The bold winds speechless,' and the orb below Ham. Odd's bodikin, man, much better : Use As hush as deuth : anon the dreadful thunder every man after his desert, and who shall 'scape Doth rend the region : So, after Pyrrhus' pause, whipping? Use them after your own honour and A roused vengeance sels him new a work ;

dignity: The less they deserve, the more merit is in And never did the Cyclops' hammers fall

your bounty.

Take them in. On Mers's armour, forg'd for proof eterne,

Pol. Come, sirs. With less remorse than Pyrrhus' bleeding sword

(Exit Polonius, with some of the Players. Now falls on Priam.

Ham. Follow him, friends : we'll hear a play toOut, out, thou strumpet, Forlune ! All you gods, morrow.–Dost thou hear me, old friend; can you In general synod, take away your power : play the murder of Gonzago ? Break all the spokes and fellies from her wheel, 1 Play. Ay, my lord. And bowl the round nave down the hill of heaven, Ham. We'll have it to-morrow night. You could, As low as to the fiends!

for a need, study a speech of some dozen or sixa Pol. This is too long.

teen lines, which I would set down, and insert in't? Ham. It shall to the barber's, with your beard.could you not ? 'Prythee, say on :--He's for a jig, ? or a tale of 1 Play. Ay, my lord. bawdry, or he sleeps :-say on : come to Hecuba. Hom. Very well. Follow that lord; and look

1 Play. But who, ah wo! had seen the mobled" you mock him not. (Exit Player.) My good friends Ham. The mobled queen ?

(To Ros, and Guil] I'll leave you till night : you queen

are welcome to Elsinore. Pol. That's good ; mobled queen is good.

Ros. Good my lord ! 1 Play. Run barefoot up and down, threatning (Exeunt ROSENCRANTZ and GUILDENSTERN. the flames

Ham. Ay, so, good bye to you :-Now I am With bisson* rheum ; a cloul upon that head,

alone. Where late the dialem stood; and, for a robe, O, what a rogue and peasant slave am I! About her lank and all o'er-teemed loins,

Is it not monstrous, that this player here, A blanket, in the alarm of fear caught up ; But in a fiction, in a dream of passion, Who this hal seen, with longue in venom sleepid, Could force his soul so to his own conceit, 'Gainst fortune's state would treason have pro- That from her working, all his visage wann'd; nounc'd :

Tears in his eyes, distraction in's aspect, But if the gods themselves dil see her then, A broken voice, and his whole function suiting When she saw Pyrrhus make malicious sport With forms to his conceit? And all for nothing ? In mincing with his swird her husband's limbs : For Hecuba! The instant burst of clamour that she made, What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba, (Unless things mortal move them not at all,) That he should weep for her ? What would he do, Would have male milch' the burning eye of heaven, Had he the motive and the cue for passion, And passion in the gods.

That I have? He would drown the stage with tears, Pol. Look, whether he has not turn'd his colour, and cleave the general ear with horrid speech; and has tears in's eyes. _'Prythee, no more. Make mad the guilty, and appal the free,

Ham. 'Tis well; I'll have thee speak out the Confound the ignorant, and amaze, indeed, rest of this soon.—Good my lord, will you see the The very faculties of eyes and ears. players wel! bestowed ? Do you hear, let them be Yet I, well used ; for they are the abstract, and brief chro- A dull and muddy-mettled rascal peak, nicles of the time: After your death you were bet- Like John a-dreams, unpregnant of my cause, ter have a bad epitaph, than their ill report while And can say nothing'; no, not for a king, you live.

Upon whose property, and most dear life, Pol. My lord, I will use them according to their desert.

new-created the performers of his age. Mysteries, mo

ralities, and interludes, afforded no materials for art to lation. Johnson has chosen this passage, and one in work on, no discriminations of character, or varieties of Dryden of the same import, to exemplify the word appropriated language. From tragedies like Cambyses, which he explains, 'the clouds as they are driven by Tamburlaine, and Jeronymo, nature wag wholly banishthe winds.'

ed; and the comedies of Gammer Gurton, Comon Con. | Even as the wind is hush'd before it raineth.' dycyons, and The Old Wives' Tale, might have had

