the conduct of Sir James Brooke, pearance of a squabble between two the Governor of Sarawak. These individuals; and he explained that charges reflecting deeply on the any seeming delay which might have honour and humanity of the emi- occurred was due to the extreme nent man who was the object of difficulty he had experienced in them, though generally discre- obtaining the documents which dited by well-informed persons, ought to have been forthcoming. could not fail to make some impres- Stating how his attention had been sion on the public mind, and, al- first called to the subject of the though the mover of the resolution slaughter of the Dyaks by an exnow referred to was apparently ac- tract from a Singapore paper, he tuated by no friendly spirit to the narrated the successive attempts party accused, yet the discussion to which he had unsuccessfully made which the motion gave rise unques- to procure information from tionably redounded to his advan- Government. Finding it impostage. Mr. Hume moved that the sible to get information from the House should pray the Queen, first, Government or the East India that she would issue a Royal Com- Company, he resorted to naval ofmission to inquire into the pro- ficers who had commanded on the ceedings of Sir James Brooke, and Bornean stations: from the letters especially into the attack by the he had received in reply he read a East India Company's forces under great number of extracts, proving, his direction upon the wild tribes, in the opinion of the writers, that called the Sakarran and Sarebas the Dyak tribes, unlike the MaDyaks, on the night of the 31st of lays, were not pirates, and that their July, 1849; and secondly, that she expeditions of boats were only the would take the opinion of the means of carrying on intertribal judges on the legality of the hold- wars. Some of these officers he ing by Sir James Brooke of the named; the others, he said, would following apparently incompatible be ready to give their evidence beoffices :

“ namely, of fore a Commission. He then arsoveign ruler of Sarawak, he being gued, that even if these Dyaks a British subject; of Her Majesty's were pirates, they had been slaughCommissioner and Consul-General tered with unnecessary promisto the Sultan and Independent cuousness, instead of being captured Chiefs of Borneo, he, Sir James and condemned judicially. In Brooke, residing at Sarawak, reference to the various offices held where there is no independent by Sir James Brooke, Mr. Hume chief; and also of the appoint- argued, that as an English subject ment of Governor of the Bri- he could not legally hold those relatish settlement of Labuan, distant tions to the Sultan of Borneo which 300 miles from Sarawak, at which he held as Rajah of Sarawak ; for British settlement Sir James he had not the sanction of the Brooke has not been actually pre- Crown to do so. sent more than a few months during The case in defence of Sir James the last three years."

Brooke was opened by Mr. HeadMr. Hume reprehended the at- lam, who said that, before last year's tempt made on the last occasion discussion, he had had no knowwhen this subject was introduced, ledge of the subject, nor acquainto give a public question the ap- tance with Sir James. He con


sidered the proofs that the Dyaks retired from the investigation with were pirates to be overwhelming. untarnished character and unMr. M. Milnes and Mr. Henry blemished honour.” Drummond vindicated with great Mr. Cobden recapitulated the warmth the personal motives and allegations of Mr. Hume. He decharacter of Sir James Brooke. Mr. nied the piratical character of the Cochrane produced a letter from Dyaks, and maintained that Rajah Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane ex- Brooke was

not putting down pressing in very strong terms his piracy, but, by the aid of the nation's approval and admiration of that ships, waging war with his own gentleman's acts.

neighbours for the purpose of posMr. Gladstone remarked on the sessing himself of their territory. evident personal animosity that Colouel Thompson said, he utexisted in some quarters against terly disbelieved in the existence Sir James. Expressing his own of Dyak pirates in Borneo. admiration of that distinguished On a division the numbers were man; expressing also his objections as followsto the motion, both that it was too

For Mr. Hume's motion multifarious, and that it too obvi

230 ously took the tone of a personal

Against it charge against Sir James Brooke,

Majority although he was not in command

. . 211 of the forces whose tactics were con- A statement of some interest demned; and giving his opinion, regarding the progress made by after an examination made with all naval and diplomatic operations the pains in his power, that the towards the extinction of the slavebalance of testimony was in favour trade, was made by Lord Palmerof the opinion that the tribes de- ston, towards the close of the prestroyed bore the character of pi- sent session, in Committee of Suprates, though not formidable ones; ply. Mr. Hume having asked for he yet acknowledged the painful some explanation touching the vote conclusion that the work of de- for 60,0001. on account of capstruction was promiscuous, and to tured slave-ships, Lord Palmerston some extent illegal—a large por- gave the following statement:tion of 500 human beings having “On the coast of Africa, the trade been put to death without legal may be said to have been almost warrant. With this impression, extinguished north of the line, he thought there should be in- for the moment at all events, with quiry.

the exception of the two points Lord Palmerston replied to Mr. Lagos and Porto Novo. The proGladstone, that he had assumed pensity only survives among the the Dyak pirates to have been de- chiefs: the people are learning to stroyed after they ceased to resist, trade with us, and are anxious to whereas it was the peculiar character extend the legitimate traffic in the of those pirates never to surrender. products of the country. Besides He concluded a brief but emphatic oils, ivory, &c., hitherto exchanged, speech, by expressing his convic- a good species of cotton has lately tion that the House would, by an been reared with such success as to overwhelming majority, "proclaim promise a large supply to this counto the world that Sir James Brooke try. The Portuguese Government


has co-operated with us heartily; at and otherwise exerted that vigour, Loando and the other chief Portu- and put forth that power in the guese stations on the coast, the suppression of the trade, which slave-trade is so paralyzed that they ought long since to have exmost of the slave-traders have sus- erted. In the last eight months pended their business, and many they had almost extinguished the have altogether transferred their trade with Brazil; so that in 1850 ships, their capital, and their ener- the number was not one-half of gies, to trade of a legitimate cha- what it was, and in the first quarter racter. On the eastern coast of of this year it would be hundreds Africa, the Imaum of Muscat has in place of thousands. In a word, given us facilities never before con- the Government of Brazil had coceded; the consequence has been, operated most efficiently with us that in the rivers towards the towards effecting this great object. southern extremities of his domi. We had laboured under a great nions, where a great slave-trade misconception in supposing that has hitherto been carried on for the Brazilian nation, as a nation, the supply of Brazilian and Portu- were clinging to this trade. The guese traders, barracoons have been only persons active in promoting it lately destroyed capable of holding had been certain Portuguese factors. several thousands of slaves. There had been in the course of the

