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RUINED CITIES IN CENTRAL AMERICA AND MEXICO.

No. I. REMAINS OF ANCIENT STRUCTURES IN CENTRAL AMERICA.

1: INTRODUCTION.

civilization were either carried with them, or subsequently

diffused over parts of the country by strangers from some Awful memorials, but of whom we know not!

nation in a higher state of improvement, driven perhaps by Time was they stood along the crowded street, Temples of Gods! and on their ample steps

tempests over a wide expanse of ocean. We ascribe the What various habits, various torrgues, beset

superiority of the people who were found in the regions The mighty gates for prayer and sacrifice!

which embrace Mexico and Peru, over the natives of AmeAll silent now!

rica, to knowledge derived from a foreign source, rather than How many centuries did the sun go round, While, by some spell rendered invisible,

from their own origination, because we do not believe that Or if approached, approached by him alone

man is capable of raising himself from a state of complete Who saw as though he saw not, they remained,

barbarism, by his own unassisted powers. All nations As in the darkness of a sepulchre,

appear to have been indebted to strangers for the first imWaiting the appointed time!-Rogers.

pulse towards civilization, as if the torch had been in the We have frequently directed the attention of our readers to first instance kindled from above, and afterwards passed those monuments of antiquity which are scattered over

round the world, from one people to another. various parts of the Old World*, the relics of communities far advanced in the arts of refinement, and inhabiting cities once

3. RECENT RESEARCHES. populous and flourishing, but now ruined and desolate. The celebrated Humboldt was the first who, in the preThese monuments are to the historian, what the fossils which

sent century, drew the attention of Europe to the monuwe dig out of the bowels of the earth are to the geologist, ments reared by the labours of the native races of America. witnesses to be questioned respecting bygone ages and races, We some time ago presented to our readers accounts of the that have left no other record of their existence. The con- pyramid of Cholula*, and of the city of Mexicot, in which templation of these relies of the past is as improving as it is we availed ourselves largely of the information furnished by interesting; and although the honest inquirer may some that great traveller. More recently, discoveries have been times, from his imperfect knowledge of the language spoken made of cities, buried in almost im penetrable forests, conby these messengers from the dead, misinterpret the tidings taining evidences of having once been the abode of commuwith which they are intrusted, yet the mind is invigorated nities which had made considerable progress in the liberal by the pursuit of truth even when the chase is unsuccessful; arts. Some of these situated in the Mexican States, have and he may be cheered by the reflection that any error formed the subject of illustrated works by Captain Dupaix arising from his ignorance will vanish before the researches and Lord Kingsborough; and others in Central America of succeeding investigators, while the truth which he disco

were examined by Colonel Galindo, under a commission from vers will remain permanent and unshaken. We propose in the present Supplement to give some

the government of that country. The latest account of

these interesting objects is contained in STEPHENS's Incidents account of the remains of ancient cities in what is called the of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan, from New World; cities which have remained buried in the wil- which work are copied the illustrations of our present derness for ages, unvisited except by the wandering Indian, number, and we are also indebted to it for the bulk of the or the scarcely wilder animals that prowl in the pathless information which we proceed to lay before our readers. forest.

Mr. Stephens, an American gentleman already favourably 2. Origin of ANERICAN CIVILIZATION.

known to the public, by his work entitled "Incidents of

Travel in Egypt, Arabia Petræa, and the Holy Land, was in About three centuries and a half have elapsed since the 1839 intrusted with a confidential mission from the governexistence of America was made known to the inhabitants of ment of the United States to that of Central America. the Eastern hemisphere. From that period to the present During his visit, the country was convulsed by civil war; time, vast numbers of books have been written about the and such was the abyss of anarchy into which it was New World, but little has been done to dispel the darkness plunged, that he found no acknowledged government with which broods over its early history. We have some

which to communicate. His embassy was therefore fruitaccounts of the discoveries and conquests of the Spaniards ; less as an affair of state, but he took the opportunity of trabut from the sixteenth century to our own times, the con- velling about the country; and, being accompanied by Mr. querors seem to have been jealous of giving any information Catherwood, an artist, he has been enabled to illustrate his respecting the regions under their dominion, which inclu- published account of the journey with numerous engraving; ded those parts of the continent that were inhabited by the of the interesting objects they beheld. The regions visited only nations of the aborigines who were found in the