Venus and Adonis. justice done to them by the lowest order of human beings. 2. 'He's for a jig, or a tale of bawdry.' Giga, in * Sanctius his animal, mentisque capacius alt, was Italian, was a fiddle, or crowd; gigaro, a fiditler, or wanting when the dramas of Shakspeare made their minstrel. Hence a jig, (first written gigge, though pro- first appearance; and to these we were certainly in. nounced with a g soft, after the Italian,) was a ballad, debted for the excellent actors who could never have im. or ditty, sung to the fiddle. "Frottola, a countrie gigge, proved so long as their sensibilities were unawakened, or round, or country song or wanton verse.' As these iheir memories burthened only by pedantic or puritani. itinerant minstrels' proceeded, they made it a kind of cal declamation, and their manners vulgarised by pleafarcical dialogue; and at_length it came to signify a santry or as low an origin.'— Steevens. short merry interlude :

-Farce, the jigg at the end of 7 The folio reads warm'd, which reading Steevens an enterlude, wherein some pretie knaverie is acted.cootended for: he was probably moved by a spirit of There are several of the old ballads and dialogues call. opposition ; for surely no one can doubt, who considers ed Jigs in the Harleian Collection. Thus also, in the the context, thai trannd is the poet's word. Indeed, I Fatal Contract, by Hemings :

question whether his visage warm’d, for his face suf we'll hear your jigg,

fused, would have entered into the mind of a writer How is your ballad titled?

or the comprehension of a reader or auditor in Shak 3 The folio reads inobled, an evident error of the speare's time. press, for mobled, which means muffied. The queen 8 i. e. the hint or prompt word, a technical phrase is represented with a clout upon her head, and a blan- among, players ; it is the word or sign given by the ket wrapt round her, caught up in the alarm of fear.' prompter for a player to enter on his part, to begin to We have the word in Ogilby's Fables :

speak or act. A prompter (says Florio,) one who Mobbled nine days in my considering cap.' keepes the booke for the plaiers, and teacheth them, or And in Shirley's Gentleman of Venice :

schollers their kue,' i. e. their part; and this will explain 'The moon doth mobble up herself."

why it is used in other places, as in Othello, for part: . 4 Bisson is blind. Bisson rheum therefore is blind. Were it my cue to fighi, I should have known it ing tears.

Without a prompter", 3. Would have made milch the burning eye of hea. 9 John a dreams or John a droynes, was a common

By a hardy poetical license, this expression term for any dreaming or droning simpleton. There is means, . Would have filled with tears the burning eye a story cold of one John a droynes, a Suffolk simpleton, of heaven.' To have made passion in the gods' would who played the Devil in a stage play, in the Hundred have been to move them to sympathy or compassion. Merry Tales. And there is another foolish character of

6 "The plays of Shakspeare, by their own power, that name in Whetstone's Promos aud Cassandra. Un must have given a different turn to acting, and almost pregnant is not quickened or properly impressed with.



A damn'd defeat' was made. Am I a coward ? Ros. Most like a gentleman.
Who calls me villain ? breaks my pate across ? Guil. But with much forcing of his disposition.
Plucks off my beard, and blows it in my face? Ros. Niggard of question ; but, of our demands,
Tweaks me by the nose? gives me ihe lie i' the Most free in lois


Did you assay him As deep as to the lungs ? Who does me this ? To any pastime? Ha!

Ros. Madam, it so fell out, that certain players Why, I should take it: for it cannot be,

Weo'er-raughtíl on the way': of these we told him ; Bui I am pigeon-liver'd, and lack gall

And there did seem in him a kind of joy To make oppression bitier; or, ere this,

To hear of it: They are about the court; I should have fatted all the region kites

And, as I think, they have already order With this slave's offal: Bloody, bawdy villain ! This night to play before bim. Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindless Pol.

"Tis most true : villain!

And he beseech'd me to entreat your majesties, Why, what an ass am I? This is most brave; To hear and see the matter. That I, the son of a dear father murder'd,"

King. With all my heart; and it doth much conPrompted to my revenge by heaven and hell,

tent me Must, like a whore, unpack my heart with words, To hear him so inclin'd. And fall a cursing like a very drab,

Good gentlemen, give him a further edge, A scullion !

