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death-rate per 1,000 population, for each geographic division indicated above as well as for certain combinations of these divisions:

TABLE 1.-Estimated Population (1905), Deaths, and Death-rate per 1,000 Population, for

Geographic Divisions: 1905–1906.

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It appears from Table 1 that for an estimated State population of 1,784,521 in 1905, the 27,026 deaths in 1905-1906 give a rate of 15.1 per 1,000 population.

Of the main geographic divisions, Northern California shows the lowest death-rate, 11.5, and Southern California the highest, 17.6, the rate for Central California being the same as for the State, 15.1.

Of the minor divisions, both the coast and interior counties of Northern California have death-rates, 12.0 and 11.1 respectively, which are considerably below the State average. In explanation of these low death-rates, however, it should be noted that the returns were not particularly complete for several counties in Northern California.

The death-rate is highest, 17.9, for Los Angeles and next, 17.1, for the other six counties of Southern California. The relatively high death-rates in this part of the State are due largely to the

many

deaths of recent residents, especially from tuberculosis.

The death-rate is also above the State average for the coast counties of Central California, 16.4, as well as for San Francisco, 15.6. In each of these geographic divisions, however, the death-rate was increased materially by the excessive mortality in April, 1906, resulting from a seismic disturbance.

The rate is below the State average, 15.1, not only for the coast and interior counties of Northern California, but also for the bay counties other than San Francisco (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin and San Mateo), as well as for the interior counties of Central California, extending from Yolo, Sacramento and El Dorado on the north, to and including Kern on the south. The death-rate is 14.5 for the bay counties

other than San Francisco and 14.4 for the group of interior counties just described.

For Northern and Central California together the death-rate is only 14.4, as compared with 17.9 for Southern California. The rate for the coast counties from Del Norte to San Luis Obispo inclusive is 15.0, against 13.3 for the interior counties from Siskiyou and Modoc to and including Kern. That the death-rate is higher for the coast than for the interior wounties is due mainly to the relatively great mortality usual in a metropolis like San Francisco. Thus, the death-rate is 15.2 for the metropolitan area, comprising San Francisco and the other bay counties, against only 13.6 for the rural counties of Northern and Central California.

Causes of Death.-The following table gives the number of deaths in California in 1905-1906 from certain principal causes, as well as the proportion from each cause per 1,000 total deaths and also the deathrate per 100,000 estimated population (1,784,521):

TABLE 2.-Deaths from Certain Principal Causes, with Proportion per 1,000 Total

Deaths and Death-rate per 100,000 Population, for California: 1905-1906.

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Deathrate per 100,000 Pop

ulation.

1,514.5

Typhoid fever
Malarial fever
Smallpox.
Measles
Scarlet fever.
Whooping-cough.
Diphtheria and croup
Influenza
Other epidemic diseases
Tuberculosis of lungs-
Tuberculosis of other organs
Cancer
Other general diseases
Meningitis
Other diseases of nervous system
Diseases of circulatory system
Pneumonia and broncho-pneumonia
Other diseases of respiratory system.
Diarrhea and enteritis, under 2 years
Diarrhea and enteritis, 2 years and over
Other diseases of digestive system
Bright's disease and nephritis
Childbirth.
Early infancy
Suicide
Earthquake and fire.
Other violence
All other causes.

23.8 5.0 1.5 7.2 2.5 9.8 13.1 12.2 10.8 203.0 31.4 80.0 57.2 25.1 122.7 191.3 120.6 43.0 39.2 15.6 80.0 78.8 14.7 47.7 26.6 39.7 109.6 102.4

Tuberculosis is the principal cause of death in California. Over one seventh (15.5 per cent) of all deaths were due to this disease, 13.4 per cent of all deaths being caused by tuberculosis of the lungs and 2.1 per cent by tuberculosis of other organs. The death-rate is 234.4 per 100,000 population for all forms of tuberculosis.

