« ForrigeFortsett »
is gymnastics, drill, and change from desks to floor. The gymnastics and drill strengthen the command of the teacher, and perfect the will of the child; by drill we get necessary movements made in the most uniform manner, in the quickest time, with the least noise. The change should be given to relieve the muscular restraint of the children.
1. Order.-By order in a class or school is meant:
(a.) All children sitting in the same position, if in desks sitting in full front, or with left side to desk, faces directed the same way, legs and arms in same position.
(6.) Doing gymnastic exercises in the same time and with the same energy.
(c.) Marching behind one another, with shoulders thrown back, head erect but not thrown back, eges directed to their own level, neck not stiff, arms by their side with little finger touching the seams of their trousers, toes out. All motion proceeding from the hips, not to dig heels in floor, nor creeping cat-like on the toes, but walking on the ball of the foot, with distance between for a child to pass through, eyes on the middle of the back of the head of the child before them, with no rolling of the shoulders, and of course keeping step, and beginning with the left foot foremost. Marching should be preceded by the orders, “Mark time, one, two, quick march.”
(d.) Order also refers to symmetrical distribution, and collection of materials and apparatus. Very often confusion arises from sending “squad of children” to fetch what teacher herself should bring.
2. Quietness.—Some teachers can maintain order, but not quietness. The children talk though they are in good order, and pretend not to do so, there is a constant buzz of suppressed conversation, yet every child looks like an innocent.
But, generally, order and quietness go together. On the other hand, there are some teachers that can maintain quietness, but only with idleness, the class must be doing nothing in order to be quiet; only while it stands “at attention” will it be quiet.
3. Attention.-All attention must be voluntary, the act of the will, to gratify present pleasure, to secure future pleasure, to avoid present or future pain. Rewards and punishment are the educators of the will. Each child is endued with a sense of power under which it enjoys the exercise of its faculties. Hence the youngest children have their attention fixed by appeals to their senses, especially sigbt, hearing, and touch. This is the reason for the success of the Kinder-Garten, which should not, however, degenerate into a waste of time. It must be remembered that an infant school is not a nursery. As a child gets older more remote incentives than present punishment or pain, can be made a primum mobile. A mighty instrument in awakening and fixing atten. tion, is the arousing of the spirit of inquiry or wonder. Not only give all the attraction possible to enlist attention, but remove all the distraction. Don't bring in such a lot of pictures, diagrams, or illustrative objects, to be all shown at once, that the child's attention is fixed on them, not on yon, these are to illustrate the lesson; the lessons are not to illustrate the objects.
Some subjects are in themselves dull, as arithmetic in an infant school. These require the greater quickness and life in the teacher.
This subject always indicates whether the rest of the teaching in the infant school be intelligent or dull; it is the one subject in which nimbleness and apprehensiveness can be taught to young children. Some children who appear wilful are really weak in will; they are disobedient because they have not sufficient control over their will, motives do not sway them as they ought. Such individuals should be acted on by stronger incentives than others, but brute force should not be used towards them. The best instrument to give fixity of attention, i.e., power of abstraction, is mathematics.
By attention we mean the power of concentration of the mind upon a single object, i.e., the power of laying aside all the impressions of the senses but one, out of all. As the eye sees only one spot at a time, so the mind only attends to one impression at a time, the rest is memory.
The instruments for awakening and fixing attention are, 1. Wonder, surprise, curiosity. 2. Spontaneity, love of activity, sense of power. 3. Sympathy, love. 4. The feeling of usefulness. 5. Emulation and love of praise, and sense of shame and reproof.
