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" Discourse on the Study of Natural Phi- bringing the ship to the wind again before losophy," with

of the author's sending the people to breakfast, when it accompanying remarks. Speaking of the suddenly cleared off, and I had the satisfaction practical verifications of astronomical of seeing the great Sugar-Loaf Rock, which predictions, he says: "Eclipses, comets, and stands on one side of the harbour's mouth the like, afford but rare and transient displays so nearly right ahead that we had not to of the powers of calculation, and of the alter our course above a point in order to hit certainty of the principles on which it is the entrance to the Rio. This was the first grounded. A page of lunar distances from land we had seen for three months, after the Nautical Almanac is worth all the crossing so many seas, and being set backeclipses that have ever happened for in- wards and forwards by innumerable currents spiring this necessary confidence in the and foul winds. The effect on all on board conclusions of science.

That a man, by might well be conceived to be electric; and merely measuring the moon's apparent it is needless to remark how essentially the distance from a star with a little portable authority of a commanding officer over his instrument held in his hand, and applied crew may be strengthened by the occurrence to his eye, even with so unstable a footing of such incidents, indicative of a degree of as the deck of a ship, shall say positively, knowledge and consequent power beyond within five miles, where he is, on a boundless their reach.” deean, cannot but appear, to persons ignorant Another anecdote illustrating the same of physical astronomy, an approach to the thing I remember to have met with miraculous. Yet the alternatives of life and somewhere; but, not being able to find it, death, wealth and ruin, are daily and hourly I cannot give the authority of the minor staked with perfect confidence on these details. Among the passengers of a certain marvellous computations, which might vessel was a mathematician, who in the almost seem to have been devised on purpose course of the voyage occasionally amused to show how closely the extremes of himself by making observations from which speculative refinement and practical utility to obtain the ship's place on the ocean. On can be brought to approximate. We have one of these occasions, after thus obtaining before us an anecdote communicated to us the vessel's position, he found upon by a naval officer, * distinguished for the examining the chart, that the course they extent and variety of his attainments, which were pursuing would very soon bring them shows how impressive such results may upon some dangerous rocks. Heimmediately become in practice. He sailed from San informed the Captain; but he found him Blas, on the west coast of Mexico, and after unwilling to admit that they could be in & voyage of eight thousand miles, occupying the position indicated. The mathematician eighty-nine days, arrived off Rio de Janeiro, returned to the cabin, went over his calhaving, in this interval, passed through the culations, and, finding them correct, he Pacific Ocean, rounded Cape Horn, and applied again to the Captain, who still crossed the South Atlantic, without making persisted that the calculations of the any land, or even seeing a single sail, with mathematician were wrong. The latter, tho exception of an American whaler off confident of the correctness of his results, Cape Horn. Arrived within a week's sail of resolutely demanded that the course of the Rio, he set seriously about determining, by vessel should be changed; and at length, by funar observations, the precise line of the resorting to threats, induced the Captain to ship's course, and its situation in it at a

yield. The vessel was turned aside, and determinate moment, and having ascertained soon after they passed in sight of the danger this within from five to ten miles, ran the they had so narrowly escaped. rest of the way by those more ready and But to return to the spider's web. I will compendious methods, known to navigators, add one more illustration to show what it is which ean be safely employed for short trips capable of accomplishing. Those who between one known point and another, but attended the lecture of Professor Mitchell, which cannot be trusted in long voyages, delivered in this city on the 10th instant, where the moon is the only sure guide. The will at once know upon allusion, in this rest of the tale we are enabled by his kindness conncction, to that exceedingly interesting to state in his own words: We steered discourse, what this illustration is. Profesor towards Rio de Janeiro for some days after Mitchell, after stating that the great obstacle taking the lunars above described, and, in the way of determining the parallax of having arrived within about fifteen or twenty the fixed stars, and from it their distance, miles of the coast, I bove to at four in the is the difficulty of noting the precise time morning till the day should break, and then when a star crosses the meridian, proceeded bore up; for, although it was very hazy, we to describe the usual method, that of could see before us a couple of miles or so. counting the beats of the clock during the About eight o'clock, it became so foggy that I time of cbservation, by which means the did not like to stand in further, and was just most practised observer cannot obtain the

time nearer than within two-tenths of a • Captain Basil Hall, R, N.

second. The lecturer then explained to his

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andience how, by an invention of his own, he is able to divide a second into a thousand appreciable parts. To do this he converts time into spacó, seconds into inches, by causing the beats of the clock to be recorded by means of a little magnetic telegraph) on a revolving disc, so that the distance between the marks thus made represents a second. Now the instant a star crosses one of the spider-lines in the telescope, the observer touches the telescope-key with his finger, and thus causes a mark to be made on the same revolving disc. The position of this mark among those made by the beat of the clock, gives the time of the observation; and, as its distance from the preceding second's mark can be very accurately measured, the time is obtained with corresponding accuracy. Now, the great difficulty in this arrangement was to break and connect the galvanic circuit, at every giving of the pendulum, by an apparatus so delicate as not to interfere with the regularity of the clock's motions.