pos

are comprised within that comparatively narrow part of session of the arts of civilized life. From ignorance of the North America, extending from the southern shore of the monuments which still exist to attest that the population of Gulf of Mexico to the Isthmus of Panama; regions which these parts of America was, at some period, far removed formerly constituted part of the Spanish Dominions, but from a state of barbarism, authors have very generally been which are now divided between the United States of Mexico inclined to treat the glowing accounts given by the and those of Central America, with the exception of the Spaniards of the splendour of Peru and Mexico, and the British settlement in the Bay of Honduras, and some indecivilization of the inhabitants, as coloured by that spirit of pendent territories of Indians. Within this tract of exaggeration of which travellers are proverbially accused. country are situated the ruined cities of which we propese From the same cause, it is only of late years that the archi- to give some account. The erection of these cities has genetectural remains of the native Americans have been thought rally been ascribed to some race more ancient than that of, as likely to afford a clue to the much agitated question which inhabited the country at the time of the Spanish of the origin of that people: a question on which so many conquest. strange hypotheses have been broached by different writers, and one, into the intricacies of which we have no intention

4. EARLY ACCOUNTS OF Copas. of entering. But without doing so we may safely assume that the Western continent was most probably peopled ori- of the most fertile valleys of Central America, are found,

In the district now known as the state of Honduras, one ginally by emigrants from the Old World, who crossed over

buried in the woods, on the left bank of the Copan river, the narrow sea which divides the north-eastern shores of numerous pyramidal structures and monuments of stone. Asia from the north-western of America; while the arts of The early Spanish historians mention a place named Copan, * The following are some of the papers alluded to:

situated in the same tract of country in which these ruins The Pyramids, see Vol. I., p. 137:

are found, which then existed as an inhabited city, and Cavern Temples and Tombs, see Vol. II., pr. 161, 249;

offered resistance to the Spanish arms. This place was conEgyptian Antiquities, see Vol. IV., pp. 164, 185; Thebes, see Vol. VIII., pp. 42, 82;

* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. V., p. 1751 Architecture, Vol. XVI., pp. 121, 209; Elgin Marbles, pp. 217, 233.

+ See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VI., pp. 42, 122.

some cave.

quered by the officers of Pedro de Alvarado, but we have no head is symmetrically perforated by holes; and the whole account of the particulars of its original capture. In the is of most exquisite workmanship, cut out or cast from a year 1530 the Indians of the province attempted to free fine green stone, as are also two beads I found in the vault, themselves from the yoke of the Spaniards, but submitted with quantities of oyster and periwinkle shells brought after several sanguinary battles, to Hernando de Chaves, from the sea-shore. There were also stalactites taken from who was sent to subdue them. As the cacique of Copan,

All the bottom of the vault was strewed with one of the largest, most opulent, and most populous cities fragments of bones, and beneath was a coat of lime on a of the kingdom of Guatimala, had been active in endea solid stone floor," vouring to throw off the yoke of the conquerors, it was de

6. HIEROGLYPHICS. termined to punish him, and his city was therefore assailed. The attack lasted a whole day, and the Spaniards were “There are seven obelisks still standing and entire in the forced to retreat. Chaves, having been informed that in one temple and its innmediate vicinity, and there are numerous place the depth of the ditch, which formed part of the others, fallen and destroyed, throughout the ruins of the defences of the town, was but trifling, renewed the assault city. These stone columns were ten or eleven feet high, on the next day. The battle continued without advantage and about three broad, with a less thickness. On one sidé to either party until a brave horseman leaped the ditch, and are worked, in basso-relievo, human figures standing square his horse dashing violently against the barrier, the earth and to the front, with their hands resting on their breasts; they palisadoes gave way, and a breach was effected, through are dressed with caps on their heads and sandals on their which the Spaniards entered, and the city was taken. The feet, and are clothed in highly adorned garments, generally cacique fled, and after an unsuccessful attempt to recover the reaching half way down the thigh, but sometimes in long ground he had lost, finally retreated, leaving Copan to its fate. pantaloons. Opposite the figure at a distance of three or Huarros, the historian of Guatimala, says,