Education in England and Wales. The report of the Committee of Council on Education (England and Wales), 1880-81, was published on Tuesday, and the Commissioners commence by remarking that, in some important respects, considerable progress continues to be made. In the year ending August, 1880, the inspectors visited 17,614 day schools, containing 25,601 departments onder separate teachers, and furnishing accommodation for 4,240,753 scholars; there were 3,895,824 children on the registers, of whom 3,268,147 were present on the visit of the inspector. Tbe annual government grant to elementary day scholars rose in the year from £1,981,700 to £2,130,009. There were 31,422 certificated teachers at work in the aided schools, while the 41 training colleges from whence the teachers came, were attended in 1880 by 3,112 students. The Council found that the schools in England and Wales, visited by the inspectors, for the purpose of annual grants, which provided in 1869 for 1,765,944 scholars, or for 8.34 per cent. of the population, were in 1880 sufficient for 4,240,753 scholars, or 16.64 per cent. of the estimated popnlation. An additional provision of room, in aided schools, for 2,474,809 children has thus been made in eleven years, so that the total amount of accommodation in existing efficient schools, if duly distributed over the face of the country, would be nearly sufficient to meet the wants of the population. The average attendance in aided day schools has risen from 1,152,389 in 1870 to 2,750,916 in 1880, i.e., from j 5 to 1008 per cent. of the population. The Council are sorry to find, on examining the school returns connected with this subject, that the education of so many children of ten years of age and upwards is discontinued, as soon as, by passing the fourth standard, they are freed from the obligation to attend school, and become entitled to go to work. Out of 231,485 children presented in that standard in 1879, as many as 92,258 disappeared from our schools in 1880; while the 115,011 scholars in Standard V., of 1879, fell in the year to 52,625. The extent to which the training colleges have contributed to the existing supply of efficient teachers in England and Wales is shown by the fact that of 13,521 masters employed in schools reported on in 1879-80, 8,129, or 60:12 per cent. had been trained in two years; 1130, or 8.36 per cent. for one year; and 287, or 2:11 per cent. for less than one year, while 3975, or 29.4 per cent, were untrained. In like manner, of 17,901 schoolmistresses, 8,017, or 44 79 per cent. had been trained for two years; 1,075, or 6:01 per cent. for one year; 255, or 1.42 per cent. for less than one year, and 8,554, or 47.78 per cent. were untrained. Of the teachers, however, who, from whatever cause, have not attended a training college, a considerable proportion cannot, except in a technical sense of the word, be classed as untrained, having, under the superintendence of some of our best teachers, passed through the pnpil teachers' course, and served as assistants in large schools, before passing the examination for a certificate, and undertaking in. dependent charges. The average salary of a certified master, which in 1870 was £95 12s. 9d., is now £121 2s. 70.; that of a schoolmistress, was £57 16s. 5d. in 1870, and is now £72 128. 8d. In addition to their other emoluments, 5,932 out of 12,981 masters, and 5,409 out of 17,202 mistresses, are provided with residences free of rent. These averages are calculated upon the whole of the teachers, whether principal or assistants. It may be worth while to quote the great and increasing proportion of female teachers now finding employment in elementary schools. In 1869, for every 100 teachers of each class, 48 certificated teachers, 60 assistant teachers, and 57 pupil teachers were females; these proportions have increased in 1880 to 57 certificated teachers, 66 assistant teachers, and 66 pupil teachers. The total sum received by the 1,663 boards in England, copies of whose accounts were sent in, was £3,516,236, as compared with £3,434,638 (received by 1,607 boards) in the previous year; or, excluding loans for works of a per. manent character, £2,427,817 as compared with £2,188,678; whilst the sum received by 570 boards in Wales was £219,286, as compared with £214,172 (received by 253 boards) in the previous year; or, excluding loans £162,514, as compared with £146,442. Up to Michaelmas, 1880, the loans advanced to school boards were as follows:
The School Board for London ... ... £3,885,519
Parishes , ... 3,674,214
School Boards in Boroughs in Wales
£10,739,080 ... £120,319 ... 515,946
£636,265 With regard to pensions, the Council say :-We have received during the year ending at Lady Day, 1881, 98 applications on behalf of teachers in England and Wales, satisfying the conditions of the Minutes of 26th June and 16th July, 1875, and have awarded five pensions of £30, five of £25, and five of £20, together with nine gratuities to the amount of £330. Since the practice of granting pensions was resumed in 1875, we have dealt with 437 English applications. We have
awarded sixteen pensions of £30, ninety-nine of £25, and one hundred and fifty-one of £20, and forty-one gratuities to the amount of £1,770. There are at present 270 teachers to whom pensions have been granted in England and Scotland, of whom twenty have £30 a year, one hundred have £25, and one hundred and fifty have £20 a year.