A very delicate wirelever was constructed, which, by being made to vibrate, alternately

broke and completed the circuit Hum to connect this with the clock without interfering with its rate of motion, was the next question. A very fine human hair was tried ; but, as the Professor told us, it was "too rough, too coarse, too mahla-lika" to answer the purpose. A fibre of silk was next tried, with no better success. At length a spideR'S THREAD was selected; and it worked to entire satisfaction. For renty months that slender line has been moring to and fro in the Cincinnati Obserratory, measuring off second after second on the revolving diso, and in this way exhibiting accurately the time of a multitude of astronomical observations, thus connecting, as it were, as the distinguished lecturer remarked, the heavens and the earth.

Reader, when next thou brushest the cobweb from the wall, or thine eyes light upon the circular webs glitteri with pearly dew-drops on the hedge-row and the grass by the way-side, remember what the spider's thread has accomplished. -- Philadelphia Friend.


MARTYRDOMS IN MADAG.ISCAR. cry went up to heaven, and their spirits

In May, 1850, (observes the late Mr. joined the glorious company of the martyrs. Freeman,) it was ascertained by the Govern- Penalties have been imposed on all the ment that many of the people were still, in

rest, whose total number, it aftersaris defianco of the law, assembling for Christian

appeared, amounted to upwards of one worship. Ofhcers were accordingly sent to

thousand six hundred ! apprehend them; and, on reaching the spot,

Now, “thanks be unto God who girah many miles distant from Antananarivo, they

us the victory," that His word is still themselves were astonished to find so many

mighty to subdue the hearts of men to obediassembled in the act of worship, and having,

ence and faith; that so goodly a company of moreover, a chapel, which they had built

confessors could be found in Madagascar, for themselves. They were in number and that so large a number has proved upwards of one thousand. The first step

“ faithful" even

unto death." was to ascertain who were the leaders of the party, and who had built the chapel; and then to discriminate between those who had been already convicted on previous GENOTE, TIE KAFFIR. occasions, and those who had recently united Tuulate Mr. Freeroan mentions a Kaffir, with them. An immense assembly of the of the name of Genote, whose case is repeople was convened to be present at their markable. Some years ago he went, in "trial;" or rather, at the delivery of a sheer curiosity, to see a Missionary. Zwart message from the Sovereign, and the final Booy, as Genote was usually called, remensentence regarding the punishments to be bereid much that was said, and could not inflicted. Four of the Christians, nobles of dismiss from his mind the exhortation to the land by birth, were condemned to death “fice, for there was danger." Yet the at the stake. Fourteen were also put to poor Kaffir knew of no danger except that death by being thrown over a steep and of being wounded or killed in war. A little precipitous rock. They were bound with later a friend brought him to the Missionary, cords, and suspended for a time over this and said, “ Have the kindness to speak to dreadful precipice, and asked if they would this old man: he has been restless and take the oath proffered to them, implying sleepless these two nights." When asked that they would never transgress in this about the cause of his uneasiness, *0!" matter again ; and, on their steady refusal, said he, “my sins! my sins! The immenthe cords were let go, and they were dashed sity of my sin inakes my heart as heasy as to pieces. Hurled from the rocks, their a mountain of lead. I have no knowledge,

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no wisdom. Tell me, therefore, what to do.” The Missionary spoke of God, and found he had now a tolerably clear perception of Him as Creator and Preserver, But,” said the man, “I want something more. I cannot be satisfied. I cannot rest. Tell me what it is,” To his anxious and prepared mind, the words of life and the wonders of redeeming niercy were unfolded, The poor Heathen listened with breathless interest. Light was breaking in. “Tell me again,” said he ; "for I am old and stupid." His eyes were fixed; tears streamed down his sable cheeks; his tall figure trembled with mental agitation; and, as soon as he could find utterance, he expressed his wonder at the mercy of God. At length he resolved to come and live near the Missionary. He tried to arrange this with

some of the people; but he had some difficulty in securing pasturage for his cattle. In his perplexity, he nobly said, “I am a Kaflir, and I am fond of my cattle; but I'll get rid of the last of them, if I cannot otherwise come to reside here to hear the word." As the Missionary was needing a shepherd, he proposed to him to come and tend the herd, and that he might graze his cattle with them; and he should be paid for his services. Genote was silent a few minutes, and then said, “That is not your plan : it is,” said he, pointing upwards, "it is He who has put it into your heart."

