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to be infinuated into the mass of as I have explained it above, and blood, being highly necessary to he is rendered fit for his next contemperate and cool the agi- cruize: for action waftes the most tated mass, and to contribute re- exalted fluids of the body, more fined pabulum to the finer parts of or less, according to its duration it, which, meeting with the daily and violence; and the rettorative fupply of chyle, ferves to aflimí. rest mult continue a longer or Jate and more intimately mix the shorter time, according to the mass, and 'render its constitution quantity of the previous fatigue. the fiiter for supporting the life of Let us now examine by what the animal. Therefore it is, that power these animals are capable of valetudinarians, by changing foul remaining longer under water than or unwholesome air for a frec, good, land animals. open air, often recover from ling- All these have the oval hole open ering diseafes..

between the right and left auricles And a third principal use of re. of the heart, and, in many, the spiration is, to promote the ex- canalis arteriosus also: and while hibition of a voice in animals; the phocă remains under water, which all those that live on the which he may continue an hour or land do according to their specific two, more or less, his respiration natures.

is stopped, and the blood, not From these confiderations ir ap- finding the passage through the pears, beyond contradiction, that pulmonary artery free, rushes . the phocæ of every kind are un. through the hole from the right des an absolute necessity of mak- to the left auricle, and partly ing the land their principal resi- through the arterial canal, being dence ; but there is another very a short passage to the aorta, and convincing argument why they re. thence to every part of the body, fide on fore the greatest part of maintaining the circulation: but, their time, and that is, that the upon rising to come alhore, the Alesh of these creatures is analo. blood finds its passage again gous to that of other land ani. through the lungs the moment he mals; and therefore, by over. refpires.

long macerátion, added to the Thus the fætus in utero, during fatigue of their chacing their prey, his confinement, having the lungs they would suffer such a relaxation compressed, and consequently the as would destroy them. It is well pulmonary arteries and veins im. known that animals, which have pervious, has the circulation of lain 'long under water, are reduced the blood carried on through the to a very lax and even putrid ftate; 'oval hole and the arterial canal; and the phoca must balk in the air now so far the phoca in the water on shore; for while the solids are and the fætus in utero are analo. at rest, they acquire their former gous; but they differ in other degree of tenfion, and the vigour material circumstances; one is, * of the animal is restored ; and that the fætus, having never rewhile he has an uninterrupted fpired, remains fufficiently nou. placid respiration, his blood is re- rited by the maternal blood cirfreshed by the new supply of air, culating through him, and conti.

nues

as he can.

nues to grow till the time of his fore; I shot him, and saved the fish birth, without any want of refpi- whole. Now, as all fætuses have ration during nine 'months con- these paffuges open, if a whelp of a finement; the phoca, having re- true water-spaniel, was, immedi. {pired the moment of his birth, ately after its birth, served as the cannot live very long without it, phoca does her cubs, immersed in for the reasons given before ; and water, to stop respiration for a little this hole and canal would be time every day, I make no doubs closed in them, as it is in land but the hole and canal would be animals, if the dam did not, very kept open, and the dog be made foon after the birth of the cub, capable of remaining as long under carry him into the water to teach water as the phoca. him, so very frequently; by which Frogs, how capable foever of practice these passages are kept remaining in the water, yet canopen during life; otherwise they not avoid living on land, for they would not be capable of attaining respire; and if, as I have often the food designed for them by pro- done, a frog be thrown into a vidence.

river, he makes to the shore as fast Another difference is, that the phoca, as I said before, would be The lizard kind, such as may relaxed by maceration in remain. be called water lizards, or lacering too long in the water ; where- tæ aquaticæ, all are obliged to as the fætus in utero suffers no in- come to land and deposit their eggs, jory from continuing its full num- rest, and sleep; even the crocober of months in the fluid he diles, who dwell much in rivers, swims in: the reason is, that sleep and lay their eggs on More; water is a powerful folvent, and and, while in the water, are compenetrates the pores of the skins pelled to rise to the surface to of land animals, and in time can breathe ; yet, from the texture of dissolve them: whereas the liquor his scaly covering, he is capable of amnii is an infipid soft fluid, im- remaining in the water longer by pregnated with particles more or far than any species of the phocæ, less mucilaginous, and utterly in- whose skin is analogous to that of a capable of making the least altera- horfe or cow. tion in the cutis of the fetus.