And drive his purpose on to these delights. Fie upon't! foh! About my brains !4 Humph! I Ros. We shall, my lord. have heard,

(Exeunt RoSENCRANTZ and GUILDENSTERN That guilty creatures, sitting at a play,'


Sweet Gertrude, leave us too ! Have, by the very cunning of the scene,

For we have closely sent for Hamlet hither ; Been struck so to the soul, that presently

That he, as 'twere by accident, may here They have proclaim'd their malefactions ;

Affrontı? Ophelia : For murder, though it have no tongue, will speak Her father, and myself (lawful espials,'') With mosi miraculous organ. I'll' have these Will so bestow ourselves, that, seeing, unseen, players

We may of their encounter frankly judge ;
Play something like the murder of my father, And gather by him, as he is behav'd,
Before mine uncle ; I'll observe his looks ;

If't be the affliction of his love, or no,
I'll tent him to the quick; if he do blench,' That thus he suffers for.
I know my course. The spirit, that I have seen, Queen.

I shall obey you :
May be a devil: and the devil hath power

And for your part, Ophelia, I do wish, To assume a pleasing shape; yea, and, perhaps,

Thai our good beauties be the happy cause Out of my weakness, and my melancholy,

Of Hamlet's wildness: so shall I hope, your virtues (As he is very potent with such spirits,)

Will bring bim to his wonted way again, A buses me to damn me : Dil have grounds

To both your honours. More relative than this : The play's the thing, Oph.

Madam, I wish it may. Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king.

[Exit Queen. [Exit. Pol. Ophelia, walk you here :-Gracious, so

please you, We will bestowi 4 ourselves :—Read on this book ;


That show of such an exercise may colour SCENE I. A Room in the Castle. Enter King, Your loneliness.15--We are oft to blame in this,

Queen, Polonius, Ophelia, Rosencrantz, 'Tis too much prov'd,--that with devotion's visage, and GUILDENSTERN.

And pious action, we do sugar o'er
King. And can you, by no drift of conference' The devil himself.
Get from him why he puts on this confusion ;


0, 'tis too true! how smart Grating so harshly all his days of quiet

A lash that speech doth give my conscience ! With turbulent and dangerous lunacy?

The harlot's cheek, beautied with plast'ring art, Ros. He does confess, he feels himself distracted; Is not more ugly to the thing that helps it, But from what cause he will by no means speak. Than is my deed to my mosi painted word : Guil. Nor do we find him forward to he sounded; o, heavy burden !

(Aside. But with a crafty madness, keeps aloof,

Pol. I hear him coming; let's withdraw, my lord. When we would bring him on to some confession

(Ereunt King and Polonius. Of his true state. Queen. Did he receive you well ?

5 A number of instances of the kind are collected by

Thomas Heywood in bis Apology for Actors. I Defeat here signifies destruction. It was frequently 6 To leni was to probe, to search a wound. used in the sense of undo or take away by our old wri. 7 To blench is to shrink or start. Vide Winter's ters. Thus Chapman in his Revenge for Honour :- Tale, Act i. Sc. 2.

“That he might meantime make a sure defeat 8 i. e. more near, more immediately connected. The On our good aged father's life.'

first quarto reads, "I will have sounder proofs.' 2 Kindless is unnatural.

9 Folio-circumstance. 3 The first folio reads thus :

10 - Slow to begin contersation, but free enough in Oh vengeance !

answering our demands.' Who? What an ass am I? I sure this is most brave, 11 i. e. reached, overlook. That I the sonne of the Deere murthered.'

12 i. e. meet her, encounter her; affrontare, Ital. See The quarto of 1604 omits 'Oh vengeance,' and reads, Winter's Tale, Act v. Sc. 1.. 'a deere murthered. The quarto of 1602, "that I the 13. Lawful espials ;' that is lawsul spies. 'An espiall son of my dear father.'

is warres, a scoutwatche, a beholder, a viewer.'- Baret. 4.!! seems extraordinary that Mason and Steevens See King Henry VI. Part I. Act i. Sc. 4. An espy was could ever conceive that there was any allusion here to also in use for a spy. The two words are only found the nautical phrase, about ship. 'Aboul my brains' is in the folio. nothing more than 10 work my brains. The common 14 · Beslow ourselves' is here used for hide or place phrase, to go about a thing, is not yet obsolete. Fal. ourselves. We have the word in the same sense in a staff humours the equivocal use of the word in The subsequent scene : Merry Wives of Windsor :

-No quips now, Pistol, Where the dead body is bestow'd, my lord, indeed I am in the waist too yards about; but I am now We cannot get from him.' about no waste ; I am about thrift. Steevens's quota. We now use stow. One of our old dictionaries makes tion from Heywood's Iron Age should have taught him a discrimination between the acceptations of this word, better

thus : To beslow, or lay out ; lo bestou, or give · 10 *My brain about again! for thou hast found bestow, or place.' New projects now to work on.'