“ Francisco de four yards, is commonly placed a stone table or altar; the Fuentes, who wrote the Chronicles of the Kingdoin of back and sides of the obelisk generally contain phonetic Gratimala, assures us that in his time, that is, in the year hieroglyphics in squares, Hard and fine stones are inserted 1700, the great circus of Copan still remained entire. This in many obelisks, as they, like the rest of the works in the was a circular space surrounded by pyramids about six ruins, are of a species of soft stone, which is found in a yards high, and very well constructed. At the bases of neighbouring and most extensive quarry. There is one these pyramids were figures, both male and female, of very very remarkable stone table in the temple, two feet four excellent sculpture, which then retained the colours they inches high, and four feet two inches square; its top conhad been enamelled with, and, what was not less remarkable, tains forty-nine square tablets, of hieroglyphics, and its four the whole of them were habited in the Castilian costume. sides are occupied by sixteen human figures in basso-relievo, In the middle of this area, elevated above a flight of steps, sitting cross-legged on cushions carved in the stone, and was the place of sacrifice. The same author affirms that at bearing each in their hands something like a fan or flapper. a short distance from the circus there was a portal con Monstrous figures are found amongst the ruins; one represtructed of stone, on the columns of which were the figures sents the colossal head of an alligator, having in its jaws a of men, likewise represented in Spanish habits, with hose, figure with a human face, but the paws of an animal; and ruff around the neck, sword, cap, and short cloak. On another monster has the appearance of a gigantic toad, in an entering the gateway there are two fine stone pyramids, erect posture, with human arms and tiger's claws. On moderately large and lofty, from which is suspended a neighbouring hills, to the east and west, stand two obelisks hammock that contains two human figures, one of each sex, containing hieroglyphics alone, in squares. These obelisks clothed in the Indian style. Astonishment is forcibly (like the generality of those in the city) are painted red, excited on viewing this structure, because, large as it is, and are thicker and broader at the top than the bottom. there is no appearance of the component parts being joined Mounts of stone, formed by fallen edifices, are found together; and though entirely of one stone, and of an throughout the neighbouring country.” enormous weight, it may be put in motion by the slightest Colonel Galindo and Mr. Stephens agree in believing that impulse of the hand.”

the hieroglyphics which are inscribed on these monunents, From 1700 till 1834, when the ruins were examined by would, if deciphered, reveal much of the history of thé Colonel Galindo, there is no account of the place having people who executed them. When Cortez invaded Mexico, been visited by any traveller.

the natives informed Montezuma of his arrival by drawing

and forwarding to the capital, a representation of the Spani5. THE CITY OF COPAN.

ards, their ships, arms, &c. This sort of picture-writing is

the simplest mode of recording events. But the Mexicans Omitting the remarks, we can hardly call them argu- generally used a more artificial method, namely, a system of ments, of Colonel Galindo, in support of his hypothesis that hieroglyphics analogous to those of Egypt, and probably America was the cradle of the human race, and that from like the latter compounded of symbolical and phonetic chathence population and civilization spread over Asia, we racters. As a familiar illustration of these two classes, let extract his account of the facts which be witnessed.

suppose that to express the idea of Eternity we represent “The city of Copan extended along the bank of its river a serpent with his tail in his mouth; this is a symbolical a length of two miles, as is evidenced by the remains of its figure. But if we have to inscribe a name, Henry for infallen edifices: the principal of these was the temple, stance, and for this purpose should draw a hen and an ear of standing at the eastern extremity of the city, and built rye, we resort to one species of phonetic characters, or those perpendicularly from the bank of the river to a height of which have no other reseinblance than that of sound to the more than forty yards. It is two hundred and fifty yards ideas for which they stand. The alphabets of the civilized bong from north to south, and two hundred yards broad; world are composed of a greatly improved system of phonestone steps lead from the land sides to the elevations above, tic characters. May we hope that some future Champollion and again descend to a square in the centre of the edifice, or Young is destined to elucidate the long-buried hieroglytwenty yards above the level of the river. Through a phics of America? gallery, scarcely four feet high, and two and a half broad, one can crawl from this square through a more elevated part

7. ART OVERGROWN BY NATURE. of the temple overhanging the river, and have from the face of the precipice an interesting view.

Attracted by the account of Colonel Galindo, Mr. Ste“ Among many excavations, I have made one at the point phens, accompanied by Mr. Catherwood, went in quest of where this gallery comes out into the square. I first opened the ruins. They procured an Indian guide to conduct into the entrance of the gallery itself, and digging lower them to the place, and the following is Mr. Stephens's dedxn I broke into a sepulchral vault, whose floor is twelve scription of what they beheld. fert below the level of the square. It is more than six feet “We entered the woods, Jose clearing a path before us high, ten feet long, and five and a half broad, and lies due with a matchete; soon we came to the bank of a river, Dorth and south according to the compass; it has two niches and saw, directly opposite, a stone wall, perhaps a hundred neeh side, and both these and the floor of the vault were feet high, with furze growing out of the top, running north full of red earthenware dishes and pots. I found more and south along the river, in some places fallen, but in than fifty, many of them full of human bones packed with others entire. It had more the character of a structure linge; also several sharp-edged and pointed knives of chaya, than any we had ever seen, ascribed to the Aborigines of (a brittle stone, called itzli by the Mexicans,) and a sinall America, and formed part of the wall of the ancient city of bend, apparently representing Death, its eyes being nearly Copan. closel, and the lower features distorted. The back of the “ It was of cut stone, well laid, and in a good state of