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• Matt. xiii. 45, 46.--" The kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls: who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it.

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alive, and allow to meet you here to-day. Whilst innumerable difficulties crowd I don't git along so fast as some of my upon the pathway of the Missionary to the bredren in de way to heben; but I feel blacks in our "sunny south,” and he is determine to do de best I can. I knowΙ. denied many of the social and religious got to die, and after dat toʻgo to judgment; privileges his brethren on Circuits and sta- and I know if I don't sarb God in spirit and tions enjoy, and meets with much to dis- in trute while I lib in dis world, I neber can courage him in his arduous and responsible see His face in peace. Pray for me, dat work, he is not entirely destitute of seasons God may make me a faitful man, and sabe of enjoyment. In the wilderness through me at last in heben." which he travels he occasionally finds an William. (Class-Leader.) “Tru God's good oäsis, where he is refreshed and invigorated, probidence, I lib to see anoder lub-feast. and prepared for the duties and trials that I feel tankful dat I am here to-day., When await him. In the black man's smoky I was a young man, I was awaken by de' cabin, beside his dying bed, he often feels preaching ob de Gospel. The Spirit ob'God that he occupies a "privileged" spot, and stribe wid me day after day, and week after stands “quite on the verge of heaven.” In week. I cry and pray at home, in de field, the lovefeast, the class-meeting, the prayer- at church, and ebery way I go, but I find meeting, as well as the great congregation," no peace till one day God help me to trus in he not unfrequently realises the presence Jesus. Den light shine into my soul. Den and blessing of God, and rejoices in wit- de Spirit bear witness wid my spirit, dat all nessing the manifestations of His grace to my sins was pardoned, and I got berry others. The coloured people are strongly happy, and gib glory to Jesus. Since den Í attached to the peculiarities of Methodism. try to be faitful. To-day my heart burn They love class-meeting and lovefeast; wid de lub of God. I beg you all to pray. and who, that has attended one of their God to make me a useful Leader, and sabe lovefeasts, has not returned home with the me and my class in hcben." conviction that many of them were the Nancy. I feel, my Preacher, dat I'm not children of God by spiritual regeneration ? wordy to come unto de house ob de Lord. Not a great while ago, I attended a love- But God for Christ's sake liab mercy on me, feast on one of the Missions of the South- and pardon my sins, and gib me an ebidence Carolina Conference, where the members of ob acceptance wid Him, and I feel dis my the church seemed to enjoy much heartfelt duty to speak for Jesus. I aint ashamed to picty. After the usual introductory services, own my Lord. He is de Friend of sinncrs. the members were permitted to tell each He lub me, and gib Heself for me, and now other something of their Christian expe- prays for me in heben. I don't expect to rience.

see anoder lub-feast. I'm goio down de The first who spoke was John. He said: riber bery fast : in a little time I'll cross “I feel tankful to my Preacher dat de bar, and den enter de ocean. I want to I am preserb to see de fust Sunday in de lib a holy 'oman. I neber will gib up my

Tongue can't 'spress my feeling shield, or lay down my arms, till I march when I hcar de bell ring dis mornin. I up de hebenly street, and ground my arms tink I feel like King David, when he say, at de feet ob Jesus. My Preacher and my 'I was glad when dey say, Let us go up to bredren, pray for old Nancy; pray dat God de house ob de Lord.' My Preacher, 1 lub will gib me grace to conquer, and den take my Jesus. I want to lub Him wid all my me home to rest." heart, and sarb Him wid all my might. I (As the old woman resumed her scat, I lub all my brcdren and sister, and deter- looked round upon the congregation and say mine, by de grace ob God, to meet dem in but few who did not appear deeply mored. heben."

None doubted Old Nancy's piety. She had Old Richard. “My Preacher, I feel tankful been faithful scrvant and à consistent I lib to see anoder lub-feast. I been long Christian many years.) time in de sarbis of God; and dis mornin I Joseph. “I'm glad to see and enjoy tis feel determine to go all de way to heben. lub-feast. I feel dis mornin dat I lub ny Glory to God, my bredren; dere's noting Jesus; and I feel determine, by de Lord's hein like 'ligion! I feel de joy ob de 'ligion in to follow Him to de end. I know dat I BITI my soul: God bless me on de way to dis weak and helpless, and widout Jesus I can lub-feast; and now, while talking, I feel de do noting dat is good. My brodren, when lub ob God burnin on de altar ob my heart. you bow at de mercy-seat, cry out for poor I want to be faitful till det; and when brudder Joe, who is trying to get to lieben." I'm ded an' gone, I want my bredren to Betty. “Tank God, I'm spared to see dis know dat one more sinner been sabe from de glorious Sunday mornin, and meet you all debil. Glory to God! I almost home.” once more. I no been here for some time.