15 Quarto-lowliness.



Ham. Ha, ha! are you honest?
Ham. To be, or not to be, that is the question: Oph. My lord ?
Whether 'uis nobler in the mind, to suffer

Ham. Are you fair?
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune;

Oph. What means your lordship? Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,

Ham. That if you be honest and fair, your hoAnd, by opposing, end them ?--To die,-19 sleep,

ty should admit no discourse to your beauty.14 No more ; -and, by a sleep, to say we end

Oph. Could beauty, my lord, have better comThe heart-ach, and the thousand natural shocks merce than with honesty? That flesh is heir to, -uis a consummation

Ham. Av, truly; for the power of beauty will Devoutly to be wish’d. To die ;-to sleep -

sooner transform honesty from what it is to a bawd, To sleep! perchance to dream ;-ay, there's the rub; than the force of honesty can translate beauty into For in ihai sleep of death what dreams may come,

his likeness; this was some time a paradox, but When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,

now the time gives it proof. I did love you once. Must give us pause: There's the respect, a

Oph. Indeed, my lord, you made me believe so. That makes calamity of so long life:

Ham. You should not have believed me; for For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, virtue cannot so inoculate our old stock, but we The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely," shall relish of it: I loved you not. The pangs of despis'd love, the law's delay,

Oph. I was the more deceived. The insolence of office, and the sporns

1. Hom. Get thee to a nunnery; Why would'st That patient merit of the unworthy takes,

thou be a breeder of sinners? I am myself indifWhen he himself might his quietuss make

ferent honest; but yet I could accuse me of such With a bare bodkin ?e who would fardels' bear,

things, that it were better, my mother had not borne To grunt and sweat under a weary life ;

me: I am very proud, revengeful, ambitious; with But that the dread of something after death,

more offences ai my beck, than I have thoughts to The undiscover'd country, from whose bourno

put them in,'s imagination to give them shape, or No traveller returns,-puzzles the will;

time to act them in; What should such fellows as And makes us rather bear those ills we have,

I do crawling between earth and heaven! We are Than fly to others that we know not of?

arrant knaves, all; believe none of us : Go thy Thus conscience does make cowards of us all ;'0 ways to a nunnery. Where's your father. And thus the native hue of resolution

Oph. At home, my lord. Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought;

Ham. Let the doors be shut upon him; that he And enterprizes of great pith" and moment,

may play the fool no where!6 but in's own house. With this regard, their currents turn awry,'

And lose the name of action.-Soft you, now! Oph. O, help him, you sweet heavens !
The fair Ophelia :-Nymph, in thy orisonsła

Ham. Ír thou dost marry, I'll give thee this Be all my sins remember'd.

plague for thy dowry; Be thou as chaste as ice, as Oph.

Good my lord,

pure as snow, thou shalt not escape calumny. Get How does your honour for this many a day?

thee to a nunnery; farewell:''' Or, if thou wilt Ham. I humbly thank you; well.

needs marry, marry a fool; for wise men know well Oph. My lord, I have remembrances of yours,

enough, what monsters you make of them. To a That I have longed long to re-deliver ;

nunnery, go; and quickly too. Farewell. I pray you, now receive them.

Oph. Heavenly powers, restore him ! Ham.

No, not I;

Ham. I have heard of your paintingsts too, well I never gave you aught.

enough; God hath given you one face, and you Oph. My honour'd lord, you know right well, make yourselves another : you jig, you amble, and

you lisp, and nickname God's creatures, and make And, with them, words of so sweet breath compos'd your wantonness your ignorance ;'' Go'to; I'll no As made the things more rich : their perfume lost,

more of it: it hath made me mad. I say, we will Take these again; for to the noble mind,

have no more marriages: those that are married Rich gifts wax poor, when givers prove unkind. already, all but one, shall live; the rest shall keep There, my lord.

as they are. To a nunnery, go.