Next to tuberculosis come diseases of the circulatory system, heart disease, etc. These diseases caused one eighth (12.6 per cent) of all deaths and have a death-rate of 191.3 per 100,000 population.

Next come diseases of the respiratory system, which caused nearly one ninth (10.8 per cent) of all deaths in the State, pneumonia and broncho-pneumonia causing 8.0 per cent and other diseases of the respiratory system 2.8 per cent of all deaths. The death-rate for all diseases of the respiratory system is 163.6 per 100,000 population.

Following pneumonia and other diseases of the respiratory system come meningitis and other diseases of the nervous system. These diseases caused nearly one tenth (9.8 per cent) of all deaths and have a death-rate of 147.8 per 100,000 population.

The proportions are next highest for diseases of the digestive system (diarrhea and enteritis, etc.), 8.9 per cent; violence other than suicide or earthquake and fire, 7.2 per cent; cancer, 5.3 per cent; Bright's disease and nephritis, 5.2 per cent; and early infancy, 3.2 per cent.

Of the epidemic diseases, typhoid fever was by far the most fatal, causing 425 deaths, or 1.6 per cent of the State total for the year. The number of deaths from other important epidemic diseases in 1905–1906 was as follows: diphtheria and croup, 234; influenza, 217; whoopingcough, 174; measles, 128; malarial fever, 90; scarlet fever, 45; and smallpox, 27. The deaths from smallpox were only 1 in each 1,000 from all causes and represent a death-rate of no more than 1.5 per 100,000 population.

Altogether, 709 deaths, or 2.6 per cent of all for the year 1905–1906, are charged against the earthquake and fire of April, 1906. The number given includes only the deaths known to have resulted from this public calamity, and may perhaps understate the loss of life resulting from this seismic disturbance. However, the total does include several deaths resulting only indirectly from earthquake and fire, as deaths of aged persons from fright or heart disease and deaths of infants from exposure.

The 709 deaths resulting directly or indirectly from earthquake and fire occurred in the following counties: San Francisco, 463; Santa Clara, 141; Sonoma, 72; Alameda, 12; Santa Cruz, 6; San Benito and Sacramento, 3 each; Mendocino, Napa, and Solano, 2 each; and Glenn, Nevada, and Los Angeles, 1 each. The bulk of the deaths in Santa Clara county were at the State Hospital at Agnews, and nearly all in Sonoma county were in Santa Rosa city. Most of the deaths in the other counties named occurred among refugees from San Francisco suffering from fright or exposure.

Table 3 gives for the three main geographic divisions the number of deaths from certain principal causes, and also the proportion from each cause per 1,000 total deaths. The death-rates for each disease per 100,000 population are not shown for geographic divisions, because the registration of deaths was not equally complete throughout the State.

TABLE 3.- Deaths from Certain Principal Causes, with Proportion per 1,000 Total Deaths,

for Main Geographic Divisions: 1905-1906.

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7,213

DEATHS: 1905-1906.
ALL CAUSES
Typhoid fever.
Malarial fever.
Smallpox..
Measles
Scarlet fever
Whooping-cough
Diphtheria and croup.
Influenza
Other epidemic diseases
Tuberculosis of lungs.
Tuberculosis of other organs.
Cancer
Other general diseases
Meningitis
Other diseases of nervous system
Diseases of circulatory system
Pneumonia and broncho-pneumonia
Other diseases of respiratory system
Diarrhea and enteritis, under 2 years.
Diarrhea and enteritis, 2 years and over.
Other diseases of digestive system
Bright's disease and nephritis
Childbirth
Early infancy
Suicide
Earthquake and fire
Other violence
All other causes

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92 10

1 52 11 53 71 65

193 3,622

561 1,428 1,020

448 2,190 3,413 2,153 767 700

278 1,427 1,407 262 851 474

709 1,955 1,828

50 40 309 56 136 121

46 347 344 250 92 47 24 173 115 27

107
1,893

358
903
638

284
1,265
2,282
1,405

479 487 185 897 864 166 553 317 630 1,140 1,107

46 1,420

147 389 261 118 578 787 498 196 166

69 357 428

69 236 108

78 255 297

560 424

1,000.0

1,000.0

1,000.0

PROPORTION PER 1,000 TOTAL DEATHS.