Thomas, « Tank God, my Preacher, I'm I been 'flicted-had great pain ob bods,


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but Jesus been wid me, and make all my bed in my sickness. Sixteen years ago I was converted, and joined de church; and I hab enjoy religion eber since. I would not gib my religion for de world. Vy religion make me happy, and all de wicked people on de plantation can't make me unhappy. I can lub dem dat hate me, and pray for dem dat tell lies on me. I try to grow better as I grow older. I feel to-day dat I hab hold on Jesus. I hold Him wid a tremblin hand, but I will not let Him go. My heart feel like a bowl dat is full and runnin ober. Glory! glory! glory to Jesus for ever!"

Jack. "Me is one poor African. Me born in dat koontry. Neber hcar 'bout Jesus

and heben, till dey bring me to dis koontry. Here Missionary tell me 'bout Jesus. Jesus die to sabe poor Jack; and Jesus hear me, and forgib me sins. Now me happy. Now me lub Jesus. Me can't talk better. Pray for Jack: pray God to send Missionary to Africa to tell all de people 'bout Jesus.”

Others spoke, but I heard them not. The last words of old Jack had taken possession of my mind. I thought of Africa. The bones of Cox and Barton are there! They fell with “victory" on their shields. They have gone to their reward. Thank God'! thousands of Africa's sons and daughters have received the Gospel, and have been made wise unto salvation. Anierican Paper.

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| FASTING AND MURDERING. underrates his own exploits. To my ques

Sın T. FOWELL BUXTON gives the fol- tion, How many people have you murlowing chapter of facts, in illustration of dered?' he replied, 'I cannot exactly re. the practical results of Romanism at home, collect; somewhere about sixty :' whereas where there is the most of it, and it is in its it is notorious that he has slaughtered at best estate:

least double that number. Indeed, the

Mayor of Civita Vecchia assured me that “The jail at Civita Vecchia is an old, he had received authentic information of strong fortress, close to the sea, and con- two hundred; but he believed that even tains one thousand three hundred and sixty- that number was still below the mark. It four desperate-looking criminals, all for the is odd enough that Gasparoni is very remost aggravated offences.

I am sure you

ligious now: he fasts not only on Fridaye, never saw such a gang of malefactors, or but adds a supererogatory Saturday. But, such a horrid dungeon. We went first curious as his theology now is, it is still into a vaulted room, with a low ceiling, as more strange that, according to his own I measured it, thirty-one yards long, and account, he was always a very religious twenty-one broad. The noise on our en

I asked him whether he had fasted trance was such as may be imagined at the when he was a bandit? He said, “Yes.' entrance of hell itself. All were chained Why did you fast ?' said I. Perche sono most heavily, and fastened down. The della religione della Madonna.' (Because I murderers and desperate bandits are fixed am of Our Lady's religion.”)

Which do to that spot for the rest of their lives; you think was worst; eating meat on a they are chained to a ring, fastened to the Friday, or killing a man?' He answered, end of the platform, on which they lie side without hesitation, 'In my case it was a by side, but they can move the length of crime not to fast: it was no crime to kill their chain on a narrow gangway.

Of this those who came to betray me.' With all class there were upwards of seven hundred his present religion, however, he told the in the prison; some of them famed for a Mayor of the town the other day, that, if multitude of murders; many, we are told, he could get loose, the first thing he would had committed six or seven ; and, indeed, do would be to cut the throats of all the they were a ghastly crew, haggard, fe- Priests. One fact, however, shows somo rocious, reckless assassins. A Sergeant, in degree of scrupulosity. The people of the uniform, was ordered to keep close by me; country bear testimony that he never comand I observed that he kept his hand upon mitted murder on a Friday !.... You will his sword as we walked up the alley between wish to know how Gasparoni was taken, the adjacent platforms. The Mayor after- He became such a nuisance, that, partly wards told us that he, in his official capacity, from the strength of the military parties knew that there was a murder every month which were constantly sent in pursuit of among the prisoners. I spoke to a good him, and partly from the diminution of many of them; and, with one exception, traffic on the road, his funds became short, each said that he was condemned for murder and he could not pay his spies. Without or stabbing." Of Gasparoni, a Chief of money, and half-starved, unable to obtain bandits, Sir Fowell says, "He greatly intelligence, and surrounded on all sides by

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