LORD SPENCER and MR. MUNDELLA give a good account of our educational progress in the annual Report of the Education Department just issued. The chief work of the year has been to complete the universal enforcement of school attendance by means of compalsory bye-laws. Somo six millions of the population have been brought under compulsory bye-laws since last year, and the Report says that within a few weeks of its date, the 27th of June, “ direct compulsion will be the law for all children between five and thirteen years of age throughout the whole population of England and Wales." The need of enforcing school attendance is still great. There are more than three million school places in voluntary schools, but less than two million scholars in average attendauce; while the board schools have a million places and some three-quarters of a million children at school every day. There would be almost schools enough if they were were properly distributed; but population is shifting, and the Boards have to build schools in the large towns, while in many small places there is more room than can be used. The total attendance ought to be just over five millions; but this supposes that every child is at school from three to thirteen. If we reckon that they should be at school at least seven years out of the ten covered by their school age we get 3,606,247 who ought to be under daily instruction. The number of day scholars on the books of inspected day schools was some 250,000 more than this, but the average attendance is a million short of it. For every 100 seats provided there are in Board schools just over 71 children in attendance, and in voluntary schools just under 63; while of those on the books the attendance is 70-84 per cent. in Board schools and 70:52 in voluntary schools. There are therefore large numbers of children whom compulsion has not yet reached, and it is evidently much easier to force them to become scholars than it is to ensure their regular attendance at school.
Keviews. NOTABILIA OF ENGLISH HISTORY.—This is a useful compendium for Pupil Teachers, and upper classes in schools.
JUST PUBLISHED, PRICE ONE SHILLING, NOTABILIA OF ENGLISH HISTORY
By WALTER BLANCHARD, A.C.P.
pupil, or private student.
Candidates' and Pupil Teachers' Year Books, with all the subjects
of Instruction, and Questions already given. Revised and enlarged Editions. Candidates' Book, 18. ; Years i., ii. iii., 2s. each ; iv. and
v. 28. 6d. cach. “Admirably adapted for their purpose; the arrangement is excellent, and the Grammar, Geography, and History dealt with in an excellent manner."_"Irish Teacher's Journal."
"This book (Candidates'), if thoroughly mastered would enable the candidate to pass hig examination for the office of Papil Teacher."-"National Schoolmaster."
These six books are the embodiment of an idea well carried out. The plan is to place within the compass of a single volume all the work which a Pupil Teacher is required to prepare each year for his examination. Each subject is well treated, and appended to each are sets of Examination Papers, by which the pupil may test his own progress, or the teacher may satisfy himself of the manner in which the young student is likely to pass an examination. Every Pupil Teacher will find these works a most valuable help. We give the series our unhesitating word of praise, and feel assured that they will be welcomed by every teacher who has them. They will simplify the task of preparation, aud, by furnishing a clear and compact outline of everything demanded on the Pupil Teacher's Broad Sheet, will materially assist in laying A solid foundation."_"Schoolmaster.”
“ These are what they profess to be, and fill up a gap long felt by Teachers. The books are strongly bound, and printed in good clear type; and containing all the subjects in which the Pupil Teachers are annually examined, do away with the necessity of any other Text Book whatever."_"Nottingham Guardian."
"I like the Pupil Teachers' Year Books very much, and am sure you deserve the thanks of the National School Teachers for compiling them.--Mr. SPYBEY, Macclesfield.
“It is an excellent idea and well worked ont."-H. THOMAS, Ventnor.
" An excellent series that will greatly assist the principal teachers in preparing pupil teachers for their annual examinations."--J. R. MELLERS, Wakefield.
“The need fot a number of Text Books by pupil teachers is certainly done away with, as the matter you have so very judiciously selected is so full and minute, without being burdensome. Your scheme answers all, and more than I anticipated, and I feel that the amount of pains, labour, and expense you have bestowed ought to be appreciated by the profession generally."W. SMITH, Weymouth.
"It is a good idea to compress into a single volume the whole of the requirements for a single vear in a Pupil Teacher's Course. He has here his year's work before him; he sees exactly how much and how little he has to do."-"Irish Teacher's Journal."
“ Your Pupil Teachers' Year Books are everything that is required, and we are highly pleased with them."--Mr. BOURNE, Hythe. Keys to Candidates' Pupil Teachers' Year Books, containing
examples worked in Arithmetic, &c., lg. each year. . Our Own," illustrated, & monthly magazine for boys and girls, - illustrated with beautiful designs from the best engravers, for
Schools, at ls. per dozen ; other subseribers, 1s. 6d. a year, post
free, in advance. Notes of Lessons for Infant Schools, in simple language, 2s. 60.
sa In these Notes such subjects are chosen as are suited to INFANTS, and the langnage and mode of treatment have special reference to these.