ALL CAUSES
Typhoid fever.
Malarial fever.
Smallpox
Measles
Scarlet fever
Whooping-cough.
Diphtheria and сrоuр.
Influenza
Other epidemic diseases
Tuberculosis of lungs
Tuberculosis of other organs
Cancer
Other general diseases
Meningitis
Other diseases of nervous system
Diseases of circulatory system
Pneumonia and broncho-pneumonia
Other diseases of respiratory system
Diarrhea and enteritis, under 2 years
Diarrhea and enteritis, 2 years and over
Other diseases of digestive system
Bright's disease and nephritis
Childbirth
Early infancy
Suicide.
Earthqnake and fire.
Other violence
All other causes.

15.7
3.3
1.0
4.7
1.7
6.4
8.7
8.0

7.2
134.0
20.8
52.8
37.7
16.6
81.0
126.3
79.7
28.4
25.9
10.3
52.8
52.1

9.7 31.5 17.5 26.2 72.3 67.7

17.8 12.6 1.3 2.3 1.6 11.0 10.0 16.2 12.9 99.9 18.1 44.0 39.1 14.9 112.2 111.2 80.8 29.8 15.2

7.8 55.9 37.2

8.7
20.1
15.8
25.2
82.4
96.0

16.6
2.5
1.3
4.1
1.7
5.2
7.9
6.1

6.4
113.2
21.4
54.0
38.2
17.0
75.7
136.5
84.0
28.6
29.1
11.1
53.6
51.7

9.9 33.1 19.0 37.7 68.2 66.2

1,000.0

12.8 1.4 0.1 7.2 1.5 7.4 9.8 9.0

6.4 196.9 20.4 53.9 36.2 16.4 80.1 109.1 69.0 27.2 23.0

9.6 49.5 59.3

9.6 32.7 15.0

0.1 77.6 68.8

Table 3 shows that the various epidemic diseases cause rather large proportions of all deaths in Northern California, the proportion for this division being higher than the State average in the case of every epidemic disease except measles and scarlet fever. In Northern California, also, the proportion is high for diseases of the nervous system other than meningitis, being 112.2 here against a general average of only 81.0. Central California excels particularly in the proportion of all deaths caused by diseases of the circulatory system (heart disease, etc.), the proportion for such diseases per 1,000 total deaths being 136.5 for this division, against only 126.3 for the State. Southern California leads especially in the proportion of all deaths due to tuberculosis, the proportion for tuberculosis of the lungs being 196.9 per 1,000 total deaths for the seven counties south of Tehachapi, as compared with only 134.0 for the State as a whole. In Southern California, too, the proportion is high for measles, being 7.2 here against a State average of 4.7 per 1,000 total deaths.

Table 4 presents similar figures for the eight minor geographic divisions.

TABLE 4.-Deaths from Certain Principal Causes, with Proportion per 1,000 Total Deaths,

for Minor Geographic Divisions: 1905–1906.

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DEATHS: 1905-1906.

ALL CAUSES
Typhoid fever
Malarial fever
Smallpox
Measles
Scarlet fever
Whooping-cough
Diphtheria and croup.
Influenza
Other epidemic diseases.
Tuberculosis of lungs...
Tuberculosis of other

gans..
Cancer
Other general diseases
Meningitis.
Other diseases of nervous

system
Diseases of circulatory sys-

tem Pneumonia and broncho

pneumonia Other diseases of respira

tory system. Diarrhea and enteritis, un

der 2 years Diarrhea and enteritis, 2

years and over Other diseases of digestive

system
Bright's disease and

phritis
Childbirth
Early infancy.
Suicide
Earthquake and fire
Other violence..
All other causes

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