The hippopotamus, who wades Oiters, beavers, and some kinds into the lakes or rivers, is a quaof rats, go occasionally into the druped, and remains under the waters for their prey, but can. water a confiderable time ; yet his not remain very long under wa- chief residence is upon land, and ter; I have often gone to Moot ot. he must come on thore for respi. ters, and watched all their mo. ration. tions ; I have seen one of them go The testudo, or fea-tortoise, tho' softly from a bank into the he goes out to sea, and is often river, and dive down, and in found far from land; yet, being about two minutes rife, at ten or a respiring animal, cannot fifteen yards from the place he main long under water. He has went in, with a middling falmon in indeed a power of rendering him. his mouth, which he brought on self fpecifically heavier or lighter trian the water, and therefore can the eel and ferpent kinds, can live lechimself down to avoid an enemy a considerable time on land, and or a storm ; yet he is under a ne. the vertical and horizontal kinds ceflity of rising frequently to die almost immediately when taken breathe, for reasons given before, out of the water: and, in this re. and his mod usual situation, while search, we shall come to know what at sea, is upon the surface of the analogy there is between land ani.. water, feeding upon the various mals and those of the waters. All fubftances that float in great 2. land animals have lungs, and can bundance every where about hims live no longer than while these are these animals sleep securely upon inflated by the ambient air, and al. the surface, but not under water, ternately compressed for its exand can remain longer at sea than pulfion; that is, while respiration any others of this class, except the is duly carried on, by a regular in. crocodile, because, as it is with spiration and expiration of air. the latter, his covering is not in In like manner, the fish in genedanger of being too much mace- ral have, instead of lungs, gills, rated ; yet they must go on shore or branchiæ; and, as in land aoi. to copulate, and lay their eggs. mals, the lungs have a large por

than

re.

The confideration of these is tion of the mass of blood circu. fufficient to inform us of the na. lating through them, which muft. ture of the first order of the class be stopped if the air has not a free of amphibious animals; let us now, ingress and egress into and from see what is to be said of the second them ; so, in fish, there is a great in our , division of them, which share of blood-vessels that pass are such as chiefly inhabit the through the branchia, and a great waters, but occasionally go on portion of their blood circulates Thore.

through them, which muft in like These are but of two kinds; manner be totally stopped, if the the eel, and water ferpents, or branchiæ are not kept perpetually snakes of every kind. It is their wet with water; so that, as the form that qualifies them for loco. air is to the lungs, in land animorion on land, and they know mals, a conftant assistant to the their way back to the water at circulation, fo is the water to the will; for by their structure they branchiæ of those of the rivers and have a ftrong peristaltic motion, by feas; for when these are out of which they can go forward at a the water, the branchiæ very soon pretiy good rate, whereas all o. grow crisp and dry, the blood vel ther kinds of fit, whether ver. 1els are thrunk, and the blood is tical or horizontal, are incapable of obftructed in its paffage ; so, when a voluntary loco-motion on More; the former are immersed in water, and therefore, as soon as fuch fish or otherwise prevented having re. are brought out of the water, spiration, the circulation ceases, alter having flounced a while, and the animal dies. they lie motionless, and foon

Again, as land animals would die

be destroyed by too much macerae Let' us now examine into the tion in water, fo .fishes would, reason why these vermicular fith, on the other hand, be ruined by

too

too much exficcation; the latter fifh kinds, which is of a middle nabeing, from their general structure ture between the phocæ, and the and constitution, made fit to bear, real fishes of the sea, in one pecuand live in, the water ; the for. liar respect. This is the class of mes; by their constitucion and the phocenæ, or porpasses, of forms; to breathe, and dwell, in which there are several species ; the air.

