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OR, A

D I C T I O N A RY

ARTS, SCIENCES,

OF

AND

MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE;

Constructed on a Plan,

BY WHICH

THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS

Are digefted into the Form of Distinct
TREA TISES OR SYSTEMS,

COMPREHENDING

The History, The Or Y, and PRACTICE, of each,
according to the Latest Discoveries and Improvements;

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VARIOUS DETACHED PARTS OF KNOWLEDGE,

WHETHER RELATING TO

WIT3

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Including ELUCIDATIONS of the most important Topics relative to Religion, Morals,

MANNERS, and the OECONOMY of Life:

TOGETHER
A DESCRIPTION of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, doc.

throughout the WORLD;
A General HISTORY, Ancient and Modern, of the different Empires, Kingdoms, and States ;
An Account of the Lives of the most Eminent Persons in every Nation,

from the earliest ages down to the present times.

AND

Compiled from the arritings of the bef Autbors, in several languages; the most approved Dictionaries, as well of general frience as of its partio

culor branches ; the Transactions, Journals, and Memoiri, of learned Societies, botb at bome and abroad: tbe Ms. Lectures of

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THR THIRD EDITION, IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES, GREATLY IMPROVED.

ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.

VOL. VII.

IN DOCIT DIS CANT, ET A MENT MEMINISS E PIRIT I.

EDINBURGH.
PRINTED FOR A. BELL AND C. MACFARQUHAR,

MDCCXCVII.

Entered in Stationers Ball in Terms of the ag of Parliament.

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

E T M

Ε Τ Ν

Etna. Ethiope E TESTO PISARNA SORTIDES. ARTIAL, and MINERAL. cirou borehet Ere e paraEu fofter heving tema elled Etmuller

ETHMOIDES, in anatomy, a bone fituated in feffor of botany, chemistry, and anatomy, at Leiplic;
the middle of the basis of the forehead or os frontis, where he died in 1683. He was a very voluminous
and at the top of the root of the nose, filling almost writer ; his works making no less than 5 vols folio, as
the whole cavity of the nostrils. It has its name from printed at Naples in 1728. His son Michael Ernest
a@kos cribrum, “o lieve,” and oidos “ form," because all Etmuller was also an ingenious physician, who publish-
spongy and porous.. See ANATOMY, n° 17,

ed several pieces, and died in 1732.
ETHNARCHA. ETHNARCH, (formed of tbv na ETNA, or ÆTNA, a famous burning mountain of Houel'o ob.
tion, and apxe command), a governor or ruler of a na Sicily, and the largest in Europe ; of which an account fervations.
tion.

has been already given under the latter spelling ÆTNA.
There are some medals of Herod I. sumamed the The following additional particulars relating to the
Great, on one fide whereof is found 'Hpwdou, and on the eruptions, fize, scenery, and products, of this cele-
other Eθναρχου, d. Herod the Ethnarch. After the brated volcano, are collected from the Voyage Pittoresque
battle of Philippi, we read that Antony, pafling over of M. Houel, who appears to have surveyed it with
into Syria, constituted Herod and Phafael his brother greater accuracy than any formner traveller.
tetrarchs, and in that quality committed to them the The form of mount Etna is that of a cone, very
administration of the affairs of Judea. (Jof. Ant. lib. xiv. broad at the base, which is more than 40 miles in cir.
cap. 23.) Herod therefore had the government of the cumference. From the bottom you ascend ten leagues
province before ever the Parthians entered Syria, or before reaching its summit on the south side ; and on
before Antigonus's invasion, which did not happen

till any of the other sides, the way being not so straight,
fix or seven years after Herod was commander in Ga. would be considerably longer. Etna is entirely com-
lilee. (Jof. lib. xiv. cap. 24, 25.) Consequently He- posed of substances that have been discharged from the
rod was then truly ethnarch, for he can be no other. volcano in its various explosions.
wise denominated; so that it must have been in that It appears from the quantities of marine bodies de-
space of time that the medals were struck, which only posited all over the under part of Etna, that it must
give him this title : which medals are a confirmation have been once covered by the sea to at least one
of what we read in history of the government which half of its present height. The whole island of Sicily,
that prince was intrufted with before he was raised to and the greatest part of mount Etna, have been, in our
the royalty.