9 Mr. Douce points out the following passages in Cran. 1 This mortal coil;' that is, the tumult and bustle mer's Bible, which may have been in Shakspeare's of this life. It is remarkable that under garbuglio, mind :- Afore I goe thither, from whence I shall not which has the same meaning in Italian as our coil, Florio turne againe, even to the lande of darkuess, and sha: has 'a pecke of troubles ;' of which Shakspeare's ' sea dowe of death ; yea into that darke cloudie lande and of troubles' is only an aggrandized idea.

deadly shadow whereas is no order, but terrible leare as 2 i. e. the consideration. This is Shakspeare's most in the darknesse, ?-Joh, c. x. * The way that I must usual sense of the word.

goe is at hannle, but whence I shall not turne againe.' 3 Time, for the time, is a very usual expression with Ib. c. xvi. our old writers. Thus in Ben Jonson's Every Man

Weep not for Mortimer, Out of his Humour :

That scorns the world, and as a traveller . Oh, how I hate the monstrousness of time.'

Goes to discover countries yet unknoton.' 4 Folio-the poor man's contumely.'

Marlowe's King Edward II. 5 The allusion is to the term quietus est, used in 10 I'll not meddle with it,-it makes a man a coward* settling accounts at exchequer audits. Thus Webster -King Richard III. Act i. Sc. 4. And again :in his Dutchess of Malfy :

O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me.” * You had the trick in audit time to be sick,

Ib. Act. v, Se. 3. Till I had sign'd your quietus.'

11 Quartos-pitcha

12 Folio--Quray. And, more appositely, in Sir Thomas Overbury's char. 13 This is a touch of nature. Hamler, at the sight of acier of a Franklin :- Lastly to end him, he cares Ophelia, does not immediately recollect that he is to pernot when his end comes; he needs not feare his audit, sonate madness, but makes an address grave and so. for his quietus is in heaven.'

lemn, such as the foregoing meditation excited in his 6 Bodkin was the ancient term for a small dagger.' thoughts. -Johnson. 7 Packs, burdens.

14 i. e. your honesty should not admit your beauty 8 Though to grunt has been degraded in modern lan. to any discourse with her. The first quarto reads :-guage, it appears to have conveyed no vulgar or low im. Your beauty should admit no discourse to your honesty." age to the ear of our ancestors, as many quotaiions from that of 1604 :- You should admit no discourse to your the old translations of the classics would show. Loke beauty.' that the places about thee be so in silence that thy li.Than I have thoughts to put them in.' To put a corage and mynde gronte nor groudge nat.' Paynel's thing into thought' is to think on it.' Translation of Erasmus de Contempt. Mundi. The

16 Folio.-ray:

17 Fulio-Go, farewell. fact seems to be, that to groan and to grunt were con. 18 The folio, for paintings, has prattlings : and for vertible terms. Swyne wode for love groyneth.-Hor. face has pace. man's Vulgaria. And Chaucer in The Monk's Tale :- 19. You mistake by wanton affectation, and pretend to

" But never gront he at no stroke but on.' mistake by ignorance'

you did :

Oph. O, what a noble mind is here o'erthrown ! tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of the ground The courtier's, soldier's, scholar's eye, tongue, lings: who, for the most part, are capable of nosword:

thing but inexplicable dumb shows, and noise : 1 The expectancy and rose of the fair state, would have such a fellow whipped for o'er-doing The glass of fashion and the mould of form, 20 Termagant; it out-herods Herod : 'Pray you, The observ'd of all observers! quite, quite down ! avoid it. And I, of ladies most deject and wretched,

1 Play. I warrant your honour. That suck'd the honey of his music vows,

Ham. Be not too tame neither, but let your own Now see that noble and most sovereign reason, discretion be your tutor : suit the action to the word, Like sweet bells jangled, out of tunel and harsh; the word to the action: with this special observance, That unmatch'd form and feature of blown youth, that you o'erstep not the modesty of nature : for Blasted with ecstacy :? O, wo is me!

any thing so overdone is from the purpose of play. To have seen what I have seen, see what I see! ing, whose end, both at the first, and now, was, and Re-enter King and POLONIUS.