and these have lungs, and there. Buc it may be aked, why eels fore are forced to come up to the and water snakes are capable of surface to breathe at very short inliving longer in the air than the tervals ; but, when brought on other kinds of filh? this is an- shore, have no progressive loco, {wered, by considering the provi- motion. So that, having lungs, dential care of the great creator they resemble the phocæ, and, in for these and every one of his every other respect, the real fishes creatures : for, since they were of the sea. capable of loco-motion by their Blafius, in his Anatome Ani. form, which they 'need not be if malium, page 288, gives an ac. they were never to go on hore, it count of one of these taken and seemed necessary that they should brought on shore alive; the peobe rendered capable of living a ple let him lie, to see how long he confiderable time on fhore, other could live out of the water; and wife their loco-motion would be in he continued alive only about se. vain. How is this provided for? ven or eight hours, and exhibited why in a moft convenient manner;' a kind of hissing voice. for this order of fishes have their From what has been said, it branchiæ well covered from the will, I hope, appear rational, that external dryiog air, and are also these are the only two orders that furnished with a slimy mucus, can properly be deduced from the which hinders their becoming crisp class of amphibious animals; and and dry for many hours, and their that the genuses of either order are vesy kips always emit a mucus very few in the animal world. liquor, which keeps them fupple and moist for a long time; where. as the branchiæ of other kinds of A letter from James Parsons, M. D. fish are much exposed to the air,

F. R. S. to the right honourable and want the limy matter to keep the Earl of Morton, president of them moitt. Now, if, when any the Royal Society ; on the double of these is brought out of the

horns of the Rhinoceros. water, it was laid in a vessel without water, he might be kept My Lord, alive a considerable cime, by only keeping the gills and surface of HEN the skin constantly wet, even

with

laying my natural history out any water to swim in.

of the rhinoceros before this learne Before I dismiss the first part of ed society in 1743, which is printmy discourse, I must beg your pa. ed in number 470, page 523, of tience, while I mention something the Transactions, I had not ar that relates to a family among the opportunity of Thewing a double

horn

W

horn to the members; I have this difference, that these changed therefore taken this first occasion the euros for ursos, as imagining to entertain the present members they were rather bears than bulls with a sight of a noble specimen that were thrown up by this noble of the horns of an African shi. animal. noceros, brought from the Cape Our then worthy president Mar. of Good Hope, by my curious tin Folkes, esquire, had seen my and worthy friend William Ma- account of this subject, at the end guire, esquire, among many other of which I endeavoured, however curiofities; presuming that few of presumptuously, to defend Marthe society have ever seen a pair of tial's reading against Bochart and the like kind. But what renders the other eminent persons mentionthis subject the more particular, ed; and desired I would let it be and worthy of observation, is, that read and printed, which I very by means of knowing there is a readily agreed to, as his request species of this animal, having al. did me much honour. ways a double horn upon the nose, Before my paper was printed in Africa, Martial's reading is Mr. Maittaire and Doctor Doug. supported againft the criticism of las died; and the learned Doctor Buchart, who changed the true Mead was the surviving critic, uptext of that poet, in an epigram on this line, of the three. Upon upon the ftrength of this animal ; this occasion, therefore, I have a for when Domitian ordered an ex. double pleasure ; first, in amusing hibition of wild beasts, as it was the present gentlemen with a most the custom of several emperors, curious fpecimen in natural hifthe poet says: The rhinoceros tory; and, fecondly, in rememtoss'd up a heavy bear with his bering in this place, the nice candouble horn:

dor and generofity of Dr. Mead Namque gravem gemino cornu fil months after the paper was printed,

upon that subject. For, about four extulit ursum.

he received a present of several cuand as Bochart knew nothing of a rious shells, seeds, &c. and with double horn, he changed this line them the bones of the face of a both in reading and sense thus : young rhinoceros, with two horns, Namque gravi geminum cornu fic in fitu, all entire, by a captain of extulit eurum.

an African trader, who brought

them from Angola. as if two wild bulls were toffed up As soon as he saw the horns, into the air, by the strong horn of he sent to invite me to breakfast

, the rhinoceros.

and there, in company, ingenu. Mr. Maittaire adopted the no- ously gave up his paft opinion, tion of a single horn, but was of and declared for Martial; and, opinion that the geminum eurum of indeed, I must add to the praise of Bochart ought to have been plu- that great man, that, as I was ral, geminos euros, as being more happy in being frequently at his elegant; and he 'was followed by house, I was witness to many such Doctors Mead and Douglas, with instances of the moft disinterested

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