author's opinion, formed under water. But the period
Jolephus gives Herod the appellation of tetrarch in when the eruptions from this volcano first commenced,
lieu of that of ethnarch; but the two terms come so the manner in which the sea subsided, and the precise
near to each other, that it is easy to confound them time at which it fell so low as its present level on the
together.

shores of Sicily, are facts concerning of which we
l'hough Herod the Great left by will to Archelaus have no certain knowledge.
all Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, yet Josephus tells us he The general principle, however, M. Houel thinks
was then only called ethnarch.

may be regarded as undeniable. When this mountain
ETHNOPHRONES, in antiquity, a sect of he- ftood half under water, the currents of the ocean
retics in the seventh century, who made a profession of would gradually accumulate upon it large masses, both
Christianity, but joined thereto all the ceremonies and of its own productions, such as shells, and bones of
follies of paganism, as judicial astrology, fortileges, au fishes, and of various other matters, which would be
guries, and other divinations.

intermixed with the volcanic matters discharged from ETIQUETTE, a French term, primarily denoting the focus of the burning mount. In a long series of a ticket or title affixed to a bag or bundle of papers, ages thefe ftrata of heterogeneous matters would naexpressing its contents. It is also used, when applied turally become so considerable as to form the enorto the Spanish and some other courts, to signify a mous mass of mountains with which the volcano is particular account of what is to be done daily in the now surrounded. The currents of the ocean might ofking's household, and in the chief ceremonies relating ten convey the volcanic matters to a considerable to it.

likewise denotes those forms that regulate distance from the volcanic focus. And there are the decorum of conduct towards persons of various mountains at no small distance from Etna, which seem ranks and stations.

to have been produced in this manner. Those of ETMULLER (Michael), a most eminent physi- Carlintini, at the distance of 15 leagues, conlik chiefly VOL. VII. Part I.

A

of

Eina.

2

of a mixture of pozzolana with calcareous matters. men likewise, who

carry

them off as materials for liinc Elna At Lintini, and in places around it, there are diftinet and for building, conspire to deface them. beds of pozzolana, scoriæ, and real lava, as well as No fewer than 77 cities, towns, and villages, are others in which all these matters are blended together scattered over the sides of Etna. They are most nuin a mass of calcareous matter. At Palazzolo, about merous on the fouth side, where the temperature of 24 miles from the city of Syracuse, the sides of the the air is milder than on the north. Reckoning those hills having been cut by the streams which run down cities, towns, and villages, one with another, to conthem, in many places to a considerable depth, display tain each 1200 or 1500 louls, the whole number of huge masses of lava, and extensive beds of pozzolana. the inhabitants of mount Etna 'will then be 92,400, In the neighbourhood of Noro there are allo volcanic or 115,500. But it is certainly much more confiderable. productions to be found.

On plate CLXXXIV. is exhibited a view of the Fig. 1. At Pachino, where the island of Sicily forms an north-eait fide of the mountain, taken at sea. The angle, there are a range of hills extending for several lower part presents to the eye very extensive plains en

Account of

the northmiles, which confift all of pozzolana.

tirely covered with lava of different thickness, on which

call file of The province of Val de Noto is more homogene- vegetation has not yet made any progrefs. ous in the matters of which its soil confifts, than the nearer the shore the more barren is the ground; while tain, two other dales of Sicily, These, in every hill which the fertility of the soil increases as we advance farther they contain, exhibit a vast variety of different matters. inwards. The mountain is every where full of vait So amazing, indeed, is that variety, that they may be excavations; which our author conliders as a proof, considered as exhibiting a collection of specimens of that instead of increasing in bulk, it is actually in a