is, to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature; to

show virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, King. Love ! his affections do not that way tend ; and the very age and body of the time, his form and Nor what he spake, though it lack'd form a little,

pressure. Now this, overdone, or come tardy off, Was not like madness. There's something in his soul, though it make the unskilful laugh, cannot but O'er which his melancholy sits on brood;

make the judicious grieve; the censure of which And, I do doubt, the hatch, and the disclose,' Will be some danger: Which for to prevent,

one, must in your allowance, d'erweigh a whole

theatre of others. O, there be players, that I have I have, in quick determination, Thus set it down ; He shall with speed to England, ly,--not to speak it profanely, that, neither having

seen play,—and heard others praise, and that highFor the demand of our neglected tribute :

the accent of Christians, nor the gait of Christian, Haply, the seas, and countries different,

Pagan, nor man, have so strutted and bellowed With variable objects, shall expel

that I have thought some of nature's journeymen This something-settled matter in his heart; had made men, and not made them well, they imiWhereon his brains still beating, puts him thus tated humanity so abominably. From fashion of himself. What think you on't ?

1 Play. I hope we have reformed that indifferPol. It shall do well: But yet, I do believe, ently with us. The origin and commencement of his grief Sprung from neglected love.--How now, Ophelia ? that play your clowns, speak no more than is set

Ham. O, reform it altogether. And let those You need not tell us what lord Hamlet said;

down for them for there be of them, that will We heard it all. --My Lord, do as you please ; themselves laugh, to set on some quantity of barren But, if you hold it fit after the play,

spectators to laugh too; though, in the mean time, Let his queen mother all alone entreat him

some neeessary question of the play be then to be To show his grief; let her be round“ with him;

considered: that's villanous; and shows a most And I'll be plac'd, so please you, in the ear pitiful ambition in the fool that uses it. Go, makeOf all their conference: If she find him not,

[Exeunt Players.

you ready.-To England send him ; or confine him, where Your wisdom best shall think.

Enter Polonius, ROSENCRANTZ, and GUILDENKing. It shall be so:

STERN. Madness in great ones must not unwatch'd go. How now, my lord? will the king hear this piece ofi

[Exeunt. work? - SCENE II. A Hal in the same. Enter HAMLET,

Pol. And the queen too, and that presently. and certain Players.

Ham. Bid the players make haste.

[Escit POLONJUS. Ham. Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pro- Will you two help to hasten them? nounced it to you, trippingly on the tongue : but if Both. Ay, my lord. you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as [Exeunt ROSENCRANTZ, and GUILDENSTERN. lief the town crier spoke my lines. Nor do not Ham. What, ho; Horatio ! saw the air too much with your hand, thus; but use

Enter HORATIO. all gently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and (as I may say) whirlwind of your passion, you must

Hor. Here, sweet lord, at your service. acquire and beget a temperance, that may give it

Ham. Horatio, thou art e'en as just a man smoothness. O, it offends me to the soul, to hear As e'er my conversation cop'd withal. a robustious periwig-pated fellow tear a passion to standing gentlemen of the ground;" and Shirley, 'grave

understanders. 20 * Speculum consuetudinis.:--Cicero. The model by No shows, no dance, and what you most delight in, whom all endeavoured to form themselves.

Grave understanders, here's no iarget-fighting. 1 Quarto-time.

Sir W. Cornwallis calls the ignorant eurthlings. T. 2 Ecstasy is alienation of the mind. Vide Tempest, have not been ashamed to adventure mine eares with a Act iii. Sc. 3.

ballad-singer,--the profit to see earthlings satisfied with 3 To disclose was the ancient term for hatching birds such coarse stuffe,' &c.-Essay 15. ed. 1623. of any kind; from the Fr. esclos, and that from the Lat. 7 Termagaunt is the name given in old romances to exclusus. I believe to esclude is now the technical term. the tempestuous god of the Saracens. He is usually Thus in the Boke of St. Albans, ed. 1496 :-'For to joined with Mahound or Mahomet. Hall mentions him speke of hawkes; Fyrst they ben egges, and afterwarde in his first Satire :they ben dysclosed hawkys. And comynly goshawkes Nor fright the reader with the Pagan vaunt ben disclosyd as soone as the choughs.

or mighty Mahound and great Termagaunt. 4 See note on Act ii. Sc. 2.