“On the coast of Africa, then, by last few years a powerful, active, the vigilance of our cruisers, by and intelligent anti-slavery party the effect of our treaties with na- growing up in Brazil, acknowledged tive chiefs (treaties, I am happy by the Government, supported by to say, observed almost universally newspapers, and having represenwith the greatest fidelity), by the tatives in the Parliament of Braprogress made by Liberia, within zil. The result of all this was, the extensive territories of which that the Brazilian Government had country the slave-trade was sus- lately employed several cruisers pended, and by the hearty co-opera- to co-operate with the British in tion of the Portuguese, French, seizing slave-traders on the coasts, and American officers,—for whose in destroying barracoons, and in zealous, active, and intelligent aid, releasing slaves; and many slaveour Commodore expresses the deep- dealers had been banished. As est gratitude, - very much indeed many as 140 slave dealers had has been done towards effecting transferred their capital to legitithe great object for which this mate trade; one, a member of the country has so long and so ener- Fonseca family, had lost, in consegetically laboured.”

quence of the late active operations, The chief point to which slaves no fewer than 81 vessels, each of hitherto were sent was Brazil. But the estimated value of 25001., or early last year our cruisers con- nearly 200,0001. in all. Floating centrated on that coast, and Lord capital in Brazil, to the extent of Palmerston addressed "earnest 1,200,0001., previously engaged in

“ communications” to the Brazilian the slave-trade, had been lately Government: the consequence of withdrawn from that pursuit and which was, that the Brazilian Go- invested in a bank in Lisbon. This vernment, in September last, passed statement was received with much a law making the slave-trade piracy; cheering.

Sir John Pakington observed litan Government. The known that an impression prevailed that character and opinions of the writer while the trade with Brazil had of these letters added weight and decreased, that with Cuba had in- authority to his narration of creased. Lord Palmerston replied, facts, which he attested from perthat the trade had been reduced sonal observation, and to the in Cuba to a very low amount. charges of flagrant injustice and Mortality among the slaves had oppression which he deliberately appeared to cause a display of made against the Government of greater activity, but the Spanish King Ferdinand. Just before the Government had given their as- end of the session the subject was surance that they would do their noticed in the House of Commons, utmost to prevent it.

Sir De Lacy Evans putting a quesGreat satisfaction was expressed tion to the Foreign Secretary with by many Members at the favourable reference to Mr. Gladstone's stateaccount given by the Foreign Secre- ments. The gallant Officer said: tary of the success of the operations “From a publication entitled to against the slave-trade. Some the highest consideration it apdays later, however, Mr. Hutt, pears that there are at present who in the preceding year had above 20,000 persons confined in moved the resolution in the House the prisons of Naples for alleged of Commons condemnatory of the political offences; that these priAfrican squadron, took the oppor- soners have, with extremely few tunity to make some qualifying exceptions, been thus immured in statements with regard to the violation of the existing laws of the trade, Lord Palmerston's explana- country, and without the slightest tion having been given in his ab- legal trial or public inquiry into

Mr. Hutt contended that their respective cases : that they inthe progress made was not owing clude a late Prime Minister, and to the squadron, but to the new a majority of the late Neapolitan policy of Brazil, and also to the Parliament, as well as a large projoint influences of a terrible epi- portion of the most respectable demic in Brazil, which had deterred and intelligent classes of society; speculators; and of a previous glut that these prisoners are chained in the trade. The present un- two and two together; that their doubted depression could not, Mr. chains are never removed, day or Hutt thought, be regarded as per- night, for any purpose whatever: manent. Lord Palmerston partly and that they are suffering refineadmitted and partly contested these ments of barbarity and cruelty positions ; mainly relying on the unknown in any other civilized fact that the price of slaves in country." Sir De Lacy Evans Brazil had doubled, which showed consequently desired to know if the

pressure of a demand there. the British Minister at the Court A considerable sensation was ex- of Naples had been instructed to cited about this period by the pub- employ his good offices in the lication, in the form of a pamphlet, cause of humanity for the dimiof two letters addressed to Lord nution of these lamentable seveAberdeen by the right hon. W. E. rities, and with what result? Gladstone, on the subject of the Lord Palmerston, in answer to State Prosecutions of the Neapo- this question, paid a very emphatic


tribute to the course taken by Mr. of Europe, directing them to give Gladstone at Naples in investi- copies to each Government; in the gating wrong and suffering. Con- hope that by affording them an curring in opinion with him, that opportunity of reading it, they the influence of public opinion in might be led to use their influence Europe might have some effect in for promoting that which was the setting such matters right, he object of Sir De Lacy Evans's in(Lord Palmerston) had thought it quiry, and a remedy for the evils his duty to send copies of Mr. to which he referred. Much Gladstone's publication to the Bri- cheering followed this announcetish Ministers at the various Courts ment.

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