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preservation. We ascended by large stone steps, in some the mystery by which we were surrounded. Who were places perfect, and in others thrown down by trees which the people that built this city? In the ruined cities of had grown up between the crevices, and reached a ter Egypt, even in the long-lost Petra, the stranger knows the race, the form of which it was impossible to make out story of the people whose vestiges are around him. Amefrom the density of the forest in which it was enveloped. rica, says historians, was peopled by sa vages; but savages Our guide cleared his way with his matchete, and we never reared these structures, savages never carved these passed, as it lay half buried in the earth, a large fragment stones. We asked the Indians who made thein, and their of stone elaborately sculptured, and came to an angle of a dull answer was Quien sabe? Who knows?" structure with steps on the sides, in form and appearance, so far as the trees would enable us to make it out, like the

10. A NEARER VIEW or Copan. sides of a pyramid.”

The following is given as the result of a more careful 8. An IDOL.

survey of the ruins:

“ The extent along the river, as ascertained by monuments “Diverging from the base of the pyramid, and working our

still found, is more than two miles. There is one monuway through the thick woods, we came upon a square stone

ment on the opposite side of the river, at the distance of a column, about fourteen feet high and three feet on each mile, on the top of a mountain two thousand feet high. side, sculptured in very bold relief, and on all four of the sides, from the base to the top. The front was the figure of that monument, it is impossible to say. I believe not. At

Whether the city ever crossed the river, and extended to a man curiously and richly dressed, and the face, evidently the rear is an unexplored forest, in which there may

be a portrait, solemn, stern, and well fitted to excite terror: ruins. There are no remains of palaces or private buildings, The back was of a different design, unlike anything we had and the principal part is that which stands on the bank of ever seen before, and the sides were covered with hierogly- the river, and may, perhaps, with propriety be called the phics. This our guide called an ‘Idol,' and before it at a

temple. distance of three feet, was a large block of stone, also

“ This temple is an oblong inclosure. The front or river sculptured with figures and emblematical devices, which he called an altar. The site of this unexpected monument and twenty-four feet, and it is from sixty to ninety feet in

wall extends on a right line north and south, six hundred put at rest, at once and for ever, in our minds, all un

height. It is made of cut stones, from three to six feet in certainty in regard to the character of American antiquities, length, and a foot and a half in breadth. In and gave us the assurance that the objects we were in search

many places

the stones have been thrown down by bushes growing out of were interesting, not only as the remains of an unknown people, but as works of art, proving like newly-discovered from which the ruins are sometimes called by the Indians

of the crevices, and in one place there is a small opening, historical records, that the people who once occupied the Continent of America were not savages.

Las Ventanas, or the Windows. The other three sides con

With an interest, sist of ranges of steps and pyramidal structures, rising from perhaps stronger than we had ever felt in wandering among thirty to one hundred and forty feet in height on the slope. the ruins of Egypt, we followed our guide, who, sometimes The whole line of survey is two thousand eight hundred missing his way, with a constant and vigorous use of his and sixty-six feet, which though gigantic and extraordinary matchete, con ucted us through the thick forest, among for a ruined structure of the Aborigines, that the reader's half-buried fragments, to fourteen monuments of the same character and appearance, some with more elegant designs, say, is not so sarge as the base of the Great Pyramid of

imagination may not mislead him, I consider it necessary to and some in workmanship equal to the finest monuments Ghizeh. of the Egyptians; one displaced from its pedestal by

“Near the south-west corner of the river wall and the enormous roots; another locked in the close embrace of

south wall is a recess, which was probably once occupied by branches of trees, and almost lifted out of the earth; another

a colossal monument fronting the water, no part of which is hurled to the ground, and bound down by huge vines and

now visible. Beyond are the remains of two pyramidal creepers; and one standing, with its altar before it, in a

structures, to the largest of which is attached a wall running grove of trees which grew around it, seemingly to shade and shroud it as a sacred thing; in the solemn stillness of the along the west bank of the river; this appears to have been woods, it seemed a divinity mourning over a fallen people.

