other.
In the second chapter of Genesis, the historian having concluded bis account of the six day's creation, proceeds thus: "And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made; and God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it, because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made." After this we hear no more of the sabbath, or of the seventh day, as in any manner distinguished from the other six, until the history brings us down to the sojourning of the Jews in the wilderness, when the following remarkable passage occurs. Upon the complaint of the people for want of food, God was pleased to provide for their relief by a miraculous supply of manna, which was found every morning upon the ground about the camp; and they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating; and when the sun waxed hot, it melted: and it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses; and he said unto them, this is that which the Lord hath said, to-morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the Lord; bake that which ye will bake to-day, and seethe that ye will seethe, and that which remaineth over lay up for you, to be kept until the morning; and they laid it up till the morning, as Moses báde, and it did not stink" (as it had done before, when some of them left it till the morning) "neither was there any worm therein. And Moses said, Eat that to day; for le-day is a sabbath unto the Lord: to day ye shalt
not find it in the field. Six days ye shall gather it, but on the seventh day, which is the sabbath, in it there shall be none. And it came to pass that there went out some of the people on the seventh day for to gather, and they found none. And the Lord said unto Mo ses, how long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws? See, for that the Lord hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place; let no man go out of his place on the seventh day: so the people rested on the seventh day." Exodus xvi.
Not long after this, the sabbath, as is well known, was established with great solemnity in the fourth commandment.
Now, in my opinion, the transaction in the wilderness, above recited, was the first actual institution of the sabbath. For, if the sabbath had been instituted at the time of the creation, as the words in Genesis may seem at first sight to import, and if it had been observ ed all along, from that time to the departure of the Jews out of Egypt, a period of about two thousand five hundred years, it appears unaccountable, that no men tion of it, no occasion of even the obscurest allusion to it, should occur either in the general history of the world before the call of Abraham, which contains, we admit, only a few memoirs of its early ages, and those extremely abridged; or, which is more to be wondered at, in that of the lives of the three first Jewish patriarchs, which, in many parts of the account, is sufficiently cir cumstantial and domestic. Nor is there, in the passage above quoted from the sixteenth chapter of Exodus, any intimation that the sabbath, then appointed to be observed, was only the revival of an ancient institution, which had been neglected, forgotten, or suspended; nor is any such neglect imputed either to the inhabitants of the old world, or to any part of the family of Noah; nor, lastly, is any permission recorded to dispense with the institution during the captivity of the Jews in Egypt, or on any other public emergency.
The passage in the second chapter of Genesis, which
creates the whole controversy upon the subject, is nof inconsistent with this opinion; for as the seventh day was erected into a sabbath, on account of God's resting upon that day from the work of the creation. it was natural enough for the historian, when he had related the history of the creation, and of God's ceasing from it on the seventh day, to add, "and God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it, because that on it be had rested from all his work which God created and made;" altho the blessing and sanctification, i. e. the religious distinction and appropriation of that day, were not actually made till many ages afterwards. The words do not assert. that God then blessed" and "sanctified" the seventh day, but that he blessed and sanctified it for that reason; and if any ask why the sabbath, or sanctification of the seventh day, was then mentioned, if it was not then appointed. the answer is at hand; the order of connexion, and not of time, introduced the mention of the sabbath. in the history of the subject which it was ordained to commemorate.
This interpretation is strongly supported by a passage in the prophet Ezekiel, where the sabbath is plainly spoken of as given. and what else can that mean, but as first instituted, in the wilderness? "Wherefore I caused them to go forth out of the land of Egypt, and brought them into the wilderness; and I gave them my statutes, and shewed them my judgements, which if a man do, he shall even live in them moreover also I gave them my sabbaths, to be a sign between me and them, that they might know that I am the Lord that sanctify them.” Ezek. xx 10, 11, 12./
Nehemiah also recounts the promulgation of the sabbatic law amongst the transactions in the wilderness ; which supplies another considerable argument in aid of our opinion: "Moreover thou leddest them in the day by a cloudy pillar, and in the night by a pillar of fire to give them light in the way wherein they should. go. Thou camest down also upon Mount Sinai, &nd spaked with them from heaven, and gavest then right judgements and true laws, good statutes and command
ments, and madest known unto them thy holy subbath, and commandedst them precepts, statutes and laws, by the hand of Moses thy servant, and gavest them bread from heaven for their hunger, and broughtest forth water for them out of the rock."* Neh. ix. 12.
If it be inquired, what duties were appointed for the Jewish sabbatb, and under what penalties and in what manner it was observed amongst the ancient Jews; we find that, by the fourth commandment, a strict cessation from work was enjoined, not only upon Jews by birth, or religious profession, but upon all who resided within the limits of the Jewish state; that the same was to be permitted to their slaves and to their cattle that this rest was not to be violated under pain of death; "Whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death." Ex. xxxi. 15. Beside which the seventh day was to be solemnized by double sacrifices in the temple. And on the sabbath day, two lambs of the first year without spot, and two tenthdeals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, and the drink offering thereof; this is the burnt offering of every sabbath, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering" Numb. xxviii. 9, 10. Also holy convocations, which mean, we presume. assemblies for the purpose of public worship, or religious instruction, were directed to be held on the sabbath day; "the seventh day is a sabbath of rest, and holy convocation." Lev. xxiii. 3.
And accordingly we read, that the sabbath was in fact observed among the Jews, by a scrupulous abstinence from every thing which by any possible construc
* From the mention of the sabbath in so close a connexion with the descent of God upon Mount Sinar, and the delivery of the law from thence, one would be inclined to believe, that Nehemiah referred solely to the fourth commandment. But the fourth commandment certainly did not first make known the sabbath. And it is apparent that Nehemiah observed not the order of events, for he speaks of what passed upon Mount Sinai before he mentions the miraculous supplies of bread and water, tho the Jews did not arrive at Mount Sinai, till some time after both these miracles were wrought,