3 all the different materials which enter into the compo- ftate of decay and dininution. The vast torrents of Supposed fition of the globe. In those two dales few volcanic lava, which everspread the fides of it from time to 'o be in a

ftate of de productions have been yet observed. But it is not to time, he considers as infuíficient to repair the waite

cay.
be inferred for this reason, that they contain but few. occasioned by rains, rivulets, and torrents flowing down
They may be hereafter discovered in great plenty. In from the summit. Unless the eruptions, therefore, be-
the volcano of water at Maccalubbe, between Ara come more frequent than they have been for fome
gona and Girginti; in the baths of Castellamare, near time past, he supposes that, by degrees, the height of
Alcamo and Segefte ; in the baths of Termini, in the the inountain muit be reduced to that of the surround-
ifles of Lipari; in the hot waters of Ali, between ing beds of lava. He had not an opportunity of mea-
Mellina and Taormina, by the lake in the valley of suring the altitude of Etna himself; but he observes
Caltagirone ; in all these places, which comprehend the that it had been done by the celebrated M. de Saus-
whole circumference of Sicily, the influence of the fure, who found the elevation to be 10,036 feet. This Saussure's
volcano of Etna is, in some measure, felt.

Nay, it
was done on the 5th of June 1773, at 20 minutes af- account of

the height
would even feem, that in these places there are so many ter seven in the morning. The height of the barome.
volcanic craters. All of these are so disposed as to ter on the most elevated part at the brink of the cra-
show that they existed prior not only to the volcanie ter was 18 inches 114 lines ; which, by the neceffary
matters, but to the other substances intermixed with corrections, is reduced to 18 inches 1014 lines. At
them.

the same time the mercury at Catania, placed only one The waters of the sea have, in former times, risen foot above the level of the fea, ftood at 28 inches 2t's much higher than at present. But how they retreated, lines; which must be reduced to 28 inches of lines, on or whether they are to continue stationary at their account of the necessary corrections for the thermoprefent height, we know not. For more than 2000 years, during which Sicily has been inhabited, and has From Giana our author had an opportunity of con- Mountains. had cities and harbours, the sea has not been ob- templating the vast number of calcareous mounts of calcarcserved either to recede or encroach in any considerable scattered over that part of Etna; which (he says) degree.

are nothing more than fragments, the slender re: When the sea subsided from mount Etna, the moun mains of those enormous masses which have been des tain must have been covered over with such matters as posited all around the base of mount Etna; and are a the sea usually deposits; consequently with calcare. very curious monument of the revolutions which this ous matters. A part of those matters would be in. mountain has undergone." They are of a true calca. durated by the action of the atmosphere, while the reous nature ; and the inhabitants are accustomed to: relt would be carried down by the rain-waters, and supply themselves with limestone from them. They again conveyed into the ocean. The torrents of rain- also use the stones of which these mounts are comwater which pour down the sides of mount Etna have posed for the purposes of building ; as the lava is furrowed its lides, by cutting out for themselves chan- so hard that it cannot be cut without the greateit nels; and they have removed from its fummit, and are difficulty, and they have no other stone in these parts. still removing to a farther distance, all the extraneous Leaving this place, our author travelled over several bodies upon it. In many places, they flow at present extensive plains of lava, covered on each side of the over a channel of lava, having cut through all the way with stunted trees, but without any cultivation ; matters which lay above it : ftill, however, there re the lava being of that kind which is very

unfavourable main in many places both calcareous matter and other to the growth of vegetables. Arriving at St Le... marine productions, which show that this volcano has onardu, he observed the course of the eruption of wabeen once covered by the waters of the ocean. But ter in 1755, and which is mentioned under the former these are daily wasting away ; not only the rains, but article Ærna.

of Euna.

1

meter.

ouis matter.

[graphic]
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