one of the principal walls of the city; and between the two The only sound that disturbed the quiet of this buried pyramids there seems to have been a gateway, or principal city, were the noise of monkeys moving among the top of

entrance from the water. the trees, and the cracking of dry branches broken by their ning with a range of steps about thirty feet high, and each

“The south wall runs at right-angles to the river, beginweight. They moved over our heads in long and swift cessions, forty or fifty at a time, some with little ones wound step about eighteen inches square. At the south-east corner in their long arms, walking out to the end of boughs, and

is a massive pyramidal structure, one hundred and twenty. holding on with their hind feet or a curl of the tail, sprang

feet high, on the slope. On the right are other remains of to a branch of the next tree, and, with a noise like a current bly a gateway, by a passage about twenty feet wide, into a

terraces and pyramidal buildings, and here also was probaof wind, passed on into the depths of the forest."

quadrangular area two hundred and fifty feet square, two 9. AN AMERICAN PYRAMID.

sides of which are massive pyramids, one hundred and

twenty feet high on the slope. “We returned to the base of the pyramidal structure, and ascended by regular stone steps, in some places forced apart

11. SCULPTURES. by bushes and saplings, and in others thrown down by the growth of large trees, while some remained entire. In “At the foot of these structures, and in different parts of parts they were ornamented with sculptured figures and the quadrangular area, are numerous remains of sculpture. rows of death’s-heads. Climbing over the ruined top, we In one place, near the corner from which the wall runs to reached a terrace overgrown with trees, and, crossing it, the north, is a colossal monument richly sculptured, fallen descended by stone steps into an area so covered with trees and ruined. Behind it fragments of sculpture, thrown from that at first we could not make out its form, but which, on their places by trees, are strewed, and Tying loose on the clearing the way with the matchete, we ascertained to be a side of the pyramid, from the base to the top; and among square, and with steps on all the sides, almost as perfect as them our attention was forcibly arrested by rows of death's those of the Roman amphitheatre. The steps were orna heads of gigantic proportions, still standing in their places mented with sculpture, and on the south-side, about half- about half way up the side of the pyramid; the effect was way up, forced out of its place by roots, was a colossal head, extraordinary. The engraving which follows, represents evidently a portrait. We ascended these steps, and reached one of them. a broad terrace a hundred feet high, overlooking the river, “At the time of our visit, we had no doubt that these and supported by the wall which we had seen from the op were death's-heads; but it has been suggested to me that posite bank. The whole terrace was covered with trees, the drawing is more like the skull of a monkey than that and, even at this height from the ground, were two gigantic of a man. And, in connexion with this remark, I add what ceibas, or wild cotton-trees of India, above twenty feet in attracted our attention, though not so forcibly at the time, circumference, extending their half-naked roots fifty or a hundred feet around, binding down the ruins, and shading colossal ape or baboon, strongly resembling in outline and

Among the fragments on this side, were the remains of a them with their wide-spreading branches. We sat down on appearance the four monstrous animals which once stood in the very edge of the wall, and strove in vain to penetrate front, attached to the base of the obelisk of Luxor, now in

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SCULPTURED HEADS, FROM THE RUINS OF COPAN, Paris*, and which, under the name of Cynocephali, were being overgrown with trees, difficult to make out. There worshipped at Thebes. This fragment was about six feet was no entire pyramid, but, at most, two or three pyrahigh. "The head was wanting; the trunk lay on the side midal sides, and these joined on to terraces, or other of the pyramid, and we rolled it down several steps, when structures of the same kind. Beyond the wall of inclosure, it fell among a mass of stones, from which we could not

were walls, terraces, and pyramidal elevations running disengage it. We had no such idea at the time, but it is off into the forest, which sometimes confused not absurd to suppose the sculptured skulls to be intended Probably the whole was not erected at the same time, but for the heads of monkeys, and that those animals were additions were made and statues erected by different kings, worshipped as deities by the people who built Copan. or perhaps in commemoration of important events in the

“ Among the fragments lying on the ground, near this history of the city. Along the whole line were ranges of place, is a remarkable portrait, probably of some king, chief- steps with pyramidal elevations, probably once crowned tain, or sage. The expression is noble and severe, and the with buildings or altars now ruined. All these steps and whole character shows a close imitation of nature.” the pyramidal sides were painted, and the reader may

imagine the effect when the whole country was clear of 12. WRECKS OF IDOLATRY.