8 Pressure is impression, resemblance. 5. Have you never seen a stalking stamping player, 9 i. e. approval, estimation. Vide King Lear, Act in that will raise a tempest with his longue, and thunder Sc. 4. with his heels.'- The Puritan, a Comedy. The first 10 The quarto, 1603, Point in the play then to be obquarto has, 'I'd rather hear a town-bull Bellow, than served. Afterwards is added, 'And then you have some such a fellow speak my lines.'

again that keeps one suit of jests, as a man is known by 6 The first quarto reads, of the ignorant. Our an. one suit of apparel; and gentlemen quotes his jests cient theatres were far from the commodious elegant down in their tables before they come to the play, as structures which later times have seen. The pil was, thus :-Cannot you stay till I eat my porridge ; and truly, what its name denotes, an unfloored space in the you owe me a quarter's wages; and your beer is sour, area of the house, sunk considerably beneath the level and blabbering with his lips: And thus keeping in his of the stage; and, by ancient representations, one may cinque a pace of jests; when, God knows, the warme judge that it was necessary to elevate the head very clown cannot make a jest unless by chance, as the blind much to get a view of the performance. Hence this part man catcheth a hare: Masters, tell him of it. -- This of the audience were called groundings. Jonson, in the passage was evidently levelled at the particular folly Induction to Bartholomew

Fair, calls thern the under some injudicious player contemporary with the pool. 3M



Hor. O, my dear lord,

Ham. No, nor mino now. My lord, - you played Ham,

Nay, do not think I flatter: once in the university, you say?" [To Polonius. For what advancement may I hope from thee, Pol. That did I, my lord ; and was accounted a That no revenue hast, but thy good spirits, good actor. To feed, and clothe thee? Why should the poor be Ham. And what did you enact ? flatter'd ?

Pol. I did enact Julius Cæsar: I was killed i? No, let the candied tongue lick absurd pomp ; the Capitol ; Brutus killed me. And crook the pregnant' hinges of the knee, Ham. It was a brute part of him, to kill so capiWhere thrist may follow fawning. Dost thou hear? tal a calf there.-Be the players ready? Since my dear soul was mistress of her choice, Ros. Ay, my lord ; they stays upon your patience. And could of men distinguish her election,

Queen. Come hither, my dear Hamlet, sit by me. She hath seal'd thee for herself: for thou hast been Ham. No, good mother, here's metal more at. As one, in suffering all, that suffers nothing; tractive. A inan, that fortune's buffets and rewards

Pol. O, ho! do you mark that? [To the King. Hast ta'en with equal thanks; and bless'd are those, Ham. Lady, shall I lie in your lap ? Whose blood and judgmenta are so well co-mingled,

(Lying down at OPHELIA's Feet. That they are not a pipe for fortune's finger

Oph. No, my lord.
To sound what stop she please : Give me that man Ham. I mean, my head upon your lap?
That is not passion's slave, and I will wear him Oph. Ay, my

lord. In my heart's core, ay, in my heart of heart,

Ham. Do you think, I meant contrary matters ? As I do thee.-Something too much of this.

Oph. I think nothing, my lord. There is a play to-night before the king ;

Ham. That's a fair thought to lie between maids' One scene of it comes near the circumstance, legs. Which I have told thee of my father's death.

Oph. What is, my lord ? I pr’ythee, when thou seest ihat act afoot,

Ham. Nothing. Even with the very comment of thy soul

Oph. You are merry, my lord. Observe my uncle : if his occulted guilt

Ham. Who, I? Do not itself unkennel in one speech,

Oph. Ay, my lord. It is a damned ghost that we have seen;

Ham. 0 ! your only jig-maker.10 What should And my imaginations are as foul

a man do, but be merry ?" for, look you, how cheerAs Vulcan's stithy. Give him heedful note : fully my mother looks, and my father died within For I mine eyes will rivet to his face ;

these two hours. And, after, we will both our judgmenis join

Oph. Nay, 'tis twice two months, my lord. In censures of his seeming.

Hain. So long? Nay, then let the devil wear Hor.

Well, my lord: black, for I'll have a suit of sables.'' O, heaveifs ! If he steal aught, the whilst this play is playing, die two months ago, and not forgotten yet ? Then And scape detecting, I will pay the theft.

there's hope, a great man's memory may outlive Ham. They are coming to the play ; I must be idle: his life half a year: But, by'r-lady, he must build you a place.

churches then: or else shall he suffer not thinking Danish March. A Flourish. Enter King, Queen, on, with the hobby-horse;'? whose epitaph is, For, Polonius, OPHELIA, RosENCRANTZ, Guil

O, for, O, the hobby-horse is forgot. DENSTERN, and others.

Trumpels sound. The Dumb Show!3 follows. King. How fares our cousin Hamlet ?

Enter a King and a Queen, very lovingly; the Ham. Excellent, i' faith ; of the chameleon's dish : Queen embracing him, and he her.

She kneels, I eat the air, promise-crammed; You cannot feed and makes show of protestation unto him. He

takes her up, and declines his head upon her neck : capons so. King. I have nothing with this answer, Hamlet;

lays him down upon a bank of powers ; she, seethese words are not mine.

ing him asleep, leaves him. Anon comes in a Fellow, takes

of his crown, kisses it, and pours 1 Pregnant, quick, ready.

poison in the King's ears, and exit. The Queen 2. According to the doctrine of the four humours, returns : finds the King dead, and makes pas. desire and confidence were seated in the blood, and judgment in the phlegm, and the due mixtures of the 9 This is the reading of the quarto 1603. The quarto humours made a perfect character.'-Johnson.

1604 and the folio read country. 3 Quarto, 1601-co-meddled.'

10 It may here be added that a jig sometimes signified 4 Vulcan's stithy is Vulcan's workshop or smithy; a spritely dance, as at present. In addition to the ex. slith being an anvil.

amples before given, take the following from Ford's 5 Here the first quarto has :--

Love's Sacrifice :-'0 Giacopo ! Petrarch was a dunce, "And if he do noc blench and change at that,

Dante a jig.naker, Sannazar a goose, and Ariosto a It is a damned ghost that we have seen;

puck.first to me.'— Act ii. Sc. 2. Horatio, have a care, observe him well.

11 i. e. a dress ornamented with the rich fur of that Hor. My lord, mine eyes shall still be on his face, name, said to be the skin of the sable martin. By the And not the smallest alteration

statute of apparel, 24 Hen. VIII. c. 13, it is ordained that That shall appear in him, but I shall note it.' none under the degree of an earl may use sables.6 i. e. judgment, opinion.

Bishop, in his Blossoms, 1577, speaking of extra. 7 A Látin play on the subject of Cæsar's death was vagance, says, that a thousand ducates were sometimes performed at Christ Church, in Oxford, in 158:2. Malone given for a face of sables. But Hamlet meant to use the ihinks that there was an English play on the same sub word equivocally. ject, previous to Shak-peare's. Cæsar was killed in 12 The hobby-horse, whose omission in the morris Pompey's portico, and not in the Capitol : but the error dance is so pathetically lamented in many of our old is at least as old as Chaucer's time.

dramas, in the very words which Hamlet calls his This Julius to the Capitolie wente

epitaph, was long a distinguished favourite in the May Upon a day, that he was wont to gon,

Games. He was driven fronı his station by the Puritans, And in the Capitolie anon him hente

as an impious and Pagan superstition ; bui restored after This false Brutus and his other soon,

the promulgation of the Book of Sports. The hobby: And sticked him with bodekins anon

horse was formed of a pasteboard horse's head, and With many a wound,' &c.

probably a light frame made of wicker-work to form the Chaucer's Monkes Tale, v. 14621. I have cited this passage to show that Chaucer uses and covered with a footcloth, which nearly reached the

hinder parts; this was fastened round the body of a man, bodkin for dagger, like Shakspeare.

ground, and concealed the legs of the performer ; who 8 i. e. 'they wait upon your sufferance or roill.'- displayed his antic equestrian skill, and performed Johnson would have changed the word to pleasure; various juggling tricks, wigh-hie-ing or neighing, to the bat Shakspeare has again used it in a similar sense in no small delight of the bystanders. The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act iii. Sc. 1 :- 13 This dumb show appears to be superfluous, and

even incongruous ; for as the murder is there circum. And think my patience more than thy desert stantially represented, the King ought to have been Lo privilege for thy departure bence."

struck with ii then, without waiting for the dialogus.

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