forest, and priest and people were ascending from the out

side to the terraces, and thence to the holy places within, to “A little to the northward of these, stands one of the pay their adoration in the temple. columns or idols,' which give the peculiar character to Within this inclosure are two rectangular court-yards, the ruins of Copan. It stands with its face to the east, having ranges of steps ascending to terraces. The area of about six feet from the base of the pyramidal wall. It is each is about forty feet above the river-of the larger and thirteen feet in height, four feet in front, and three deep, the most distant from the river the steps have all fallen, sculptured on all four of its sides from the base to the top, and constitute mere mounds. On one side at the foot of and one of the richest and most elaborate specimens in the the pyramidal wall is another monument or idol; it is about whole extent of the ruins, [a front view of this forms the the same height with the others, but differs in shape, being frontispiece to this paper). Originally it was painted, larger at the top than below. Its appearance and character the marks of red colour being still distinctly visible. Before are tasteful and pleasing, but the sculpture is in much lower it, at a distance of about eight feet, is a large block of sculp- relief; the expression of the hands is good, though sometured stone, which the Indians call an altar. The subject what formal. The back and sides are covered with of the front is a full-length figure, the face wanting beard, hieroglyphics.” and of a feminine cast, though the dress seems that of a

13. ALTARS. man. On the two sides are rows of hieroglyphics, which probably recite the history of this mysterious personage. “ Near this is a remarkable altar, which, perhaps, presents "Following the wall as it turns again at a right angle to

as curious a subject of speculation as any monument in Copan. the east, we come to another monument or idol of the same The altars, like the idols, are all of a single block of stone. size, and in many respects similar. The character of this In general they are not so richly ornamented, and are more image, as it stands at the foot of the pyramidal wall, with faded and worn, or covered with moss: some were commasses of fallen stone resting against its base, is grand, and pletely buried, and of others it was difficult to make out it would be difficult to exceed the richness of the ornament

more than the form- all differed in fashion, and doubtless and sharpness of the sculpture. This, too, was painted, and had some distinct and peculiar reference to the idols before the red is still distinctly visible.

which they stood. This stands on four globes cut out of “The whole quadrangle is overgrown with trees, and the same stone: the sculpture is in bas-relief, and it is the interspersed with fragments of fine sculpture, particularly only specimen of that kind of sculpture found in Copan, all on the east side, and at the north-east corner is & narrow

the rest being in bold alto-relievo. It is six feet square passage, which was probably a third gateway.

and four feet high, and the top is divided into thirty-six “On the right is a confused range of terraces running off tablets of hieroglyphics, which beyond doubt record some into the forest, ornamented with death's-heads, some of event in the history of the mysterious people who once which are still in position, and others lying about as they inhabited the city. The lines of the hieroglyphics are still have fallen or been thrown down. Turning northward, the distinctly visible. Each side of the altar represents four range on the left-hand continues a high, massive, pyramidal individuals. On the west side are the two principal personstructure, with trees growing out of it to the very top. At ages, chiefs or warriors, with their faces opposite each other, a short distance is a detached pyramid, tolerably perfect, and apparently engaged in argument or negociation. The about fifty feet square, and thirty feet high. The range other fourteen are divided into two equal parties, and seem continues for a distance of about four hundred feet, decreas to be following their leaders. Each of the figures is seated ing somewhat in height, and along this there are but few cross-legged in the oriental fashion, on a hieroglyphic which remains of sculpture. “ The range of structures turns at right angles to the left probably designates his name and office, or character, and

on three of which the serpent forms part. Between the and runs to the river, joining the other extremity of the two principal personages is a remarkable cartouche, containwall at which we began our survey. The bank was eleva- ing two hieroglyphics well preserved, which reminded us ted about thirty feet above the river, and had been protected strongly of the Egyptian method of giving the names of the by a wall of stone, most of which had fallen down. Among kings or heroes in whose honour monuments were erected. the fragments lying on the ground on this side is the por- The head-dresses are remarkable for their curious and complitrait here given.

cated forms; the figures have all breast-plates, and one of “The plan was complicated, and, the whole ground the principal characters holds in his hand an instrument,

As it stands in Paris, these figures are wanting to make it complete which may perhaps be considered a sceptre; each of the as it stood at Thebes, the obelisk alone having been removed,

others holds an object which can be only a subject for

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